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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leah Notetaker on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 121 at Missouri State University taught by Manley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Chapter 13 Therapy Therapy Treatment to make people feel better and function more effectively Early treatment 0 1500 s 0 Mentally i con ned to asylums o Treatments harsh often damaging Phillippe Pinel o Psychiatrist o Demanded humane treatment of the mentally ill 0 Philippe Pinel became famous for demanding that the mentally ill be treated with kindness personally unlocking the chains of inmates at Bic tre Asylum in Paris France Two kinds of Modern Therapy Psychotherapy o Psychotherapy for the purpose of gaining understanding into one s motives and actions is called insight therapy 0 Psychotherapy aimed at changing disordered behavior directly is called action therapy 0 Involves a person talking to a psychological professional about their problems Insight Action Goals Biomedical therapy 0 Uses a medical procedure to bring about changes in behavior Drugs Surgical methods Electric shock treatment Psychotherapy Psychoanalysis therapy to reveal unconscious con icts developed by Sigmund Freud Freud believed that repressed material often surfaced in dreams although in symbolic form 0 Dream interpretation 0 Manifest content the actual dream and its events 0 Latent content the hidden symbolic meaning of those events that would if correctly interpreted reveal the unconscious con icts that were creating the nervous disorder 0 Free association a psychoanalytic technique in which a patient was encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind without fear of negative evaluations Resistance the point at which the patient becomes unwilling to talk about certain topics Transference when the therapist becomes a symbol of a parental authority gure from the past Psychoanalysis Today Psychodynamic therapy newer term for psychoanalysis o More focus on ego transference o Shorter treatment Directive therapist actively gives interpretations of client s statements and may suggest certain behavior actions Humanistic Therapy 0 focus on the conscious mind and subjective experiences to help clients gain insights Interpersonal therapy 0 Insight therapy 0 Focuses on relationships and the events of everyday life 0 Derived from psychoanalysis 0 Does have research support for its effectiveness in treating depression Rogers s PersonCentered Therapy 0 Person centered therapy Nondirective insight therapy Based on work of Carl Rogers client talks therapist listens o A variation of clientcentered therapy is motivational interviewing or MI 0 In contrast to clientcentered Ml has speci c goals to reduce ambivalence about change and to increase intrinsic motivation to bring that change about 0 For a therapist the four principles of MI are express empathy develop discrepancy between the client s present behaviors and values roll with resistance and support the client s selfef cacy Four Elements of Rogers s Therapy Authenticity o A genuine open and honest response to the client Unconditional positive regard 0 Having respect for clients and their feelings values and goals even if they are different from those of the therapist Empathy o This involves listening carefully and closely to what clients are saying and trying to feel what they feel 0 Re ection o technique the therapist must use to allow clients to continue to talk and have insights without the interference of the therapist s interpretations and possible biases Motivational Interviewing clientcentered therapy with a twist Arkowitz and Miller 0 Four principles 0 Express empathy 0 Develop discrepancy between clients present behaviors values 0 Roll with resistance 0 Support the clients selfef cacy Gestalt Therapy 0 Clients accepts all of self directive role playing leading questions confrontation pf clients statements 0 Originated by Fritz Perls o quotemptychair technique Evaluation of Humanistic Therapies Broad application in career workplace marriage etc 0 Works best with intelligent highly verbal persons 0 Not based in experimental research Action Therapies Learning one s way to better behavior 0 Behavior therapies 0 Action therapies focused on behavior not causes Classical and operant conditioning Behavior modi cation or applied behavior analysis 0 Change behaviors via learning techniques Therapies based on Classical Conditioning 0 Systematic desensitization for treating phobias 0 Step 1 relaxation training 0 Step 2 fear hierarchy 0 Step 3 progressive exposure Aversion therapy undesirable behavior paired with aversive stimuli Exposure therapy introduces clients to situation related to their anxieties under controlled conditions 0 Flooding rapid intense exposure 0 EDMR a type of exposure therapy used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD Reinforcement strengthening of response following it with a pleasurable consequence positive or the removal of a unpleasant stimulus negative 0 Token economy reinforcers earned and exchanged for desired things 0 Contingency contract formal agreement on behavior change reinforcements penalties Extinction remove reinforcer reduce undesirable behavior 0 Time out removal from situation that reinforces undesirable behavior Evaluation of Behavior Therapies 0 Effective treatment of speci c problems 0 Control symptoms quickly and effectively 0 Not effective with serious psychological disorders overall but can improve speci c symptoms Cognitive Therapies Distortions of Thinking Arbitrary thinking 0 Jumping to conclusions without evidence Selective thinking 0 Focusing on only one aspect of the situation Overgeneralization 0 Making sweeping conclusions based on only one incident Magni cation and minimization 0 Negative events blownout of proportion positive events ignored Personalization 0 Assuming to much personal responsibility Cognitivebehavior therapies CBT learning to think more rationally and logically action therapies that work at changing a person s illogical or distorted