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by: N3koKikyu
GPA 3.5
Social Psychology

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About this Document

10/27/15 and 10/29/15 notes enjoy!
Social Psychology
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by N3koKikyu on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 70782 at George Mason University taught by Riskind in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
Tuesday October 27 2015 Social Psychology Resisting Persuasive Messages Attitude Inoculation Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position EX like a flu shot given by doctors Power of Advertising Men bought 99 of cigarettes in 1900 By 1995 66 were male By 2004 23 of men and 19 of women smoked Product Placement makes it harder to avoid these ads When people are forewarned they analyze what they see and hear more carefully as a result are likely to avoid attitude change without such warnings people pay little attention to the persuasive attempts and tend to accept them at face value When Persuasion Attempts Boomerang Reactance Theory The idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened as unpleasant state of reactance is aroused which they can reduce by performing the threatened behavior Predicting Spontaneous Behavior vs Deliberative Behaviors Attitudes will predict spontaneous behaviors only when they are highly accessible to people Attitude Accessibility gt the strength of the association between an attitude object and a person s evaluation of that object measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about the object Tuesday October 27 2015 Theory of Planned Behavior The idea that the best predictors of a person s planned deliberate behaviors are the person s attitudes toward specific behaviors subjective norms and perceived behavioral control Conformity Conformity gt change in one s behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people Other people s behavior becomes a norm for our own to follow Two Types of Conformity 1 Informational conformity gt people conform to others because they may not know what to do in a confusing or unusual situation how do lact not enough information to know how to act The reason we conform is that we think that others interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours Will help us choose an appropriate course of action Informational Social nfuence gt The influence of other people leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior 2 Normative Conformity gt The reason people conform is because they want to avoid ridicule or rejection don t want to look awkward Classic Studies of Conformity Informational Conformity Sherif studies Conformity in situations where the answers are ambiguous 1936 gt put people in a dark room alone participants estimated how much light 15 feet away moved The Autokinetic Effect caused the illusion of motion so the light did not really move The light seemed to move about 2 4 inches but as much as 10 inches Tuesday October 27 2015 days later the participants did it again but with other people who reached a common estimate Normative Conformity Asch Studies conformity in situation where the right answers are clear Important Distinction Two Types of Compliance Informational Conformity can Ba Private Acceptance gt conforming to other people s behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right Public Compliance gt conforming to other people s behavior publicly without necessarily believing in what we are doing or saying Thursday October 29 2015 Social Psychology Conformity cont Informational Conformity Can Backfire Our need for information is highest when our personal safety is involved If other people are misinformed we will adopt their mistakes and misinterpretations During Vietnam war small group of American soldiers massacred a whole village in Vietnam crisis situation they had assumed it was a Vietcong village and they knew that women and children would sometimes bring grenades and throw them Someone thought something and started shooting and everyone else followed suit My Lai Massacre Contagion gt the rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd 1998 school in Tennessee was evacuated after a teacher reported smelling gasoline in her classroom 170 students teachers and staff reported symptoms like headaches nausea dizziness Nothing was found to be wrong in the school Mass Psychogenic lllness gt The occurrence in a group of people of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause Back in Middle Ages there was illness called dancing manias by being bit by tarantellas and if you danced around in a circle you wouldn t die It took 200 years to stop When Other People are Experts The more expertise or knowledge a person has the more valuable they are in an ambiguous situation Normative Social lnfluence gt the influence of other people that leeds us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them The need to be accepted is very powerful Some adolescents engage in risky behavior to be liked and accepted Social Norms gt The implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors values and beliefs of its members The Need to Be Accepted Thursday October 29 2015 o By nature we are a social species Normative Conformity Solomon Asch had participants guess which line in the right box is the same length as the line of the left Almost everyone easily gets this right when alone The Classic Reasons for Normative Conformity The Need to Be Accepted People go along with the group even when the group is wrong so they don t look like a fool Unlike informational social influence normative pressures usually result in public compliance without private acceptance If you fail to conform to a group two things most likely happen 1 Group would try to bring you back into the fold chiefly through increased communication 2 If these discussions didn t work your friends would say negative things to you and about you and start to withdraw from you The Johnny Roco Study involved a group discussion where they had to decide what was going to happen to the juvenile delinquent Johnny Roco Members were in different rooms where they could send notes back and forth the experimenters set it up so one person was always disagreeing with the group They started sending messages to the person who did not agree and tried to persuade them to conform When that didn t work they rejected the person


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