GEO 135 - Week 11 Notes
GEO 135 - Week 11 Notes GEO 135
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shannon Surell on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 135 at Illinois State University taught by David Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Education and Teacher Studies at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Geography 135 David Johnson Week 11 Southeastern Europe Slavic countries lots of slavery Indigenous slave trade in Africa ageold way of enforcing the norms of society you are in slavery due to something you did or did not do 0 O 0 Usually your fault if you are a social slave Ex if you committed adultery this is your punishment EX if you had too much debt and couldn t pay it off you were seized and sold into slavery and that money that was spent towards you would go to the people who you owed Ex if you lost a military campaign and the other side captured you you would become a slave and couldn t really escape unless you had rich relatives that could ransom you out you are a slave because it is a commercial deal just for the money it was not due to something you did or did not do 0 O Particularly inhumane and random Due to mercantilism 9 ancient scheme of how to get rich you get rich by having gold silver and other precious things too flow into your country How to get rich make a bunch of manufactured products drills tools guns etc you would pick a place to go in the world and would go to sell these manufactured goods 0 They would go to places where there were a lot of raw goods ie Africa America They could get animal skins timber etc Problem raw goods are pretty cheap but the manufactured goods were much more expensive meaning these trades were not even trades To make up for this the locals would give you not only raw materials but gold too They would set up trading posts just like Walmart where boats could come in and bring manufactured goods and then they could take the raw goods and load them on their boats Ex Jamestown 9 was a trading post and then became a colony o This was where the trading post went bust because there was no gold General rule between Christians and Arabs You did not enslave people in your own religion Christians don t enslave Christians and Arabs don t enslave Arabs 0 One time a boat was stopped and Christians enslaved some Arabs but they didn t like this so they decided to make a deal and said that they could take as many African slaves that they wanted 1453 Muslims captured Constantinople and the slave trade went away from Southeastern Europe 1492 Columbus travels to America 1800 all American colonies had outlawed the international slave trade They had no way to stop it though because they didn t have navy s Both US and Britain outlawed it Portuguese took over the slave trade until 1880 13th amendment outlawed slavery 65 Colonization SubSaharan Africa was victimized by European desires and egos British and French made a big deal in the world empire thing Late 1800 s continental Europe was starting to get its act together Germany was several dozen individual sovereign nations Germans under kingdom of Prussia was the focal point of all of the German speaking to unit in one common Germany not including Prussia Kaiser Wilhelm he had Russians to the East and the British to the West All of the Czars were relatives Berlin conference Dec 1884 Jan 1885 called all of the countries of Europe together to divide up Europe US and Turkey did not come they sat down with large maps and divided it up as they saw fit 0 Problems arose Africa was a continent of hundreds of ethnic regions Lots of different groups were just thrown into states whether they liked the other people or not When they drew the lines they split up some ethnic groups which forced them into two countries Pattern of colonization Britain o It reflected what the home country was like 0 British always colonized on the cheap ex not that many British soldiers came to the US when they colonized here 0 British colonized Africa really on the cheap They did it almost all with civil service Largely kept the local political structures in tact France 0 Cultural assimilation they looked at colonization as a permanent thing 0 Each area that was colonized was seen as an actual part of France not just a place that was colonized by French people 0 The higher up you were you were considered not just a local but French Ponugal 0 Ban their African colonies in the same way that they ran the colonies in America harsh dictatorial if someone caused trouble they were easily replaced 0 Reflected when colonization ended Belgium 0 Monarchy ran it in a brutal fashion 0 People who were bad at production would have their hands cut off 0 The Belgium government had enough of that and removed that power from the King 0 Previously referred to the Congo free state then changed to the Belgium Congo Land Tenure issues African society s tribal society s believed that you couldn t actually own the land but you just lived on it until you move on to somewhere else Eventually