GEOG 150: Week 6 Notes
GEOG 150: Week 6 Notes GEOG 150
Popular in Introduction to Human Geography/Introduction to Cultural Geography
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Gladding on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 150 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Meg Streiff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Geography/Introduction to Cultural Geography in Geography at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Lecture Monday October 26 2015 Religious Conflicts Why do we need to talk about the Palestinian lsraeli conflict now What makes today different from 1st and 2nd lntifadas What was unfair about the 1947 UN Partition Plan What happened in 1948 Palestinian Israeli Conflict It s happening now Palestinians in the last 3 weeks have attacked Jewish Israelis Terrified Jewish community especially in East Jerusalem ist Intifada low scale violence but terrorism 2nd Intifada much higher scale violence Palestinians going into public places and blowing them up Reason wall was built to stop Palestinians coming across from the West Bank attacking Israelis People carrying out terrorism now are Palestinians Arabs living outside of the West Bank who are being treated as secondclass citizens What makes today different from ist and 2nd Intifadas not an organized bout of violence People killing now are lonewolf terrorists no one is controlling them In the first two Intifadas the Palestinian leadership told them to pull back Need political leadership British Mandate Revisited see Week 5 notes 1947 UN Partition Plan proposed In 1947 Jewish population was about 12 of the Arab population and yet the UN had planned to give 56 of the land to the Jewish Population One of the reasons Arabs said no to the plan 1948 Israel declares an independent Jewish state Describe the Arab lsraeli War How did the war start Who won What were the outcomes Describe the SixDay War What prompted the war What was Israel s response What were the results Who controls the Sinai Peninsula today Have negotiations happened Were they successful Monday October 26 2015 War of IndependenceArabIsraeli War May 1948 Arab League Egypt Jordan Syria Lebanon Iraq invades Israel Arab League supports Palestinian cause for an Arab state with Jerusalem as it s capital Israel ends up with bigger army better trained better weapons Arab fighters not as experienced not well organized Israel won Israel gained territory control whole territory except for Gaza Israel captures West Jerusalem both sides really want Jerusalem as their capital East Jerusalem is in Jordan prize is East Jerusalem because it s where historical Jerusalem is where the holy sites are Israel was recognized as an independent nation Palestinians 700000 are forced to move to West Bank Jordan Egypt Lebanon Syria According to the UN these 700000 and their dependents have the right to go back and claim their land or be compensated Israel Takes Control SixDay War 1967 May 1967 President of Egypt closes Gulf oquaba to Israeli ships posts soldiers on border Other Arab neighbors put soldiers at the border Israel surrounded June 5 Israel launches preemptive strike Egypt Syria Jordan defeated Result Israel takes Gaza Strip Sinai Peninsula Golan Heights Wet Bank Jerusalem Especially important that East Jerusalem is in Israel Huge victory for Israel tripled Israel s territory Today Sinai Peninsula is back in Egypt Negotiations happen but even when they do peace doesn t come because people aren t happen List and describe the eight main issues of the PalestinianIsraeli conflict Monday October 26 2015 IIain Issues of Palestinian Israeli Conflict 1 9 7 Future of West Bank Gaza Golan Heights Palestinians want it to be parts of an Arab state There would have to be Iand swaps Golan Heights are great militaristic advantage Syria wants it back Also lots of water Sovereignty over Jerusalem s holy sites Jerusalem as capital city for whom Jerusalem can t be divided Palestinian refugees and right of return Living conditions in the West Bank and Gaza military checkpoints limit mobility Settlements and settler settlement Jewish housing development that turns into a city now in the West Bank and Golan Heights living amidst Palestinians in a lot of hostility living there to make sure that land stays in your hands As these settlement are getting bigger Israeli government is subsidizing this land is being taken from a potential Arab state Illegal under UN Iaw Israeli Security Barrier moving past 1967 lines Palestinians losing land that could be a future state built as a result of the 2nd Intifada to keep terrorists from coming from the West Bank into Israel people carrying out attacks now are on the Israeli side of the wall very hard to cross bank and