Week9WildlifeNotes.pdf FW 104
Popular in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2) in Animal Science and Zoology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
oz Disturbance and Ecosystem Management gt Disturbance Periodic change destruction or removal of ecosystem components May be largescale Often followed by recovery period Flooding dams logging drought landslides bark beetles disease avalanche pollution construction roads res invasive species Noise 0 Affects behavior of wildlife echolocation etc Light 0 May alter behavior of animals Climate change 0 Signs changes in habitat cascade effect Ranges in severity and extent Minorlocal 9 Tree falls wallows Severeregional events o Fires oods hurricanes development Discrete clear beginning and end Windstorm avalanche Constant continuous with no clear end Pollution Timberwood harvesting Natural disturbance Often integral part of function of many ecosystems Biological diversity may depend upon natural disturbances Some species of plants need re to function Anthropogenic disturbance Human caused change that occurs 0 Negatively impact biodiversity o Generalist will do better in an altered habitat but the specialist that won t o3 Clicker Question Which of the following represent an anthropogenic disturbance gt Tornado gt Hurricane gt Pollution gt Lightning caused re oz Ecological succession gt Reset the successional stage O 90 gt VVV l V r Process of community development over time until a relatively stable stage in community development is reached called a climax community Succession stages Recovery process Sequence of speciesgroups of species present at various time since disturbance Primary vs secondary Usually will be secondary succession will occur after disturbances Climax community is not always reached R species is going to do better will do better in a more disturbed area opical rainforest deforestation 67 earth s surface but 50 the species in the entire world logging 10 removed 1 planted clearing for pastures hamburger connection cattle ranching is leading cause of deforestation in Brazil Slash and burn Small scale cultivation of crops Not sustainable beyond small population densities Trees removed increase erosion destroy nutrient base of soil Fires lead to wild res Water supplyquality Deserti cation Short term gains from increased land value Implication These species have medicines and cures Loss of biodiversity Don t even known what we are losing at this point l Fragmentation Climate Ecosystem services Succession What is needed VVVVVV V Educann Changed behaviors and demand Sustainable agriculture and forestry International development assistance with ecological information Network of parks and reserves Use land already deforested for logging grazing Use better crops that are more sustainable Extracting reserved ecotourism on remaining forests oz All forest represent the same type of concerns for deforestation and extreme demand for timber harvest false The wildlife manager s toolbox O 90 VZVVVVVVV Foundations knowledge Scienti c method Techniquespopulations Successiondisturbances Ecosystem management Systems thinking Spread the word anagement considerations Tamarisksalt cedar Bank stabilization greatly increased song bird Now peregrine falcon Encroaching and negatively impacting the cottonwoods Nile Perch Sport shing and food source Reduce Tilapia graze on agae Created oxygen depletion Poor cover habitat for native sh Native culture depends on air drying tilapia Deforestation and erosion Commercial shing Ecosystem management de ned Common components Ecosystem function structure and processes Biodiversity Socialpolitical aspects 0 Value and perceptions Economic consideration Agencies gt gt National Park Service Preserve biological resources and ecosystem processes USFWS Develop partnerships to conserve ecosystems upon which listed species depend USFS Ecosystem management coordination staff TNC Conservation by designprotect lands and waters that plants and animals need to survive CPW Habitat restorationhealthy ecosystems and biodiversity oz Edward Grumbine s ecosystem management gt Goals Viable populations Native ecosystem types Ecological processes maintained Longtime periods enough to maintain and evolve Accommodate human use and occupancy Dominant Themes Hierarchical context Systemsscale Ecological boundaries Ecological integrity Data collection Monitoring Adaptive management lnteragency cooperation Organizational change Humans embedded in nature Values oz Endangered Species Act gt gt gt December 28th 1973 President Nixon Purpose to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend US Fish and Wildlife Service and Department of Commerce s national Marine Fisheries Service Protect endangered and threatened species and then pursue recovery Conserve candidate species and species at risk so that listing under the ERA is not necessary Five Factors determine if a species is endangered Habitat destructing Overutilization Diseasepredation lnadequacy of regulation Natural or manmade factors Recovery phases ldenU cann Endangered any species or subspecies in danger of extinction throughout all or a signi cant portion of its range Threatened any species or subspecies likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future Crucial habitat speci c area with the welfare factors to accommodate the habitat 50 of the listed species have recovery plans 83 additional species are proposed status candidate speciessufficient info exists on biological vulnerability and threat to support a proposal to list o warranted but precluded needs attention but only after high priorities Critical habitat include areas that are not currently occupied by the species but that will be needed for its recover o Affect federal agency actions or federally funded or permitted activities 9 Exclusions o 846 species have critical habitat de ned Protection Federal agencies must initiate consultation with the FWS if agency action may affect a listed species or critical habitat Also state and private individuals must initiate a consultation if actions need a federal permit or funding Regulation 9 70000 federal actions reviewed every year 9 1200 formal consultationsyr o 6 in jeopardy nding Prohibitions and penalties 9 Take o Penalties 25000 50000 dollars or ruin habitat Recovery Reduce or eliminate threats Restore selfsustaining wild populations Remove species from the list Monitoring5 years Incentives for conservation 9 Sage Harbor Agreements o Habitat Conservation Plans 9 Candidate Conservation Agreements Population experimental o Treated as threatened o Flexibility o
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