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by: Cleo Bode DVM

DigitalSystemDesign CEG360

Cleo Bode DVM
GPA 3.6


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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cleo Bode DVM on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CEG360 at Wright State University taught by TravisDoom in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/231076/ceg360-wright-state-university in Computer Engineering at Wright State University.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
Section III Complex system design Wright State Unive Outline 0 Dealing with Cumplrexi o Data uriii DatapaLh desigi 7 Registers 7 RTlenguzg e 7 Daiapaili Cunstmdmn o Control uriii Controller design 7 ASM Charts 0 Implemenmiori issues 7 ROM 7 Vle Deslgi eeeiriari mirii Mimi i Dealing with Complexity Practical synchronous sequential Circuits are too complexto desigi at the ip7 op level cpu capable rifsiiiiirig ririly fuurvalues iri fuur GFRS has 132514 X 8 Z 32 14311 state devicesl require 2232 by z8 truth table in representt e device E eli ufthese billiuri rir sri rimes wriulil havetu eririiairi a 327biiriexi state Stunng zm 324 entries Wuhddrequlre 4 TBl 2 la K kiln 4 Mmegz 2m 1mm Ggga 23quot lmxlny were quot leEI 7 Simpli ca un Wuuldrequlre aAEHanable lorriepl How do we manage complai desigiv eeeiriari mirii Mimi i Complex System Design o Practical sequmual designs like eornbrnatronal designs require a hlerarehleal approach 7 Usewell de nedbulldmgblucks C m exhluek deurslrnplerhlueksmerarehy Examples Regslascumta39s o Assoelate a hlgh7level Ofbehavlor wth those blocks abstraction 7 Deslgn rnethuuulupes based un abstxamuns ean mure easrly eneurnpass eurnple ty 7 Curnrnun funetaun hlueks repsters anu euunters o ORDER a sequence ofhlghlevel behavlorsLhai when executed In the proper Order solves the overall problem 7 ereeurnputerprugrarnrnrngl CEGxinasn swear xuuaniii a Decomposing a Design Control and Data Cuntrul signals Status slgnals Cum Cuntxul Umt Datapath lnputs Data Outputs Cuntxul Data Outputs lnputs o Complar designs are generally broken down Into to hrghlevel abstractions The dampth ls harm to ne ur mum dampth component that pmde hrgherlevel funcuunallty vlewable attherepstertransferlevel 7 e e um euntruls the sequmce m wheh the datapath funmuns are perfumed m urda tu perfurm the system task CEGxinasn swear xuuaniii a Outline o Dealing wth Complexrty 0 Data unit Datapath design 7 Registers r RTLlan t 7 Dampzth Cnnstnltlinn Control unlt Controller design 7 ASM Charts Implementatlon lssues 7 LBS 7 ROM 7 Vle Deslpn CEGxinasn swear xuuaniii s Datapath components o Gates and lpr ops are good bulldlng blocks for slmple deslgis o We need more sophlsucaled bulldlng blocks for comploc syslems o Reglsleclmnsfec level RTL componean akaDaLapaLh componmts lnclude medlum scale devlces such as 7 Reglsters r Cuunters r ALUs e Multiplexers C rs cisxsnasn mm MM 1 39 74LSI75 MSI QuadHex Registers cm 0 CLR 74LSI75 ill 1 7 l8 0 2D 2Q 2Q o 39 3Q 21 a 1Q Q of 4D 4Q u 