forth across the wall cutting through Palestinian villages farmland Palestinians see the wall as a violation of their human rights Israelis see the wall as successful 8 Gaza blockade lifted Israel controls everything that comes in and out of Gaza blockade s original purpose was to keep bomb materials from coming in to Gaza problem it wasn t just bomb materials that was stopped from coming into Gaza Punished the people living in Gaza not Hamas Palestinians want that blockade lifted What is the US stance What needs to happen What are the main ethnic groups in Iraq and what percentage of the Iraqi population to they make up Where do the main ethnic groups of Iraq live Where is the oil in Iraq What is the history of haq What happened in Iraq under Saddam Hussein Monday October 26 2015 US supports a twostate solution This situation needs new political leadership Demographics 37 million people Western Iraq sparsely populated 60 Shiite Arabs in the South lots of oil Baghdad Sunni and Shiites side by side 20 Sunni Arab in the center no oil 20 Kurds in the North not Arabs lots of oil History Ottoman Empire 15003WWI Ottomans favored Sunnis Shiites were repressed No war between Sunnis and Shiites in Iraq Ottomans lose WWI lose land British Mandate 19181932 British drew lines combined three provinces Kurds Sunnis Shiites into one country British create a monarchy give control to Sunni king Iraq technically become independent in the 19303 but British is watching what is going on through the 1930319401950 Monarchy toppled king s family assassinated1958 Baath Party rises Saddam Hussein seizes power in 1979 Initially improvements free education through high school created one of the best healthcare systems in the Middle East diversified economy built roads irrigation utilities brought electricity gave women positions of power Western style legal system Not Sharia courts Good if you were Sunni Arab and a member of the Baath Party Led Iraq into unnecessary wars by invading neighbors IraqIran War Rubenstein 224237 Monday October 26 2015 Ethnicities Parts 1 and 2 What is ethnicity How is ethnicity different from race What are the three most numerous ethnicities in the US Where are African Americans clustered in Michigan and Illinois Where are Hispanics clustered in New York California and Texas On the regional scale where are the three most numerous US ethnicities clustered Which ethnicities are clustered on the urban scale Where Are Ethnicities Distributed Introduction ethnicity identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or heanh ethnicity is not the same as race which is biologically based Ethnicities in the United States Three most numbers US ethnicities Asian American African American Hispanic American Asian American is an ethnicity Asian is a race African American is an ethnicity black is a race Hispanic is an ethnicity applied to all people of Spanishspeaking countries Ethnic Clustering State Scale African Americans in Michigan clustered in Detroit African Americans in Illinois clustered in Chicago Hispanics in New York clustered in New York City Hispanic distribution mixed in California and Texas states with largest Hispanic populations Distribution of Ethnicities in the United States The three most numerous US ethnicities have distinctive distributions at regional state and urban scales Ethnic Clustering Regional Scale Hispanics clustered in Southwest African Americans clustered in Southeast Asian Americans clustered in the West Ethnic Clustering Urban Scale African American and Hispanics are highly clustered in urban areas Especially pronounced on the scale of neighborhoods within cities Examples Chicago and Los Angeles Why did African Americans migrate to the Western Hemisphere Descnbethe background of Hispanics and Asian Americans migrating to the US What countries are the Hispanic and Asian American migrants primarily from Monday October 26 2015 Why Do Ethnicities Have Distinctive Distributions International Migration of Ethnicities Forced Migration from Africa African Americans were forced to migrate to the Western Hemisphere primarily as slaves Slave trade at its height between 1710 and 1810 Voluntary Migration from Latin America and Asia Quotas limited the number of people who could immigrate to the US from Latin America and Asia Immigration laws changed in 19603 and 19703 population of Hispanics and Asian Americans increased rapidly Initially most Hispanics and Asian Americans were immigrants coming to US in search of work Now most are children or grandchildren of immigrants Hispanics primarily form Mexico Puerto Rico Asian Americans primarily from China India Philippines Korea Vietnam When did interregional migration of African American occur Where Why What kind of intraregional