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Date Created: 10/29/15
Vocabulary Riposte Repiise Stop cut Rigltofsway Douhle neche Beat Attack simple attach Compound attach Pain slnsLine unscheslin Parry HPR 101 c Intermedlate Fencmg Study Guide A oountes odensiye action made hy the fences who has pasiied the attack A new attach executed immedintclg attes a setum to the guasd position A simple and immediate odensiye action which follow the osiginal attach without withdsawing the asm A oountesing action made at the moment the opponent initiates a psepas teint This action must land hetose the nal action of the opponent hegin osdes to gain Tightsofsway ation os A type of prisrderfex taking of the blade in which the opponent s hlade is engaged and then moved diagonally tsom one line to anothes A deceive of the opponent s attempt to de ect the point me hitting the point Wzr the opponent point without withdsawing the hand os asm The oonyention in foil and sahse that sets up an osdesly sequence of attack and siposte The asst attach must he defended against hetose a oountes attach may heg A oompound odensiye action oonsisting of i teint and 2 changes otline Used when an opponenttahes a cisculaspassy against a teint An attaching footwoxk tosmed hy eithes leaping os sunning toswasd with the seas toot csossing past the tsont toot An attack on the opponent hlade hytapping it lightly A talse thsust des gned to make the opponent passy os otheswise seact changing hlade line hy dsopping the point under opponent s hlade and then ing it on the othes side An odensiye action that is executed in one moyement An o ensiye action that is executed in sevesal movements ht to A position hy the defending tences The fencer holds the asm stsaig 8 tsomthe d1pomtdilemlyattheattackeno enn im him shouldes and psesentnn m ddc ens to 1 d n t A detensiye action made with the weapon to pseyent an odensiye action assiying Foil The foil is a descendant of the light court sword formerly used by nobility to train for duels It has a exible rectangular blade approximately 35 inches in length and weighing less than one pound Points are scored with the tip of the blade and must land on valid target see diagram The arms neck head and legs are considered off target hits to this non valid target temporarily halts the fencing action but does not result any points being awarded This concept of on target and off target evolved from the theory of 18th century fencing masters who instru cted their pupils to only attack the vital areas of the body ie the torso Of course the head is also a vital area of the body but attacks to face were considered unsporting and therefore discouraged Although top foil fencers still employ classical technique of parries and thrusts the exible nature of the foil blade permits the modern elite foil fencer to attack an opponent from seemingly impossible angles Because parrying blocking these attacks can be very difficult the modern game of foil has evolved into a complicated and exciting game of multiple feints ducking and sudden explosive attacks Epee The p e pronounced EFF pay literally meaning I39j r 7 quotswordquot in French is the descendant of the dueling sword but is heavier weighing approximately 27 ounces with a stiffer thicker blade and a larger guard As in foil touches are scored only with the point of the blade however in p e the entire body head to toe is valid target much like in an actual duel There are no right of way rules in p e Similar to the foil the point of the p e is fixed with a blunt spring loaded button However the p e tip requires more than 750 grams of pressure to register a touch with the scoring machine basically p e fencers have to hit harder Because the entire body is a valid target area p e fencers do not have to wear a metallic lam There is no concept of quotoff targetquot in p e anything goes Sab r Q 39 The sabr is the modern version of the slashing cavalry sword As such the major difference between sabr and the other two weapons is that sabr ists can score with the edge of their blade as well as their point In sabr the target area is the entire body above the waist excluding the hands The lower half is not valid target which is meant to simulate a cavalry rider on a horse In addition sabr employs rules of right of way which are very similar to foil but with subtle differences In sabr the rules of right of way strongly favor the fencer who attacks first and a mere graze by the blade registers a touch These circumstances naturally make sabr a fast aggressive game with fencers rushing their opponent from the moment their referee gives the instruction to fence In fact a lopsided sabr match can literally be over in seconds As fending off the attack of a skilled opponent is nearly impossible sabr fencers very rarely purposely take the defensive However when forced to do so they often go all out using spectacular tactical combinations in which victory or defeat is determined by a hair39s breadth Sabr Parries There are historically 57 parries used in sabr the most useful parries are 3 4 amp 5 3 Standard en garde but rotated so cutting edge faces further in the ank direction ie guard kept low sword upright with a slight forward tilt cutting edge facing 450 to the ank side covers low outside line ank 4 Similar to three on the chest side guard low cutting edge facing