thinking 0 3 goals 1 Relieve symptoms and solve problems 2 Develop strategies for solving future problems 3 Help change irrational distorted thinking Most common form of therapy Evaluation of Cognitive and CognitiveBehavioral Therapy inexpensive and shortterm effective for depression stress anxiety criticized for focusing on symptoms and not causes of disordered behavior potential bias in therapists opinions Tll39iPE OF THERAPY KEY PEOPLE GOAL METHODS lPsychodynamic therapy Freud Insight Aims to reveal unconscious conflicts through dream interpretation tree association resistance and transference Humanistic therapy Insight Nonaclirective therapy client does most of the talllking ltey elements are lPe PSOlHECEMEFEd therapy lRDgersll authenticity unconditional positive regard andl empathy Gestalt therapy pals Directive therapy therapist uses leading questions and roleplaying to l i help client accept all parts of their teellings andl experiences Behavior therapy Watson Jones Action Based on principles of classical and operant conditioning aimed at Skinner lBandural changing behavior without concern for causes of behavior Cognitive therapy Beck Action Aims to help clients overcome problems by learning to thinlk more CB39ll various professionals lRlEET Ellis rationally and logicallin Clients are challenged in their irrational beliefs and helped to restructure their thinking Group Therapies Types of Group Therapy family counseling family therapy 0 family members meet together with a counselor selfhelp groups 0 group of people with similar problems meet together without therapist Group therapy can be accomplished using many styles of psychotherapy Group therapy pros and cons Advantages 0 Low cost 0 Exposure to others with similar problems 0 Social interaction with others 0 Social and emotional support 0 Effective for people with social anxiety Disadvantages 0 Must share therapists time 0 Lack of private setting in which to reveal concerns 0 Severely disordered persons unable to tolerate group Evaluation of Group Therapy 0 Most useful for people who cannot afford individual therapy 0 Can provide a great deal of social and emotional support and validation Does psychotherapy really work Studies of effectiveness 0 Studies and surveys 0 7590 percent of those treated improve 0 Longer the person stays in therapy the better the improvement 0 Certain therapies better for certain problems 0 No one method effective for all problems Characteristics of effective therapy 0 Matching therapy to client and problem 0 Therapeutic alliance warm caring accepting empathic respectful relationship between therapist and client 0 Protected setting Opportunity for catharsis Learning and practice of new behaviors Positive experiences EvidenceBased treatment 0 Some treatments may be ineffective or harmful for certain disorders 0 Clients bene t through evidencebased practice especially in light of managed health care and tight budgets Examples 0 Exposure therapies o Cognitive behavioral and cognitive processing for PTSD o Cognitive behavioral treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia o Cognitive behavioral individual and group therapy for social anxiety disorder Cognitive therapy for depression Antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia o Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression 00 Biomedical Therapies Biomedical therapies affect biological functioning of body and brain Psychopharmacology use of drugs to relieve symptoms of disorders Psychopharmacology o Antipsychotic drugs Treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions hallucinations and bizarre behavior and include the typical neuroleptics atypical neuroleptics and partial dopamine agonists o Antianxiety drugs treat anxiety disorders and include the benzodiazepines and certain antidepressant drugs 0 Antimanic drugs treat bipolar disorder and include lithium and certain anticonvulsant drugs 0 Antidepressant drugs treatment of depression and include monamine oxidase inhibitors MOAIs tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs of Drugs Used in Psychopharmacology CLASSIFIICAT ION TREATMENT AREAS El DE E F FlECTS EXAMPLES Positive excessive symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations Antipsychotic Typical entipsychotic Motor problems ta rdiir e dyskinesia chlorpromazine dropericlol haloperidol Antipsychotic Atypical antipsychotic Positive and some negative symptoms of psychoses Fewer than typical alritipsychotic clozapine may cause serious lblood disorder risperidlone clozapirie aripiprazole Antianxiety Minor Tranqiuilizers Symptoms of anxiety and phobic reactions Slight sedative effect pote ritial for physical dependence alprazolam lorazepam diazepam Antimanic Manic behavior Potential lior toxic buildup lithium antioonuulsant drugs Antidepressants MAOls Depression Weight gain constipation clry mouth ipr oniazid isocarboxazidl dizziness headache drowsiness phenelzine sulfite irlsomnia some sexual arousal trainiylcypromine sulfate disorders Antidlepressants Tricyclics Depression Skin rashes blurred vision lowered imipramine desipramine lblood pressure weight loss amitriptyline doxepiri Antidepressants SSRls Depression Nausea newousness insomnia fluoxetine sertraline Electroconvulsive Therapy diarrhea rash agitation some sexual arousal problems paroxetihe o Electroconvulsive therapy ECT Delivery of an electric shock to either one side or both sides of a person s head 0 Quick shortterm treatment for severe depression 0 Used to treat severe depression bipolar disorder and schizophrenia o Involves the use of a muscle relaxant a shortterm anesthetic and induction of a seizure under controlled conditions Psychosurgery Psychosurgery Surgery on brain tissue to relieve severe psychological disorders 0 O Prefrontal lobotomy Connections between prefrontal lobe and rest of brain severed Bilateral anterior cingulotomy Deep lesioning of cingulate gyrus via electrode wire Emerging technologies repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation rTMS transcranial direct current stimulation tDCS deep brain stimulation