PSYCH 306 Ch. 9
PSYCH 306 Ch. 9 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Dunne on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Chapter 9 Sexual Orientation oz Sexual orientation a distinct preference for sexual partners of a particular sex in the presence of clear alternatives Heterosexual an individual with a sexual orientation primarily to members of the opposite sex Homosexual an individual wit a sexual orientation primarily to members of the same sex 393 Bisexual an individual with a sexual orientation toward both men and women Prevalence of Homosexual and Bisexuality O 00 37 of American men and about 15 to 45 of American women are homosexual or bisexual De ning Sexual Orientation Another Look 0 09 O 09 O 06 O 00 O 00 O O O 00 06 9 Isolated instances of sexual behavior may or may not re ect one s sexual orientation Some reach their identity after passive exploration and others after active exploration The large majority of homosexual and bisexual men became aware of their sexual orientation at a young age It is common for women not to recognize their orientation until later Women are more likely to move back and forth between heterosexual and homosexual Several studies have shown that it can change over time Heterosexual identities tend to stay the same over time Of the bisexuals who change men can shift towards homosexual or heterosexual whereas women shift towards heterosexual Asexuality O 06 O 00 O 06 An individual with a lifelong lack of sexual attraction to men and women 1 of population is asexual They experience sexual arousal to erotic stimuli they just lack sexual attraction to other people Sexual Orientation Gender Identity and Gender Roles oz You cannot tell a persons sexual orientation by their gender roles O 99 o 9 Gender nonconformity during childhood of often but not always associated with homosexuality Childhood gender nonconformity does not provide an adequate explanation for the development of sexual orientation in most women Sexual Origins of Sexual Orientation O 09 Psychoanalytical Explanations Do Parents Play a Role o Feud believed that male homosexuality resulted when a boy had a domineering rejecting mother and turned to this father for love and later to men in general 0 Female homosexuality developed when a girl loved her mother and identi ed with her father and became xated on that 0 There is no evidence that sexual orientation results from children identity with a particular parent 393 Biological Explanations 0 Genetic factors 100 concordance in sexuality in twins 10 in fraternal 5060 of sexual orientation is due to genetics 0 Brain anatomy Studies found that hypothalamus in heterosexuals were twice as large Others found that anther part of the hypothalamus the suprachiasmatic nucleus had tice as many cells in homosexual men as in heterosexual men and that a major ber bundle that connect the two halves of the brain was 34 large in homosexual men 0 Birth Order and the Prenatal Environment Many studies have found that on average homosexual men have more older brother than heterosexual men Each additional older biological brother increases the probably that the younger brother will be homosexual by 33 This suggests that birth order effects in men are the result of biological in uences a reaction to the mothers immune system Y chromosome chemicals triggered by the previous male fetuses o Hormones and the Prenatal Environment Levels in testosterone increase dramatically when the testicles developed in week 7 after conception reach a peak and then decline if it s a girl ln boys testosterone levels then dramatically increase after birth for about 20 weeks and then decline again to the level of girls until puberty Any early differences in anatomy due to testosterone would have to occur during one of these two early testosterone surges 0 Most researchers agree that both biological and social in uences contribute to the development of sexual orientation 0 Also contribution of genetic and environmental factors Being Homosexual 30 Greek quothomoquot meaning same 30 Gay a term generally used to refer to male homosexuals although in some places it is used to refer to homosexual of either sex 30 Lesbian a female homosexual 30 Straight a term used by homosexuals for a heterosexual 60 History of Attitudes about homosexuality o Pederasty a samesex sexual between between adult men and boys Greek scholars use to have sexual relations with their students 0 Same sex sexual activities were practiced by many groups often as part of Hebrews for religious rituals prior to the 7th century Was then banned for quotspillage of seedquot 0 Intolerance in Western culture Viewed as mentally ill oz Sexual Prejudice Today 0 Sexual prejudice is often institutionalized Christian churches o Victims of verbal abuse harassment bullying and hate crimes 0 Homophobia an irrational fear of homosexual individuals and homosexuality 0 Sexual prejudice socially reinforced negative attitudes towards homosexuals homosexual communities and homosexual behaviors 0 Sexual Identity Development 0 Sexual identity development the process of accepting and disclosing ones homosexuality or bisexuality quotcoming outquot o The rst stage is admitting to oneself that one has a homosexual or bisexual orientation 0 Next stage is the individual gets to know other homosexuals thus ending the sense of isolation 0 Once contact is made with other gays and lesbians a new way of expressing sexuality has to be developed 0 Third stage the individuals tells family and friends of his or her sexual orientation 0 Many gayslesbiansbisexuals end up homeless with no supportive parents 0 Final stage is complete openness about ones homosexuality or bisexuality oz Lifestyles and Relations 0 Find companions can be difficult 0 Urban areas have more tolerance 0 Lesbian coupes are less likely to be concentrated in large cities 0 Most samesex couples assume house roles and nalized burdens equally o Gays and bisexuals value monogamy less 0 Lesbians are more affectionate than heterosexual couples oz Homosexuals Marriage and Parenting 0 Many homosexual people marry an heterosexual a partner Due to family and societal pressures affection for the partner desire to have children or even negative feelings about a homosexual lifestyle 0 13 states recognize samesex marriage 0 Abundance of research that shows that children raised by openly homosexual partners are not different from children raised by heterosexual parents oz Media Portrayal of Homosexuals 0 Hollywood movies have began to show gay couples 0 TV shows portray homosexuals in serious roles Can Sexual Orientation Be Changed 00 Most changes are conducted by religious groups 0 Efforts to change sexual orientation are ineffective 0 People cannot choose to be gay or straight nor can they be changed through therapy