2Q Q o 3Q CLK 4L l 4 a quot HQ 0 CLR 1D 1Q l a Q D Q CLKg gtoi quot Q 30 3Q 4D 4Q CLR SD 5Q ED 5Q All fuur lpr upsusethe same duckl cEstnasn es ml mm x Octal Registerwith Parallel Load Enable Why dun39twe gatethe 51mm cisxsnasn mm mm a Shift Registers o Mulurbitregisterthai moves data Sidewayi leftright 1 bimon 7 sun e urSh DuwnxstuwardsMSB Q3 Q2 Q1 Qn Q3 Q2 Q1 Q 7 Shi R1 1tur shin Up1stuwards LSB Q3 Q2 Q1 Qn Q3 Q2 Q1 QB 1 u O m usedtu rearrange hits my MultiplyDivide by z mmm Emmi mm i in Bidirectional Universal Shift Registers 74mm Blunksymbul Mudes Huld 5 Luad L55 Shl Right R th Le T l MsB Quad Birdxrecuunal Universal 44m FIFO extstate Funmun St SE QAquot QBquot QCquot QDquot Hu d n QA QB Qc QD Shl n Uup 1 RN QA QB Qc Sht le duwn 1 n QB Qc QD LIN lt Luad l l A C mmm Emmi mm i u Universal SR Schematic T 74x194 Em mi cmxsn sn Emmi mm i a cEGxinasn Ennis rum i U Shift Register Applications 0 State Registers 7 Sh regsters are u en used as me state regsier m asequenual aevree Usually Lhanext state rs determined by sh zngnght and msa39ilng a primary input Dr uutput min the nail pusmun m 8 5 8 8 g m ems 7 keep intercunnecilun custluw with serrei mtercunnect 0 Eli Senal Operations 7 Bit serial epereuerrs canbe perfurmed quickly arrange aevree iteratmn 7 lteratmn a purely cumbmatmnal appmach rs expensrve mta ms ufuf ehrp are ewer etc 7 A sequential appmach alluws the reuse ufcumbmauunal functmnal umts urreugheui me muureyeie epereuer cEGxinasn Ennis rum i u Shift Register Applications CLOCIfff Transmitter Receiver c onirol SYNCff Parallel 113 Parallel Sena17io7 Data to A7Lo7D Parallel7 lt10 va Loesenal SDATA 337 converter CLOCK 7 1 bllpa39 clunkunk 2 D48 MHz DIGITAL TELEPHONY SYNC rsynnhmmzzuunufsianuf ame SDATA serial data mam cEGxinasn Ennis rum i u Shift Register Applications Sequential Implementa un uf Z7 I X7 I Y7 I V mum Emmi um i u Counters o Cuunters areregsters with extra usuuns Clucked sequential susuu with singlercyde state diagam 7 Muduium cuunler dividerbyrm cuunler a o Must Cummun umbime cuunler Wha39em r A n lpr ps mums n M mum Emmi um i u Counting o Common output codes for mods and decimal counters State Binary BCD Gray 3 Ring 1 U ml mun nun uuuununi 1 mm mum uni unununiu 2 um um Ill ununmuu 3 I11 lull mu ununinuu 4 mm mm 1m minimum 5 1m mm 111 IUlEIEIEIEIEI a 1m IllEI m1 umnunuu 7 111 mm mm lEIEIEIEIEIEIEI a 9 mum Emmi um i u AsynchronousRipple Counter Q Q0 1 blL CLK T dryrdebyz z brt Q1 Q dlvlde7by74 T Uses Mrnrrnal 3 brt Loglc Q dlvlde7by78 T 4brt Tp prdtrr d drb 716 Setup Tsetuptff T m e y czsxsnasn sewn rum r u Synchronous Counters All clock rnputs connected to common CLK slgnal 7 Sn all rptlup uutputs change srrnultaneuusly tEu a er cud o Synchronous Counters arehave r Faster 7 More Cumplex Lugre mure expenslvequot 7 Must Frequently Used Type quuunter 0 Two types ofsynchronous counters Set 31 7 Parallel Easy to cornbrne rteratry ely to bulld blgger counters 7 cernbrnedeuuntershayesenal aspects lfthe demees areparallel then the overall deyree ls leed rnudequot czsxsnasn sewn rum