away from ank sword upright with slight chestdirection tilt Covers low inside line chest 5 Blade held up almost horizontally with bent arm cutting edge facing upward blade has a slight tilt meaning that the point is higher than the guard Cover high inside and outside head cheek These 3 sabr parries create a Parry 5 triangle shaped defense Parry 3 r Parry 4 Sabr Footwork At no time may the heel of the rear foot cross in front of the forward foot This eliminates the legal use of crossover and the traditional eche Just like foil an attack in sabr ends when the front foot lands on the oor whether the blade is finished with the action or not Tournament Formats Generally an individual event consists of two parts the pools and the direct eliminations In the pools fencers are divided into groups and every fencer in a pool will have the chance to fence every other fencer once The size and number of the pools is determined by the number of athletes who have registered for the competition Pool bouts are three minutes long and are fenced to five points If no fencer reaches ve points then the one with the most points after three minutes wins Pool results are recorded on a scoresheet which must be signed by the fencers after their last match The referee will write down how many points each fencer scored in the bout although normally if a fencer won with five points a quotVquot for victoire is written down instead of a 5 Losing a pool match does not eliminate a fencer from the tournament After the pools are finished the direct elimination round starts Fencers are sorted in a table of some power of 2 16 32 64 etc based on how many people are competing There are rarely exactly the right number of people for this to work out perfectly so the lowest ranking fencers may be eliminated or they may be included in the next highest power of 2 with the top fencers receiving a m Once the table size has been chosen fencers are slotted into the table like this first place vs last place second vs second last third vs third last etc A fencers place is decided by three factors their victories divided by matches fenced their indicator score which is calculated by the numbers of hits for and against during the pool rounds and finally their hits scored If there is no way of separating the fencers beyond these three indicators then they are considered equal and draw random lots for their place in the table The elimination round matches in foil and p e are fenced in three periods of three minutes each In between each period there is a one minute break Sabre matches are so much faster that the three minute mark is almost never reached Therefore in sabre when one fencer reaches 8 points there is a one minute break In all three weapons the match goes until 15 points If no one has reached 15 points then the fencer with the most points wins The winner carries on in the tournament and loser is eliminated Fencing is slightly unusual in that no one has to fence for third place Instead two bronze medals are given to the losers of the semifinal round The exception to this is team events at international level and individual events at the Olympic Games where a 3rd place playoff must be fence Nonelectronic scoring Prior to the introduction of electronic scoring equipment the president of jury was assisted by four judges Two judges were positioned behind each fencer one on each side of the strip The judges watched the fencer opposite to see if he was hit This system is sometimes called quotdryquot fencing USA or quotsteamquot United Kingdom Australia fencing When a judge thought he saw a hit he raised his hand The president referee or director then stopped the bout and reviewed the relevant phases of the action polling the judges at each stage to determine whether there was a touch and in foil and sabre whether the touch was valid or invalid The judges would answer quotYesquot quotYes but offtargetquot in foil and sabre quotNoquot or quotAbstainquot Each judge had one vote and the president had one and a half votes Thus two judges could overrule the president but if the judges disagreed or if one judge abstained the president39s opinion ruled Ep e fencing was later conducted with red dye on the tip easily seen on the white uniform As a bout went on if a touch was seen a red mark would appear Between the halts of the director judges would inspect each fencer for any red marks Once one was found it was circled in a dark pencil to show that it had already been counted The red dye was not easily removed preventing any cheating The only way to remove it was through certain acids such as vinegar Thus p e fencers became renowned for their reek of vinegar until the invention of electronic equipment Despite the problems mentioned in the previous section on electronic scoring the vast majority of fencing considers it a great improvement over nonelectric system described here Even in the best of circumstances it was very difficult to accurately score hits and it systematically underreported valid touches to hardtosee areas such as the back or ank under the arm Consequently even though there are limitations and controversy over electronic scoring and despite its rejection by the classical fencers electronic scoring is by far the dominant method used to determine if touches land
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