Oct 27 & 29 Notes EXAM 2
Oct 27 & 29 Notes EXAM 2 Botany 260
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Botany 260 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Dr. Adrian Treves in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ecology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Tuesday October 27 2015 Anna Agroecology People and Plants Cont Announcements Study guide 3 a hint is on Learn UW Some links on the PDF didn39t work so he has updated it Pesticides When they are being used it reduces biodiversity and costs farmers money Video pesticides were reduced and rice production continued to increase Our planned interventions can have unrealized side effects Human amp Plant mutualism Not only food but for medicinal or recreational uses People think about plants differently one persons weed is anothers national ower Most of the biodiversity in plants is human driven Agriculture is the replacement of wild forms however people tend to foster increased diversity in their genetics It can be enhanced industrial can reduce all of types It has also led to all European cows to be placed all over the world reducing the natural biodiversity Seed banks hod seeds from all over the world in order to preserve the natural biodiversity Soils and Food Sustainability What are sois made of Air water minerals organic material Can be formed by weathering rocks Wind water and rocks Volcanic and other geoogica factors can also bring potential for new so formation Flooding can expose new soils and carry them long distances Plants play a big role in this Plants bring C02 H20 and N2 into the soil Roots always create an acidic environment around them creating a low PH It tends to break down rocks because of an acid root and a basic rock t frees minerals that the plants need Above ground there is growth of the plant They will fall to the ground in autumn and decompose with microbial action Forming organic matter in the soil Mixing of organic and minerals all driven by the plants Weathering and Earthworms A second process is occurring that is caused by oxygen through weathering the breakdown to soil Oxidative weathering of the soil Same idea of rusting think its soil quotrustingquot through free oxygen Oxygen penetrates deeper than the surface bc of organisms creating holes and tunnels Some oxygen goes through tunnels other organisms release oxygen in the soil Secreting substances like glue forming clumps in soil Positive and negative charges tending to attract to each other Also because water sticks together pulling it into clumps Earthworms extremely common Can have a strong impact They bring oxygen and organic material down deep it weathers the lower levels slightly It also bring nutrients for other organisms There is a balance to weathering As weathering increases those charged particles become neutral break a really thick clump allowing it to crumble Creates more organic matter and makes space for roots Increases the microhabitats Soil has a complex niche dense structure Healthy fertile soil is the image in the PowerPoint Varied matter lots of holes and spaces Highly porous The charges in the soil hold the water which is also charged Without it the water runs straight though Keystone species coral other organisms use their body Soil is very similar in the way it allows colonies Those small spaces in the soil there are circulating gasses required for the organisms Water can also lm and the microbes can move through the water lm More weathered soil looks like sand while less weathered is loamy Midwest has great soil which is why it is the bread basket of the US Ecosystem Service Soil is the paramount example of this Provides good services Goods things you can take transport or sell Services cannot capture and sell There is a service when there is good top soil because we can use it to grow great crops year after yea r Issues of Food Sustainability Weathering and erosion poses a threat Erosion is the movement of soil which can increase weathering Farmer wants lots of fertile soil wants to reduce weathering to the optimal level while encouraging the organic matter EWltN new soil conceptually this is what keeps soils fertile Practices can affect the soils greatly Tilling is common used to be done with plows or animals Now done with motorized machines Soil Erosion and Slopes Tiling Topography plays a large role because at the highest elevation they would be stable but the water will run it down The runoff makes soil weather quicker on top exposing all of it to more oxygen Bottom valley accumulates a lot of soil If it is managed poorly it can seriously reduce crop fertility Some of the principles are to put crops on at or gently sloping land And put pastures on the midslopes And the hooves are packing the soil making it less likely to run off The steep slopes should be woodland which will make for lots of organic matter which will run into your crop land Terraces are built up to keep soil from running off instead of losing it into their soils year after year Cost and bene t for farmers When you do optimal tilling or no tilling you avoid soil compaction creating a hard pan This reduces penetration of roots The hard pan can also build up water and create erosion Repeating tilling can create almost these huge blocks stacked on top of each other Tilling can extend the life