r n Synchronous Serial Counter o Elrp ops enabled when all lowernrp T n s 1 EN Q Q1 T EN Q Q2 T Tpd Tpdtff 3 Tsetup n7lAt Tsetuptff EN Q Q Equauum T Delay7 czsxsnasn sewn rum t rr o Enable propagates senally 7 lrrnrts speed Requlres n71 AL lt Tc All outputs Chang srrnultaneously t cLKt e w atter Synchronous Parallel Counter gtT EN Q Q1 l EN Q Q2 l Delay7 gtT Tpurput E u Tsetup pdb1gesLAND TsetupTff quot1 3 cEstnasn mm mm 1 n Smglerlevel enable log1c per monop Fastest and most complex type of counter o Requ1resAl lt TCLK All outputs change s1mu1taneous1y Eu after CLK t 74163 4bit Synchronous Parallel Counter Cummun Cluck Synchrunuus Clear Synchrunuus Luad Count Enable ENF ENT Luad Data tnputs MSB RCO Rlpple Cany Out when Count 1111 and ENT 1 741611 the same butw1tn an asynchronous clear cEstnasn mum 11M 11 u 74163 State Table Inputs Current state Next state CLR LD ENT EN39P D c QB QA QDquot Qc QB QAquot Em 11211 Q m o Cuunl gtltgtltx oo gtgtgt cEstnasn mum 11M 11 n 74169 UpDown Counter 74X169 U39PDN1up A RcO15 U39PDN0down A Rcoo down up Ex 012 181514 1501z R o R39co mmm Emmi mm i a Application Free Running Modulo16 Counter mmm Emmi mm i as Modulo 11 Counter 56 155 6 When Count15 A Load 5 0101 Any Modulus z A 16 possible CLOCK mmm Emmi mm i n Module11 Counter 012 10 0 1 when Count10 A Clear Decode Counnxlxao 15 CLOCK Q3Q1 mmm mm mm H n Cascaded 741635 for 8bit Counter Up to Module256 mm mm H 25 4bit 8state Johnson Counter 0 Also known as 7 tmstednngcuumer 7 Muebms uunta39 IIued as mum smmewsm 0 Zn smtes wah n 1p7 ops 7 NOT selfmnecung mmm mm mm H u Design Decomposition o A dlgltal system ls a sequmual crrcurtwrth speclfled behayror Amlcmpmcessuns a drgrtal system Speclfylng large drgrtal systems wth state tablesmay be ercepttonally drmcult due to the number ofstates lnv oly ed s m cumputerpmgammmg must dlgtal systems are desrgned uslng a mudular hlerarchlcal appruaeh e The systemrspartraunedrntumudularsubsystems Each subsystempafurms awell de ned funmmn wtth spennedrnten aee e lntereunneeaun theyanuus subsystems Lhuugh data and euntrul srgnals results m a dlgtal system ceeman sewn new it n Design Decomposition o Most drgrtal systems are partitioned into two Lopelevel modules 7 Data unrt Dr Datapath perfums datarpmcessmg uperaauns e Cuntqu unrt determnes the sequence uftheseuperaauns o Datapaths are sequenttal systems 7 the system staters de ned by the euntents uftheregrsters e the funetrunahtyrsthe set ufde ned uperaauns that canbeperfurmed un the untents uftheregsters 7 Elementary uperaauns are usually but nut always perfurmed m parallel un a string ufbrts m une eluek aek A ml ro n entary opemtlon performed on data stored ln the datapath They fall into four general categorles Tran fer mlcmupa39atluns aansferbrnary data 39um unereglster Dr data rnputmemury tn anuther e Anthmetre mreruuperaauns perfurm anthmeae un data m regsters e Luglc mreruuperaauns perfurm brtmanrpulatruns un data m regrst ers hl mlcmuperanuns shl datarnregrsters mm mm mm u n RegisterTransfer Level Design o An approach to