colonization ended it s Factors Economics 0 Generally the promised wealth did not work out and there were many problems 0 Soil wasn t good enough to build an area to produce raw materials to use to manufacture 0 Closed system If you are a colony in country A you only trade with country A and if country B wants to trade with you they have to go through country A Colonizing power gets unfettered access of the raw materials in the area The colonized area gets to buy materials from the colonizing power for a reduced cost Closed systems did not end up working detriment to world trade 0 Colonialism wasn t very popular after WWII someone has outright authority over another group of people and they don t have much say 0 Cost of WWII made countries not be able to afford to have colonies all European countries were bankrupt after the war ldealism 0 WW was idealized into a Good vs bad affair 0 Issue of morality started entering into this 0 Franklin Roosevelt in his state of the nation speech He laid out the four freedoms bill of rights just globalized o 1 Freedom of expressionspeech o 2 Freedom of worship 0 3 Freedom from want 0 4 Freedom of fear Local Pressures 0 Ex Mau Mau antiterrorist group in Kenya Wanted to get the British to leave and tried to kill as many as possible so they would leave Cold War 0 Said that the beginning of it was Winston Churchill s speech in 1946 used the term the Iron Curtain 0 Early 1946 the United States is in the Cold War 0 It was fought by people who were surrogates or those who carried out a War of National Liberation any war against a western nation 0 War between USSR Soviet Union vs The People s Republic of China communists Soviets looked down on the Chinese 1949 the Soviets took over all of China Soviets said that the Chinese did not come to communism in the right way Soviets said they did due to Carl Marx Communists in China looked at the communists in the Soviet Union and realized there were way less people in the USSR then in the PRC Independence Most African colonization s started in 1885 0 Ghana became independent 1st in 1957 0 Most other s became independent in 1960 ex The Congo 0 Stragglers mid1960 s and beyond 0 There are lots of land mines places in those areas 0 The last African colony to be decolonized was Ethiopia ONLY African country that was not colonized by European powers Legacies Of colonialism 0 Land tenure customs disturbed There was a significant change in the way land was viewed in Africa Many Africans had to change their view of how land was viewed 0 Human activity was regulated Product of colonization and decolonization 0 Before colonization human activity was unregulated tribalethnic areas had people who were like them around them When colonization comes and the colonization power that decided that they were all part of colony A B etc and they drew borderslines 0 Many times they drew the lines where they would split up tribes or groups of people that were similar or they lumped together people who didn t like each other Decolonization when independent African colonies were formed the European nations didn t care where they drew the lines 0 When the African powers took over the problem of borders took place 0 The indigenous governments took over and cared about where the borders were the Europeans didn t care 0 Mostly an animal herding kind of colony 0 People wanted to keep their resources in their country Liberia was a US created country 0 Most slaves in America had been born in America 0 Very unlikely that the slaves the US shipped back to Liberia were not really African anymore and were really Americans 0 Afro Liberians descended not from America 0 AmeroLiberians descended from America Collapsing infrastructure wanting to do what the colonies had done in the past 0 23 of airfields in Africa were unusable after decolonization Tribalethnic strife 0 They are used to doing things in a tribe everyone is related 0 Trying to establish a modern government with a bureaucracy people need to be held accountable with their skills and what they do it wasn t going to work with people who are related aka tribes One man One vote One time Africanstyle democracy 0 All of the countries that became independent needed to elect people 0 No idea about the loyal opposition I got the most votes this time but if I don t get the most votes next time I won t be president 0 They wanted to say that the person who was elected wanted to be president or ruler for life not like the Western nations though 0 Usually ends up with the military exiling the person who wants to be king or president for life Of Religious Expansion Of the Slave Trade 0 Transatlantic Trade was a commercial deal 0 90 of African slaves were captured and traded for commercial goods guns being the most popular 0 Cycle countries would make war on each other to get slaves when they got them they would sell them for gunsammunition which would create more war and then more slaves Didn t end until the slave trade end Countries didn t have much choice about participating Increased violence