of your soil It also breaks up roots and weeding strategy The issues with it have led to optimal tilling Tilling can kill a lot of micro niches currently in the soil It changes the diversity of the system Eventually reducing the crops yields See videos about intense guys talking about soil Tuesday October 27 2015 Anna Agroecology People and Plants Cont Announcements Study guide 3 a hint is on Learn UW Some links on the PDF didn t work so he has updated it Pesticides When they are being used it reduces biodiversity and costs farmers money Video pesticides were reduced and rice production continued to increase Our planned interventions can have unrealized side effects Human amp Plant mutualism Not only food but for medicinal or recreational uses People think about plants differently one persons weed is anothers national flower Most of the biodiversity in plants is human driven Agriculture is the replacement of wild forms however people tend to foster increased diversity in their genetics It can be enhanced industrial can reduce all of types It has also led to all European cows to be placed all over the world reducing the natural biodiversity Seed banlts hold seeds from all over the world in order to preserve the natural biodiversity Soils and Food Sustainability What are soils made of Air water minerals organic material Can be formed by weathering roclts Wind water and rocks Volcanic and other geological factors can also bring potential for new soil formation Flooding can expose new soils and carry them long distances Plants play a big role in this Plants bring CO2 H20 and N2 into the soil Roofs always creaTe an acidic environmenT around Them creaTing a low PH lT Tends To break down roclts because of an acid roof and a basic roclt lT frees minerals ThaT The planTs need Above ground There is growTh of The planT They will fall To The ground in auTumn and decompose wiTh microbial acTion Forming organic maTTer in The soil Mixing of organic and minerals all driven by The planTs WeaThering and EarThworms A second process is occurring ThaT is caused by oxygen Through weaThering The breakdown To soil OxidaTive weaThering of The soil Same idea of rusTing Thinlt iTs soil rusTing Through free oxygen Oxygen peneTraTes deeper Than The surface bc of organisms creaTing holes and Tunnels Some oxygen goes Through Tunnels oTher organisms release oxygen in The soil SecreTing subsTances like glue forming clumps in soil PosiTive and negaTive charges Tending To aTTracT To each oTher Also because waTer sTiclts TogeTher pulling iT inTo clumps EarThworms exTremely common Can have a sTrong impacT They bring oxygen and organic maTerial down deep iT weaThers The lower levels sligthy lT also bring nuTrienTs for oTher organisms There is a balance To weaThering As weaThering increases Those charged parTicles become neuTral break a really Thiclt clump allowing iT To crumble CreaTes more organic maTTer and makes space for rooTs Increases The microhabiTaTs Soil has a complex niche dense sTrucTure HealThy ferTile soil is The image in The PowerPoinT Varied maTTer loTs of holes and spaces Highly porous The charges in The soil hold The wafer which is also charged WiThouT if The wafer runs sTraighT Though KeysTone species coral oTher organisms use Their body Soil is very similar in The way if allows colonies Those small spaces in The soil There are circulaTing gasses required for The organisms WaTer can also film and The microbes can move Through The wafer film More weaThered soil looks like sand while less weaThered is loamy MidwesT has greaT soil which is why if is The bread basllteT of The US EcosysTem Service Soil is The paramounT example of This Provides good services Goods fhings you con fdllte frdnsporf or sell Services connof copfure dnd sell There is 0 service when fhere is good fop soil becouse we con use if fo grow gredf crops yedr offer yedr Issues of Food Susfoindbilify Wedfhering dnd erosion poses d fhreof Erosion is fhe movemenf of soil which con incredse wedfhering Former wonfs lofs of ferfile soil wonfs fo reduce wedfhering fo fhe opfimdl level while encourdging fhe orgdnic mdffer EWltN new soil concepfuolly fhis is whdf keeps soils ferfile Procfices con offecf fhe soils gredfly Tilling is common used fo be done wifh plows or onimdls Now done wifh moforized mochines Soil Erosion dnd Slopes Tiling Topogrdphy pldys d ldrge role becouse of fhe highesf elevofion fhey would be sfdble buf fhe wofer will run if down The runoff mdlltes soil wedfher quicker on fop exposing oil of if fo more oxygen Boffom volley occumuldfes d lof of soil lf if is monoged poorly if con seriously reduce crop ferfilify Some of fhe principles ore fo puf crops on fldf or genfly sloping ldnd And puf posfures on fhe mid slopes And fhe hooves ore pocllting fhe soil mdllting if less likely fo run off The sfeep slopes should be woodldnd which will mdllte for lofs of orgdnic mdffer which will run info your crop ldnd Terrdces ore builf up fo lteep soil from running off insfedd of losing if info fheir soils yedr offer yedr Cosf dnd benefif for formers When you do opfimdl filling or no filling you ovoid soil compdcfion credfing d hdrd pdn This reduces penefrdfion of roofs The hdrd pdn con dlso build up wofer dnd credfe erosion Repedfing filling con credfe dlmosf fhese huge bloclts sfdcllted on fop of edch ofher Tilling con exfend