speclfy analyze and deslgn systems too complex to use the stateetable based approaches commonly utlllzed ln slmple deslgns o The RegrsterTransferLeyel RTL approach ls characterized by e A drgrt system ls vlewed as drmdedrntu a datasubsystem and aeuntml subsystem e The state quhe data subsystem eunsrsts ufthe euntents quhe regsters o g E o E g e o quotE 0 a if Eaeh aansfer must eunespund tn asequmce ufmreruuperaaun e The cuntxul unrtrmplements the RTL desrgn Lhmugh mreruuper a a uns man sewn new it n RTL Languages 1 Th2 muman regime transfers are my agm system nub xeg emxans 7 kmwn a ngumpmfex larguagx mf cxen y cmnple39z m describe 71 MA Regmm denmedbywpexcaselenexssameumesfalwwedby numbers mmm m mum um regs 7 g RORIARPCMAR1aI 7 u mdmdualhm canh mum pmmhm mhmmn m label g Ramknnnwycm Datatxansfensdamudmsymbahcfambythzmeansu he ephemera Dpen39 lt7 7 g 1227 m RTL Languages 2 Nammywewm gventxansfumaccumtfmevuyclackpulse m ardny Wm Wm um mm am 7 c m gum7nmm7xn 7 Cnnhnl monnnmaonnmnlnn 7 gm x27 RTL stateman accunnxespmse m a duck tack A cammaxs ma m 52pm m a maze xegstexumsfexsthal are Execuudanhe same me A semrcnlmxshwedfm unmsrxuchmwnh mum mm m 2 7 g a Rzeklj eklmt zmm R1712 RTL Languages 3 ReggextaMemaxy Transfers are denmed mug squazebncke39s sunvundlngthz mm address 7 g DReMUxR mummy 7 g mka wmwpmmy A mlwm RTL Languages 4 mm m mum l mu m m i Exzmyizs Mm Emma mm m W Low nmm N7 n wwqu m m 712 la inlhmuwAHr mwm Ni mm i nuiui m m m i mm maumm Em 1 mm m gtltmlt rmmiwm lum Exzmyles quugc Mmm yemmxs Designing a datapath tag a dawn wahtwa 24m mpuls A and E an Hm mgm START and am L t m m unsymdhmarympulsA de are mama mum11mm m dmce asserts DONE laughan hypmznuse uf anghtmange wahadesA de Wm m ml mswens Andable an mpmc the dance mu assert DONE m am clack uck if the mm Emma campqu 555m ERR CsqnA1oE J Designing a datapath Eu exfamiulafquuareRamAppmxxmmm 7 Let maziibi Let y mmUzi J s m m m m mm mm syn What 5m uf nmans daywunzedtapmcessthz duty Designing a datapath o SRA Circuit Model Letx max a b and y mm a b sum 2quot2 W max xm 875x 5y Cuntxul umt Datapath Rx B Regsters c x y t Ry e mm A B Ry e Ry gtgt1 shi nght 1 quotn Functmns mm max r shi Rt Rx gt 3 5th nght 3 1mm Rte er Rt X r lBX X U 875 Rte Ry Rt Rce maxRx Rt Ce R mmm mm mm i m Designing a datapath Cuntxul umt mmm mm mm i n Designing a datapath Datapath Cuntxul umt Data Ou uts Exemf g Data A c e 39P y e mm A B Rye Ry inputs Rte Rx gt 3 Rte Rx Rt Rte Ry Rt mtnxytmtm mum Status 131315 mxm um ms SR1 Cuntmi Slyials Jr We M E mmm mm mm i u Outline o Dealing with Cornpleirity o Dataunitmatapathgtdesign egisters 7 RTLlanguage 7 Datapath Cunstrurtiun o CunLrnlunitCnanllerdesig1 r ASMChartS 0 Implementation issues 7 LBS 7 ROM 7 Vle Deslgi ceernari eetairai new it u Interaction between Data and Control Units Cuntrul signals Status signals Cunlxul Unit C n39ml Datapath lnputs Data Outputs Cunlxul Data Outputs inputs o Control signals 7 signals that activate data7processing function e ae vate asequence ufsuch uperataens the cuntxul unit senrls the preper sequence