migration of African Americans took place What was white flight What was a consequence of white flight What real estate practice encouraged white flight Descnbethe segregation laws in the US What two major museums in Detroit illustrate the challenges of integrating ethnicities Monday October 26 2015 Internal Migration of African Americans Interregional Migration First half of twentieth century From US South to northern cities Sharecroppers pushed off farms due to mechanization of agriculture pulled to jobs industrial cities Two waves of African American migration north and west coincided with the World Wars World Wars expanded factories to produce war materiel and left a shortage of factory workers Intraregional Migration Expansion of the Ghetto as more African Americans arrived neighborhoods where African Americans already lived called ghettos expanded Ghetto typically followed major avenues that radiated out from the center of the city Example Baltimore White Flight whites emigrated out of an area in anticipation of blacks immigrating into the area Allowed for expansion of black ghettos Example Detroit blockbusting real estate agents convince white homeowners to sell their houses at low prices saying the value will go down when blacks move in then selling houses at high prices to blacks escaping crowded ghettos Segregation by Ethnicity and Race United States Separate But Equal Segregation Laws Separate But Equal established in Plessy v Ferguson Jim Crow laws segregated blacks from whites in schools on buses shopsrestaurants hotels could serve only whites restrictive covenants homeowners could not sell to blacks maintained allwhite neighborhoods led to segregated schools segregations laws eliminated in Brown v Board of Education of Topeka Kansas Cultural Segregation Detroit Institute of Arts featuring European artists and Museum of African American History What is apartheid What did apartheid laws determine Who was Nelson Mandela What is it like for blacks in South Africa today Monday October 26 2015 South Africa Apartheid apartheid the physical separation of different races into different geographic areas At birth baby classified as black white colored mix or Asian Apartheid laws determined where each race could live work go to school shop own land apartheid laws repealed in 1991 Nelson Mandela leader of antiapartheid organization African National Congress released from jail voted first black president Today blacks politically equal but are much poorer than whites Lecture Wednesday October 28 2015 Iraq What should we know for the Iraq map What was the Sykes Picot Treaty How was the US relationship with Saddam Hussein in the 1980s What happened in August 1990 Why How did Hussein justify it How did the US punish Hussein Why did the world need to take action What was the main operation and goal of the 1st Gulf War Who invaded Saudi Arabia What was operation Desert Shield Was the 1st Gulf War successful for the US What happened in January 1991 What consequences did Iraq receive after the war Who did the consequences affect For Iraq map Know when Kurds north Sunni Arabs center Shiites south live Know where oil is north and south SykesPicot Treaty secret meeting in which lines were drew on how to divide the Ottoman Empire for the British and French Those lines still stand today Saddam Hussein US friendly with Hussein in the 19803 August 1990 Iraq invades Kuwait Saddam Hussein wanted oil more land on the Persian Gulf money justified because he accused Kuwait of stealing oil from Iraq by slantdrilling under the border US slapped Iraq with economic sanctions to stop Hussein didn t work Needed to take action because Hussein could move from Kuwait to Saudi Arabia and control a majority of the world s oil Hussein taunted Saudi Arabia 1st Gulf War launched operation Desert Storm extensive bombing campaign from the air to force Iraq out of Kuwait Iraq invades Saudi Arabia US moves into Saudi Arabia from operation Desert Shield on the ground Success for US quick cheap few US fatalities January 1991 Hussein signs ceasefire required to recognize Kuwait and future UN weapons inspections set oil wells on fire in Kuwait After the war harsh sanctions Hurt the civilians because there were major shortages of food medicine water treatment suppHes The highup Iraqis didn t suffer the middle and lower class did UN gave in a couple years into the sanctions oil forfood program Who did Saddam Hussein suppress Why How How did the UN protect Kurds and Shiites after the 1st Gulf War Who did the Bush Administration link with Iraq What happened in 2003 Wednesday October 28 2015 To control Iraqi oil wealth amp prevent political dissent Saddam Hussein brutally suppressed nonSunni Arabs executed his opponents drained