fhe life of your soil If dlso bredllts up roofs dnd weeding sfrdfegy The issues wifh if hove led fo opfimdl filling Tilling con kill or lof of micro niches currenfly in fhe soil lT changes The diversiTy of The sysTem EvenTually reducing The crops yields See videos abouT inTense guys Talking abouT soil Thursday October 29 2015 Anna Study Guide 3 First Question Tropic pyramid in 3 levels and second part is 4 The question allows multiple solutions TROPHIC using the same lingo to use it for 4 You may think it is only based on eating The other way to answer is not to use all trophic relations Blue Cralb D A 6 9 739 A E 4 H consumer of producer producers Those are all different ways to answer the question You can have multiple of boxes in the pyramid Roles of Arrows Climate Change Temperature Carbon Dioxide why is it so major Once it39s there it persists That39s why there is a lot of talk about how much we put out in C02 Some people are unimpressed by the small numbers in average temperatures However they do make a strong impact Tropical oceans 1 or 2 higher Average rise 13 Celsius since 1913 Extremes in nights and days that averages do not really show Long persistence of C02 has consequences for 100 years or more We are being unjust to future generations leaving them with this air pollution There is a suing of older generations for this pollution Precipitation and Positive Feedbacks Positive feedbacks one change contributes a change of a similar sort Higher temps means there is more evaporation Water vapor is a greenhouse gas as well Ice melts creating more water that can evaporate positive feedback lce re ects a lot of light and the re ection is called albedo The more light re ective the more cooling on the earth39s surface Less heat is re ected creating more heat positive feedback Abstract and article posted under quotclimate is changing faster than ever beforequot Local issues Been keeping data in Lake Mendota When ice forms in the fall no longer take a crate of beer from one side to another Same thing the other way Some local memories also remember when the lake stayed frozen longer The variation makes it hard to agree it is happening One year to the next you may see it the same or the reversal Focus on the overall time Consensus is needed for action to help with climate change Pollution and How it Affects things Regionally Used to be thought as a local problem This changed with acid rain and mercury It began being noticed it was going between countries too or even farther Across the world we are not seeing all of the temperatures and increased precipitation The southern US is seeing less rain while we are seeing more Many states around great lakes great lakes compact agrees to preserve the water and refusing to sell it to other states Climate change in uences human health Link to listen to on the powerpoint Biodiversity Effects Certain species are deemed at a higher risk Any poor traveling species because it effects climate and participation which is changing the environment for a species Some organisms will leave to go back to the climate that is working for them Others are stuck where they are Joshua Tree the Joshua tree outside of the national park are doing better It may be one day that the Joshua tree National Park will have no Joshua trees Long range migrants They could be doing ne in the breeding habitat and then they can39t overwinter somewhere else because climate change has reduced resources there Organisms that survive in Madison can tolerate 100 degrees and subzero They are adaptable to lots of different temps ln tropical ranges the species will more likely have a smaller tolerance The issue is if the climate changes several degrees they may be unable to survive Snow and lce polar bears Ecological Risks and Polar Bears Habitats begin to disassemble Climate changes forces some to move mutualisms are broken Polar bears became a poster child for climate change They have been put on the endangered species act Many people were telling them that polar bears were in trouble Major threat to polar bear loss of sea ice reducing feeding The loss of sea ice is due to the C02 The endangered wildlife and sh species they have to reduce the threat They were supposed to reduce the C02 They ended up listing the polar bear but didn39t abate the threat They rely on sea ice to hunt seals They use the sea ice as an extension of land Polar bears can only swim short distances they tire out quickly They went inland getting closer to people and people responded by killing polar bears Habitat Assembly and Disassembly What happens in the organisms life cycle related to temperature Some will move up in latitude nding a place more suitable Phonologies are life cycle events Dropping leaves in autumn A pollinator needs to nd a ower at the right time they need to be synchronized if they get off sync they start breaking up the mutualism Many organisms use photoperiod length of sun better than climate Unfortunately the owers are soil temperature dependent Some plants also rely on photoperiod Some organisms are relying on temps like turtles Just a few degrees difference through the day make it so males are born less often Coral Keystone species because they create the massive species that host other species they rely on certain temps to survive just a slight difference kills off entire