efeentrel signals tr the datapalh o status Slgnals 7 slgnalsLhal descnbe aspects ofthe state othe datapath 7 e central unituses these 5131315 in determininng speeitae sequence uf perfumed o other signals 7 allow the control unit and datapath to interact with other parts othe system such as memory and inputoutput logic eernari eetairai new it n The Control Unit o The control unit generates the slgnals for sequenclng the operations in the datapath 7 A sequential eireuitvnth states that dxcmte the control rignatr fur the system 7 Using status cundmuns and central inputs the sequential cunlxul unit determmex the next rtate in Wh eh arlrlitaenal rniereeperataens are aetivaterl o Hardwued Control 7 The central unitis irnplernenterl tr prunirle aparueular digital funclmn o Mlcroprogmmmed Control L ERl ceernari eetairai new it a Control Unit Design Cuntml umt Kt StartOIer uw LDX 1U II RTL IDLE IDLE IDLE sI 51 I s 52 RX 52 s s s s Ryemm A B s 54 54 54 54 Ry R gtgt I 54 ss ss ss 55 i7 Rx gtgt 3 ss 55 55 55 55 Rt e Rx R 55 s7 ERR s7 ERR R e Ry Rt s7 SE SE 58 De maxRx Rt 58 IDLE IDLE IDLE IDLE Ce Re Danae I 5 ERR IDLE IDLE IDLE IDLE ERRe I Dune Over u eeemm Emmi mm l n ASM for Control Cuntml umt ax RyemmA E RteRxgtgt 3 R Rx Rt RteRyRt ax r Ce Re DON lt71 eeemm Emmi mm l n Algorithmic State Machines 0 AlgonLhmIc State Machine ASM Chart 7 speeIeI u ehan usedtu de ne 643131 hardware algunthms 7 Describes asequmce ufevents 7 Determmes the minus thEh eeeunn the states mrewunseluth eiuekpuise mrewunse in changes In e Inputs 0 ASM charts contain Lhree basic elemean 7 State axes Remangles labeled with me state name and assgummL Euniammg a nigger upemuen andDr me names ufMunre outputs assmed m that stale Iammds Euniammg a Eundmunal mpul Expressun and Exits I and n 7 Cundmunal uulput buxes o s Emlammg Maly outputs assmed futhE Eundmuns leadmgtu me bux eeemm Emmi mm l u ASM elements state box state entrypath state name state code Dect ton box Moore output 1tst condition false condttton true extt path extt path state am path 0 e 1 Condtttonat Meaty output box OR from deClSlOnrbOX 1 1 1 condtttonal output 1tst extt p ath eeetnan eettthtt nttttn t u ASM Timing Eaeh state hex has a E rresp nd nguASM Eteek39 that tnetuees all eeetsten and eenetttenat eutput buxesre hee ftem that sta e e EaehAsM Eteekhas Exac y ene state hex all paths lavmgtheASM meek teae utteetty te a diffa39ent state hex o The eunent state hex teptesents the eunent state The eunenttnputs eeetee apath utteth e tsten hexes e Unltke state nagarns amhtguttyts asly ayeteeetnAsM s e Cenetttenat eutputs alung the path eeeutttnmeetatety tn tespensete ehanges tn the mpuls wines o The next statehextsnet entetee untat aeteekttekeeeuts e The Meete eutputs tn the state hex and any eenetttenat Meaty eutputs tn the new ASM meek are assmed ttnrneetatety ASM hexes may atse tnetuee Regster Transfer etteeayest a Any changes Eundmmal ur utherwtse in a sequential device wan unnl the next pestttye eteekeege eeeteatt eetttnt ntttn t at ASM Example 4bit binary counter STATE