marshes in Southern Iraq 300000 refugees flee controlled them through fear did not allow them certain religious practices Anfal campaign Kurdish genocide disappearances mass executions chemical weapons forced migration Gave Kurdish land and Kurdish houses to Sunnis Kurds have not forgotten this After 1st Gulf War UN establishes NoFlySones to protect Kurds amp Shiites from Iraqi aerial attacks 19912003 Monitored daily by British French US air forces Ground attacks still occurred 2002 Bush Administration links Iraq with Iran North Korea No way Iran and Iraq were working together in 2002 Accuses Iraq of creating and stockpiling weapons of mass destruction Accuses Iraq having links with Al Qaeda no way Saddam Hussein is secular Osama Bin Laden is a fundamentalist Accuses Iraq of being partly responsible for 911 2003 US wants to go into Iraq Britain agrees Operation Iraqi Freedom US moves in What happened to Hussein What was de Baathification How did the ethnic groups respond to the US What happened in the 2005 elections How did the US respond to Sunni militias attacking US and Iraqi military What is insurgency What does Al Qaeda mean Who was Al Qaeda s leader What is Al Qaeda What was Al Qaeda s ultimate goal Why did Osama Bin Laden declare war on the US in 1996 Before 911 how did Bin Laden attack the US Wednesday October 28 2015 The US amp Operation Iraqi Freedom 2003 201 1 Hussein goes on trial convicted of killing Shiites executed in 2006 Late 2003 Hussein and entire Baath political party kicked out deBaathification HUGE MISTAKE kicked out everyone even people who didn t even believe in the Baath party but were just part of the Baath party to get along ordinary Iraqis all lost their jobs decided to dismantle Iraqi army 100000 angry unemployed soldiers who still had their weapons Handpicked a group of Iraqis to lead Iraq Kurds Shiites initially support US Sunnis very angry at US 2005 Elections new constitution created Shiite Kurds win Sunnis boycott election Sunni militias begin attacking US Iraqi military US responds with force looking for insurgents thrown in prison tortured included innocent civilians insurgency an organized group of rebels trying to overthrow the government Al Qaeda arrives Al Qaeda the base led by Osama Bin Laden basenetwork of Sunni Muslims across the world ready at any moment to defend their religion and other Sunnis under attack ultimate goal create huge Muslim empire erasing borders drawn by Europeans called people to fight Jihad religiousholy war with him Osama Bin Laden declares war on the US in 1996 1 US supports Israel over Arabs 2 US relationship with Saudi Arabia Attacks US embassies warship before 911 11 What happened in 2006 What was the response What ethnic groups hold the highest positions in the Iraqi government What was the surge What is the relationship between Al Qaeda and ISIS Wednesday October 28 2015 2006 Shiite mosque bombed in Samarra 4th holiest place in the world Sunnis responsible Shiites respond with revenge attacks car bombs suicide bombers brutal civil war between Shiites Sunnis sectarian cleansing Sunnis trying to eliminate Shiites Shiites trying to eliminate Sunnis Both sides had militias on the streets The Rise of ISIS May 2006 Prime Minister Nouri alMaliki elected Number 1 position prime minister Shiite belonged to a political power that was not the Baath party given a death sentence under Hussain US supported aIMaliki at first but aIMaliki allowed sectionalism to persist Today s prime minister also Shiite Number 2 position presidency Kurd Number 3 position vice president Sunni 2007 170000 American troops in Iraq after US surge of 25000 troops arrive violence really drops militias back off Al Qaeda fades away ISIS begins out of the ashes of Al Qaeda Syria gives Al Qaeda the chance to show off military prowess What is ISIS s goal Who fights for ISIS Where do they get their money How do they spread their ideas Explain the unlikely story of an ISIS massacre survivor Desc bethe transformation of Islam the young Egyptian man from a normal guy to an ISIS fighter Wednesday October 28 2015 Videos on Iraq The Evolution of ISIS ISIS goal to redraw the lines to create an Islamic state ISIS includes soldiers from Saddam Hussain s well trained army money from oil kidnappings social media propaganda ISIS momentum has slowed down since summer 2014 Surviving an ISIS Massacre ISIS massacred Iraqi army recruits tricked captured paraded awaiting their deaths shot in the head escaped by crossing the river Sunnis on the other side of the Tigris river helped him Fir for Jihad 3 middleclass young men in Cairo Egypt Islam a student who liked working out girls lost friend in motorcycle accident Islam took it inward started studying the Qur an listening to conservative