Week 9 (Knowledge, Imagery)
Week 9 (Knowledge, Imagery) PSYC 2014
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2014 at George Washington University taught by Dopkins, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Monday October 26 2015 Cognitive Psychology Target Article 2 Discussion Hypothesis what do you expect to happen in this experiment Thinking that lead them to this study Implicit and Explicit are happening in 2 different areas of the brains Double dissociation is the way of really proving that Obvious Weakness the way they interpreted the results Says the way they interpreted them unconvincingly Knowledge Continued M Feature Comparison Model M Defining Features quot45457 w 0 int Characteristic Features Stage 1 rough comparison of all features Canary falls under this 339239quot39 39 i quotquotquotquot39quotquot CA a rut O I h gt 391 Stage 2 more careful comparison of defining 33 332quot features 312 quot M1 0 7 M on Ostrich falls under this Connectionist Models Combine aspects of network and feature models Multiple Choice Quiz 1021 Which of the following is most consistent with the efficient filing system principle A bird has feathers verified more quickly than a robin has feathers Monday October 26 2015 Knowledge Continued Schema sketchy loose summary of knowledge about a particular topic This is more available than things in your semantic memory You don t spend most of your time figuring out if a canary is a bird you spend most of your time figuring out the situations around you these things will be more accessible and in a schema as compared to a canary and a bird Script schema telling what is expected in certain kind of situation Schema of what a dorm looks like Script of what might happen when go to a restaurant You expect to go in be seated order your food eat your food pay and leave Properties of Scripts and Other Schemas Hierarchical Can be modified depending on variables If you go into a Chinese restaurant you would expect that instead of forks you will have chopsticks Schemas fill in missing information Unmentioned information Consistent information Information that doesn t fit a schema Allow things to happen more quickly When can this be bad Stereotyping discussed later Slow to adapt if one has a very setinstone schema You aren t really engaging that closely with reality when using a schema Shorthand way of engaging the world Schemas can mislead Monday October 26 2015 During perception Examples Looking outside and seeing leaves fallingcloudy and assume it will be cold but you go outside and it is hot Memory Examples Stereotypes Eyewitness testimonies can be influenced by these because you fill in info you may not actually have seen based on what you believe should have been there Schema Development Developed over the course of your ife Reflexes Wiredin action schemas Come from the womb with these specific reflexes as a way of dealing with certain situation VIDEO mom blows air on her baby and the baby blinks VIDEO dad lowers baby quickly and they reach their arms out Schema based preferences for facelike images Narrative Schema Schema for telling a story includes setting character episodes and plot Develops over childhood Not great at this when super young but children get better at doing this as they get older VIDEO girl telling story Monday October 26 2015 Cognitive Psychology Multiple Choice Question Review 1026 According to the feature comparison model features are considered in verifying category membership statements like an ostrich is a bird A Only Defining B Only Characteristic C Defining and Characteristic D Prototypical Why case for both A and C In the case of something like a robin there are two stages initial stage where you just look at the features in the predicate and in the category and look at overlap and you can define a robin as a bird in stage one In the case of an ostrich it needs to be identified in stage 2 because it doesn t fly it doesn t sing etc and so in order to make the first stage work you can t make judgement in stage one for an ostrich In stage 2 you look at only defining features and you need to look at just the features to decide whether this is a bird or not Overall both these would be involved because you use both in the initial stage and in the next stage you would use only defining features to make the final judgement Overall C because you use both in stage one A because you only use defining in stage two to make the final judgement Target Article 2 Review He thinks the probably best place to start is with Question 3 hypotheses That really sums it up What is their hypothesis They thought they knew what would happen and it in fact did Monday October 26 2015 IV How does it help them with their hypothesis Is this directly serving their hypothesis Think less about what they are specifically doing just talk about the things they manipulated in order to observe a specific effect Assuming that one of the task is performed on the basis explicit memory and vice versa Questionnaire Explicit Because questions about the situation of learning the materials Probabilistic lmplicit Because at least at the beginning they were not aware of any particular configuration of cues that would predict the weather According to their interpretation they learned as it went What are the le and why were they manipulated Think of the whole study as a single experiment makes more sense in terms of their hypothesis and what they are manipulating Don t need to look at each task and find what the IV and DV s were for both What theorys guided authors Hard to find Look at ppt for memory he has put in a POV we might find useful in the ways the authors think Reflects what these guys are doing Can have more than one hypothesis Knowledge Continued Schema Development Reflexes Narrative Schema Negative Things about schemas Monday October 26 2015 Can miss things important like missing a mermaid in a restaurant because there are supposed to be people there eating Using them to remember things that happened in the past characterize event based on what you believe would have happened bad for eyewitness testimony Person Schema schemas that connect common traits Stereotype oversimplified understanding of the qualities of a group of people Probably not true not allowing yourself to find out because you are not experiencing things in reality you re just using a schema NOT talking about expertise knowledge and skilled memory Imagery Benefits and Limitations of Imagery What is it about imagery that is important If someone is explaining a scene to you you are almost seeing it as a perceptual experience in a way to better understand the scene How many windows does your house have Typically you wouldn t know the answer to this until someone asks you and you have to consult an image Joseph is my uncle s sister s granddaughter s son What is the closest possible relationship I can have to Joseph Your grandson There was a man looking at a picture Somebody said Who is this picture of The man said My dad s grandfathers son s son s son Who id the picture of Your brother How are images presented Analog Cod Models spatial relationships of the image Elements close in the image are recorded close in the representation Monday October 26 2015 Propositional Code Records spatial relationships of image in statements proposition smallest unit of knowledge that can be true or false Horse to left of tree Horse closer than tree Mental representations of images have analog properties Two experiments that are pretty good evidence that people have representations of images with analog properties Experiment One Fictitious island and had to memorize island then told to image you are at a specific place on the island and travel to a different area Ex image at beach and need to go to the tree Results time it takes for people to say from beach to tree takes less time than going from the beach to the city Just like in the real world Done by Steven Kosslyn Experiment Two 8 presented with display and then presented with an arrow and S has to say whether arrow points to a dot In this example yes it is because it is in line with one of the dots Results greater distance arrow is from dot the longer it took 8 to respond Done by Steven Pinker Which of these are the best experiments and WHY One is very good and one is very bad Why is the first better Because it actually involves the subject imagining something more explicitly involving imagination Why is the second better Monday October 26 2015 In first one they had to commit it to long term memory and in the second they just kind of saw the dots Good about second one really hard to get conflicting answer because you have yes or no answer Bad about first one not really a right or wrong answer 8 can take longer because they think the experimenter wants them to Real answer Second One
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