Q1 Q0 STATE Q1 Q0 eeetnan eettthtt nttttn t at ASM Example 4bit counterwith enable STATE Q1 Q0 mmm mm mm l n ASM Example Modulo 4 counter Mealy STATE QD Qc QB QA one hot 1 wqu mmm mm mm l a ASM Example 1 s Counter 0 Counlof1 sonXampYmpuLs outpuLZ 1f countmull1ple of4 o 4 8 gt 1 gt2 1 IncbyZ a1 1 Incbyl x Else If xygt No Inc gt 01 s mmm mm mm l u ASM chart for 1 s Counter STATE Q1 Q2 mmm mm mm H Convert ASM chart to Transition List o Needs an em step to nd transition expresstons o Trace all posstbte paths om any state to all destmauon states o Transition aipresston to any gwm mad state one 1m othe transition 115015 product AND ofall Conditions along path o Condition If lbranch mkm 7 mummy tr Ibranchtaken mmm mm mm H Example 1 s Counter PS INPUT NS Y nu Known m an Known nu mom mmm mm mm H u Example 1 s Counter Qlquot QlQn39om Q1QUXY QI39QUXY39Y QIQU39XY39GiY QIQU39XY39YJ39 QlQnom39oim39 QZquot QI39QU39XY39GY Q1QUXY QVQnltXWltXW QIQU39XY39GiY QIQMXW QIQUOi O39GiY39 mum mum mm i u Outline Dealing mm Complexity Data umi DatapaLh deslgi Registers 7 RTlenguzge 7 Datapath Cunstmmun Control umi Controller design 7 ASM Charts Imp lememzu39un issues 7 FLDS 7 ROM 7 VLsmesign mum mum mm i u Programmable Logic Definitions Dlglml integated c1rcu1iNISILSIV 7 manufactured as a standard uffrthershelf cumpunent 7 cuntanxng regulaquot array uflugx gates and mpaups 7 whuselug unmans are determined bythe applicailun deslgi mgmeer and implemented lucally Many types ofprogmmmable logic 7 sumeumes ganencally called PLDs Frugammable Lug Devices 7 AL ur FLD mnpm Input mum mum mm i u Program mabl FLA e Logic De nitions 3 Plug mhkLogmAmy ymgnmdby bl wm ksesquotbylmnduxbymk Programmable Logic 39B39iD pr L D39 J D Bung AmyLugm my 5 5m 3 cummmdynsed pm ReadOnly Memory ROM A camhmhmal cummmnmpms andb gums Pragmmableiwl Na summed by me an 7 cameras xemmdthhnul pa ex Umfmn Random Accessidelay 15 mm for m mums ReadOnly Memory ROM 0 Two mews 7 ROM stares 2n Wards ufb ms each m 7 ROM stares anmnpm bruulputh uth 121312 112 124 Example Al AU D3 D2 D1 DU 11 n n 1 n 1 SturesA 47131111111165 m U 1 1 1 1 1 lt3 gumsuunmmsurz 1 n n n n 1 mpuhmnables 1 1 1 n n n mm mm 1111quot 1 n Using ROMS for Oombinational Logic A 3r1nput moutput combmahonal log1c funcuon 11121115 Oumuts A2 A1 AU D3 D2 D1 DU 11 n n 1 1 1 n n n 1 1 1 n 1 n 1 n 1 n 1 1 m YD S S 3 S S i Y 1 n 1 n n 1 11 POquot 1 1 n n 1 n n 1 1 1 1 n n n Funan 2414 Demder w1Lh Fulanty Cunt 1 AZ Fulanty nacuve1 u uw 1 amve H1gh 271311 input 471311 denuded umqu mm mm 1111quot 1 s Internal Structure of 4gtlt4 Diode ROM 111111 lt luannrd Lmes 1111 2 m 4 Decader mm mun Dmde gt 1 Nquae4gt 11 Why use d1udes7 Why nut replace them W m Whig cm main EEAMEH xman 11 ii Types Of ROMs 1 thLme o MaskROM 7 cenneeaens made bythe semlcunducturvendur 7 Expenswe setup eus Wmd L 7 Several weeks fur dehvery 7 High vulume unly 7 BxpularurMOStechnulugy M 7 ngammable ROM 7 cenneeaens made by equipment manufacturer 7 Vapunze bluw fusible lmks wuh FROM pmgrammerusmghlg1 veltageeunentpulses 7 Bxpulartechnulugy 7 