preachers Islam went into seclusion emerged with a newfound purpose left for Syria without telling anyone joined ISIS 13 Rubenstein 238245 Wednesday October 28 2015 Ethnicities Part 3 What is a nationality How are ethnicities and nationalities similar In the United States what do nationality ethnicity and race identify Describe the ethnicities and nationalities in the United Kingdom What is nationalism and important example of What is the ethnic makeup in Lebanon What has led to the ethnic competition in Lebanon What is the ethnic makeup of Sri Lanka What is the conflict between the Sinhalese and the Tamils Why Do Conflicts Arise Among Ethnicities Ethnicities and Nationalities nationality identity with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular country Ethnicities and nationalities similar in that membership is defined through shared cultural values Nationalities in North America In the United States nationality identifies citizens ethnicity identifies ancestry cultural traditions race distinguishes blacks or other people of color form whites Ethnicities and Nationalities in the United Kingdom Four ethnicities English Welsh Scots Irish Two nationalities The United Kingdom and The Republic of Ireland Nationalism an important example of centripetal force an attitude that unifies people and enhances support for a state Ethnic Competition Ethnic Competition in Lebanon 40 Christian largest sects 1 Maronite 2 Greek Orthodox 60 Muslims largest sect Shiite Sunnis minority Druze minority live in different parts of the country with their own militias Christians had a majority when the governmental system was created but as Muslims took over the majority demanded political and economic equality Civil war Ethnic Diversity in Sri Lanka 74 Sinhalese Buddhist 16 Tamils Hindu 10 Moors Arabs Sinhalese control government military commerce Tamils feel they suffer from discrimination War between Sinhalese and Tamil from 19832009 Tamils defeated in 2009 fear Sri Lanka will no longer be a multinational state 14 Why did the British separate West and East Pakistan fro India Why did Muslims fight Hindus Why was there mass migration Why is the area of Kashmir significant What nationalities are the Kurds divide among Do the Kurds have a Kurdish state Wednesday October 28 2015 Dividing Ethnicities Dividing South Asian Ethnicities Among Nationalities British separated West and East Pakistan from India because of ethnicity Pakistan Muslim India Hindu Muslims fought Hindus for control of territory Mass migration of people who found themselves on the wrong side of the boundary Because boundaries did not correspond precisely with the territories of ethnicities Pakistan and India have never agreed on the location of the boundary separating the two countries in the northern region of Kashmir Dividing the Kurds Among Nationalities Kurds an ethnicity divided among several nationalities Turkey Iraq Iran Syria Turks have tried to suppress Kurdish culture Kurds have no corresponding Kurdish state Forced to live under the control of the region s more powerful nationalities 15 Where is lack of correspondence between ethnicities especially severe What is the ethnic makeup of Iraq How did the different ethnic groups respond to the US invasion in 2003 What is the ethnic makeup in Iran What is the ethnic makeup in Afghanistan What happened in 1979 and 1992 Who gained control What did the US do in 2001 What is going on now in Afghanistan What is the most numerous ethnic group in Pakistan At the border Why did many Pakistanis have to move into camps Wednesday October 28 2015 Ethnic Diversity in Western Asia Lack of correspondence between ethnicities and nationalities is especially sever in western Asia Ethnic Diversity in Iraq Shiite south Sunni center Kurds north capital Baghdad mixed 2003 US invasion and removal of Saddam Hussein had mixed reactions Kurds welcomed more security and autonomy than under Hussein Sunni opposed feared loss of power and privilege that they had under Hussein who was Sunni Shiite opposed longstanding hostility against US with Iran controlled by Shiites Ethnic Diversity in Iran Majority Persian Azeri Baluchi minorities Ethnic Diversity in Afghanistan Pashtun Tajik Hazara Rebellion in 1979 Sovietinstalled government falls in 1992 Years of infighting among ethnicities Taliban gained control strict laws according to Islamic values as the Taliban interpreted them US overthrew Talibanled government in 2001 New struggle for control of Afghanistan among ethnic groups including the Taliban Ethnic Diversity in Pakistan Punjabi most numerous 39 But at border with Afghanistan principally Baluchi and Pashtun Many Pakistanis had to move into camps due to fighting between Pakistan s army and the Taliban 16