communities of coral Coral bleaching coral death Symbiosis rely so heavily on each other that they can39t live without each other extreme version of mutualism Thursday Ociober 29 2015 Annd Study Guide 3 Firsi Quesiion Tropic pyrdmid in 3 levels dnd second pdri is 4 The ques rion dllows muliiple solu rions TROPHIC using The some lingo To use ii for 4 You mdy ihinllt ii is only bdsed on ediing The oiher woy io onswer is noi To use dII irophic reldiions 9l E i A PI T gt L jl u VI Those ore dII differeni woys io onswer ihe quesiion You con hove muliiple of boxes in The pyrdmid Roles of Arrows 34 3 amp C Climate Change TemperoTure Corbon Dioxide why is iT so mojor Once iT s There iT persisTs ThoT s why There is o oT of Tolt dbouT how much we puT ouT in C02 Some people ore unimpressed by The smoll numbers in overoge TemperoTures However They do molte o sTrong impocT Tropicol oceons l or 2 higher Averoge rise 13 Celsius since T913 ExTremes in nighTs ond doys ThoT overoges do noT reolly show Long persisTence of CO2 hos consequences for TOO yeors or more We ore being unjusT To fuTure generoTions leoving Them wiTh This oir pouTion There is o suing of older generoTions for This pouTion PrecipiToTion ond PosiTive Feedbocks PosiTive feedbocks one chonge conTribuTes o chonge of o similor sorT Higher Temps meons There is more evoporoTion WoTer vopor is 0 greenhouse gos os well Ice melTs creoTing more oner ThoT con evoporoTe posiTive feedbock Ice reflecTs o oT of lighT ond The reflecTion is colled olbedo The more lighT reflecTive The more cooling on The eorTh s surfoce Less heoT is reflecTed creoTing more heoT posiTive feedbock AbsTrocT ond orTicle posTed under climoTe is chonging fosTer Thon ever before Locol issues Been lteeping doTo in Lolte MendoTo When ice forms in The foll no longer Tolte o croTe of beer from one side To onoTher Some Thing The oTher woy Some locol memories olso remember when The olte sToyed frozen longer The vorioTion moltes iT hord To ogree iT is hoppening One yeor To The nexT you moy see iT The some or The reversol Focus on The overoll Time Consensus is needed for ocTion To help wiTh clidee chonge PolluTion ond How iT AffecTs Things Regionolly Used To be ThoughT os o locol problem This chonged wiTh ocid roin ond mercury T begon being noTiced iT wos going beTween counTries Too or even forTher Across The world we are noT seeing all of The TemperaTures and increased precipiTaTion The souThern US is seeing less rain while we are seeing more Many sTaTes around greaT lalltes greaT lalltes compacT agrees To preserve The wafer and refusing To sell iT To oTher sTaTes ClimaTe change influences human healTh Link To lisTen To on The powerpoinT BiodiversiTy EffecTs CerTain species are deemed of a higher risk Any poor Traveling species because if effecTs climaTe and parTicipaTion which is changing The environmenT fora species Some organisms will leave To go back To The climaTe ThaT is working for Them OThers are sTuclt where They are Joshua Tree The Joshua Tree ouTside of The naTional park are doing beTTer lT may be one day ThaT The Joshua Tree NaTional Park will have no Joshua Trees Long range migranTs They could be doing fine in The breeding habiTaT and Then They can T ovenNinTer somewhere else because climaTe change has reduced resources There Organisms ThaT survive in Madison can ToleraTe TOO degrees and subzero They are adapTable To loTs of differenT Temps ln Tropical ranges The species will more likely have a smaller Tolerance The issue is if The climaTe changes several degrees They may be unable To survive Snow and lce polar bears Ecological Risks and Polar Bears HabiTaTs begin To disassemble ClimaTe changes forces some To move muTualisms are broken Polar bears became a posTer child for climaTe change They have been puT on The endangered species acT Many people were Telling Them ThaT polar bears were in Trouble Major ThreaT To polar bear loss of sea ice reducing feeding The loss of sea ice is due To The C02 The endangered wildlife and fish species They have To reduce The ThreaT They were supposed To reduce The C02 They ended up lisTing The polar bear buT didn T abaTe The ThreaT They rely on sea ice To hunT seals They use The sea ice as an exTension of land Poldr bedrs con only swim shorf disfonces fhey fire ouf quickly They wenf inldnd gelling closer fo people dnd people responded by killing poldr bedm Hobifdf Assembly dnd Disossembly thf hoppens in fhe orgonisms life cycle reldfed fo femperdfure Some will move up in ldfifude finding 0 pldce more suifdble Phonologies ore life cycle evenfs Dropping ledves in dufumn A pollindfor needs fo find or flower of fhe righf fime fhey need fo be synchronized if fhey gef off sync fhey sfdrf bredllting up fhe mufudlism Mdny orgdnisms use phofoperiod lengfh of sun beffer fhon climdfe Unforfundfely fhe flowers ore soil femperdfure dependenf Some pldnfs dlso rely on phofoperiod Some orgonisms ore relying on femps lillte furfles Jusf d few degrees difference fhrough fhe ddy mdllte if so moles ore born less offen Cordl Keysfone species becouse fhey credfe fhe mossive species fhdf hosf ofher species fhey rely on cerfdin femps fo survive jusf d slighf difference ltills off enfire communifies of cordl Cordl bledching cordl dedfh Symbiosis rely so hedvily on edch ofher fhdf fhey con f live wifhouf edch ofher exfreme version of mufudlism