oneamepmgammaMe cEstnasn mm mm u n Internal Structure of Transistor ROM o Replace anodes Wth MOS Lranslstors o Change deeoderto aetwehtga outputs 5v Translstor Igt 1 No transistor Igt o cEstnasn mm mm H u EPROM and EEPROM Structure Floatmg gate a o a Non oatmg gate Aetwehtga word lmes rrr Fr PT arr Tr Acuveelow tut unes H39l cEstnasn mm mm H s Types of ROMs 2 PROM 7 Erasable Frugammable ROM Ext me 7 Chargetrapped un extra uatmg gatequot cmos Wurd Lme h39znsxsturs 7 Expusuretu UV ugh remuves charge minimums uanz Lm cxpensmc package 7 Lxmxted number uferasures 1mm 0 EEPROM FROM 7 Elccmcany Erasable ROM mung gate chargeddischarged elecmcally 7 Nut RAM relatively sluw chargdmscharge 7 hmned numba cfchargcmschargc cycles mum cscmm mm mm H m Types of ROMS 3 o Flash Memory 7 Electmmcally erasable m blacks 7 1nnnnn erase cyclcs 7 Simpler and denserthan EEFROM 7 03211 usedfur rmwzre cscmm mm mm H n ROM Type Summary cscmm mm mm H n Consider a 64 x 1 ROM sv This Decaderneeds 54 rmput gatesi Huw ean we make it mure square 7 Very tall nanuw Chip BAD Even Wurse furlargerchlpsi cEstnasn Emmi mm i u 64 x 1 ROM with 2Dimensional Decoding 3 m a a x a Decader Dmde Array Almust square ehipi cEstnasn Emmi mm i u 64K x 8 ROM with 2D Decoding 1 512 512 512 512 x x x X 128 128 128 1 Army 28 i m h 7 5 We 9 DecudmgCummdmtselecuun kaaezm z 7sz square mut 2W zy cEstnasn Emmi mm i u Internal 2n x b ROM Control Structure cmxsnasn rrmm mm u H Programmable Logic 0 Advamages 7 Desrgn embrmy 7 Benaaesrgr autumauun 7 ngherdensxty fewerpaekages cumpzred m sersx 7 Less expensrve 7 Dwerpuwer 7 ngherperfurmance o Progammmg Techno log 7 Intercunnecnunsusually madebypass txansxsturs cuntmlledby memury sums ty 7 Prugrammed usmg CAD 7 Hardware Destnptmn Languages cmxsnasn rrmm mm H n Modern VLSI Design 0 The VLSI chxps that are used m most modem desxgqs come m Lhree vaneues 7 Custum Appmach VLSI chxps ursumeufthen39pans are aesrgnea by Full CustumVs sranaard Ceu 7Usmg standard eeu dESlngEmEhElg1L uuung channels smph es LhB desgqpmcess I ngqestDensny ngqest Manu dunng Cast 7 Semmustum Appruaeh The VLSI Ehps empluy gate arrays and technulugy mappmg S 5 5 Gate array a many premmred 1c atmmrpumles a large mmber er mammal gates usually 31mm NAND Ur NOR gates that are 1am mu m a regular rmmmenaenar a Technnlngy rmpping The preeess ufdeslmngalugc runenerr asa n81ka ufamlable dmees Lem Density 1 925 mere gates mar an eqmwlem custum deagn Inexpenst Requrres my maul depusmunde ne mtemunnecnms eeenemy er sale cmxsnasn rrmm mm H u Modern VLSI Design o The VLSI amps that are used m most modem desxgqs come m Lhree Vanemes 7 VLSI FLDs erldFmgamableGaleAmysG FGAS VLSI mudules that an bepmgamm d m xmpIEmEnla my system cunslsung mans umuusnds ufgztes LSI FLDs mlplanemtvmslsvel cumbmahunal and sequmual nelwm39ks FFGAs alluwtherahzzhun ufmululevel nelwurks and cumplEX sysLErns ma 5m 3 my May pruduce sluwa nelvmrk May mqmea larger 511mm am mmm mm mm H 75


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Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.