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Chapter 28 Notes

by: Courtney Potter

Chapter 28 Notes Life103

Courtney Potter
Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Shane Kanatous; Graham Peers

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About this Document

Here are the notes from Chapter 28, as well as, anything I picked up from the lecture that was important! :)
Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Shane Kanatous; Graham Peers
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Potter on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Life103 at Colorado State University taught by Shane Kanatous; Graham Peers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Entomology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
Chapter 28 Protists Unicellular eukaryotes Anything that is not a plant fungi or animal is called a protest No longer Kingdom Protista because most protists are more closely related to plants fungi and animals than to each other Most Eukaryotes Are Single Celled Organisms o Belong to Domain Eukarya Have a nucleus membrane bound organelles and a cytoskeleton which allows them to change shape Structural and Functional Diversity in Protists Classi ed in a number of different kingdoms and are the most diverse eukaryotes Most are unicellular but some are colonial or multicellular 0 Nutrition Varies Among Them 0 Some are photoautotrophs which use chloroplasts to make sugar from carbon dioxide 0 Some are heterotrophs o Mixotrophs use both photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition methods Four Supergroups of Protista Unikonts Excavata SAR Clade Alveolates gtUUl 39 Endosymbiosis In Eukaryotic Evolution Prokaryotic cell engulfed by an ancestor of eukaryotic cell and became the chloroplast or mitochondria of the newly formed eukaryotic cell Plasmid Evolution 0 Primary Endosymbiosis 1 A heterotrophic eukaryote engulfed a cyanobacterium 2 A membrane from around the cyanobacterium was lost 3 Red algae or Green algae was formed 0 Secondary Endosymbiosis 1 Heterotrophic eukaryote engulfs a red or green algae 2 The one that engulfed the red algae leads to Dino agellates and Stramenopiles 3 The one that engulfed the green algae leads to Euglenids and Chlorarachniophytes Excavates Include Protists With Modi ed Mitochondria an Protists With Unique Flagella Found based on morphological appearance of the cytoskeleton which had a groove on one side of the cell body 0 Later proved true by molecular systematics Dipomonads Lack plastids and have a reduced mitochondria called a mitosome use anaerobic pathways to get chemical energy 0 Multiple agella and two nuclei 0 One diplomonad that is parasitic is Giardia gained from contaminated drinking water causes severe diarrhea Parabasaids Reduced mitochondria called hydrogenosome which generates energy anaerobically with hydrogen as a byproduct Euglenozoans Morphological distinction is presence of a rod with spiral or crystalline structure inside their agella Some are photosynthetic heterotrophic mixotrophic or parasitic Undergo secondary endosymbiosis Kinetoplastids 0 Large mitochondrion which contains DNA called kinetoplast o Parasitic and heterotrophic species 0 Trypanosoma causes African Sleeping Sickness Euglenids 0 Pocket at end of cell that contains on or two agella o Phagocytize or are mixotrophic The SAR Clade Is A Highly Diverse Group of Protists De ned By DNA Similarities Huge clade de ned by molecular systematics extremely diverse Stramenophies o Hairy agellum paired with a smooth agellum Secondary endosymbiosis common ancestor engulfed a red algae Alveoa tes Some Stramenophiles are obligate heterotrophs and cause damage to crop plants once photosynthetic but lost the ability and became parasites Diatoms O O O O O O Unicellular algae with a glass cell wall made up of silicon dioxide Asexual reproduction by mitosis which makes them smaller and sexual reproduction by meiosis which makes them normal sized again Provides protection from jaws of predators by withstanding huge amounts of pressure 100000 living species very diverse group 2025 of global photosynthesis is performed by diatoms Most animals are either directly or indirectly dependent on them forfood Golden Algae O O O O Bi agellate both agella near one end of the organism Photosynthetic and mixotrophic species Most unicellular some colonial Can form protective cysts around themselves Brown Algae Kelps 0000 O Multicellular most marine pigment called carotenoid makes them brown Found along temperate coasts Seaweeds have some characteristic organs found in plants that evolved separately holdfast stipe and blades analogous Contain a gel forming substance found in most processed foods called algin or alginate Membrane enclosed sacs under the plasma membrane called alveoli Photosynthetic and heterotrophic protists Dino agellates O O O O O Cellulose plates with two agella embedded in them spin Half are heterotrophic photosynthetic ones underwent secondary endosymbiosis and some mixotrophic ones Permanently condensed chromosomes Produce red tide toxin gets accumulated and paralyzes shell sh Produce bioluminescence Apicomplexans O O 250 million people infected with Plasmodium also referred to as malaria Obligate parasites half of their life is spent in mosquitoes and the other half is spent in the liver of another animal lysing the red blood cells in their liver 0 Spread to host as infectious cells called sporozoites Apex of cell contains organelles for penetrating host Ciliates 0 Use cilia to move and feed 0 Most are predators of bacteria and other protists 0 They have a micronuclei and a macronuclei 0 Genetic variation happens through conjugation exchange of haploid nuclei between two ciliates o Reproduce asexually by binary ssion Rhizarians Many are amoebas use pseudopodia to move Radiolarians 0 Internal skeletons composed of silica o Pseudopodia come from central cavity enforced with microtubules surrounded with cytoplasm Forams o Porous shells made of calcium carbonate 0 Pseudopodia extend through pores for feeding moving forming test 0 Have symbiosis with photosynthetic algae in their tests 0 Live in oceans and fresh water Cercozoans 0 Marine freshwater and soil environments 0 Have pseudopodia and agella 0 Most are heterotrophic 0 Some are parasitic o Paulinela has cyanobacterium to do photosynthesis Archaeplastida Descended from an ancestor that engulfed cyanobacteria Contains red algae green algae and land plants Red Algae o Photosynthetic pigment phycoerythrin makes them red 0 Some are parasitic heterotrophs Can live deep in oceans because of pigments allowing them to absorb blue and green light Freshwater and terrestrial species Reproduce sexually o Multicellular Phycocoloids are used in processed food Green Algae Charophytes are green algae closely related to plants Chlorophytes 0 Live in all environments 0 Larger size and complexity due to colonies of individuals multicellular bodies by cell division and differentiation and repeated division of nuclei 0 Have sexual and asexual reproductive stages Unikonta Animals fungi and amoebozoans Supported by molecular systematics Not photosynthetic If they do have a agellum they only have one o Other supergroups have two or more agella Amoebozoans Lobe or tube shaped pseudopodia Slime Molds Mycetozoans 0 Produce fruiting bodies that aid in spore dispersal o Descended from unicellular ancestors convergent evolution with fungi o Plasmodial Slime Molds Brightly colored Form mass called plasmodium not multicellular single mass of cytoplasm not divided by membrane containing many nuclei Uses pseudopodia to phagocytize food 0 Cellular Slime Molds Form aggregate sti separated by plasma membranes when hungry and function as individual units Tubulinids 0 Live in water and on land 0 Most are heterotrophic o Unicellular Entamoebas o Parasites infecting all vertebrate animals Ospithokonts 0 Include animals fungi and protists Protists Play Key Roles In Ecological Communities Symbiotic Protists o Dino agellates are symbiotic with animals that build coral reefs Wood digesting protists in the guts of termites Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria Photosynthetic Pro tists Producers using light to convert carbon dioxide to organic compounds 0 30 of world s photosynthesis done by diatoms dino agellates multicellular algae Cyanobacteria o Prokaryotes performing oxygenic photosynthesis Lots of diversity Occupy the same niche as algae 0 Exception many species have nitroginase enzyme legumes in roots also xing nitrogen for use


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