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by: Rosie Zieme

MicroNanoFabricationEgr EE480

Rosie Zieme
GPA 3.74


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Class Notes
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This 42 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rosie Zieme on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EE480 at Wright State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/231094/ee480-wright-state-university in Electrical Engineering at Wright State University.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
Wu Wright State University EE480I680 MicroElectroMechanical Systems M EMS Summer 2006 LaVern Starman PhD Assistant Professor Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering Email lavernstarmanafitedu EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Slarman 39 39 1 WRIGHT STATE Transducers Actuators EE 480680 Summer 2006 W II I larman 39 39 2 Overview Transducers Basic Mechanics Actuators Electrostatic EIectroThermal Bimorph EIectroThermal Residual Stress Mechanical Components EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman Transducers Transducer a device that transfers power from one form to another Transducers can be divided into two categories Sensors reacts to environment Actuators acts on environment Can you think of common examples of sensors and actuators EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman Transducers Transducer Schemes One or more of the below components may or may not be utilized Atransducer can perform a dual role as sensor and ctuator m2mwmnd mpuz transducer output transduczr annn ummvnnn lll tvmn Transducers Examples from the Human Bod Choclea Nerves d Transducers Sensor Classification A er Gardner Mtcrosenxarx 1994 Signal Measurands Thermal Temperature heat heat ow entropy heat capacity and etc Radiation Gamma rays X rays ultraviolet visible in 39a red microwaves radio waves phase and etc Mechanical Position displacement velocity acceleration force torque pressure mass ow acoustic wavelength and amplitude and etc Magnetic Magnetic eld ux magnetic moment magnetization magnetic permeability and etc Chemical Humidity pH level and ions concentration ofgases vapors and odors toxic and ammable materials pollutants and etc Biological Sugars proteins hormones antigens and etc Electrical Charge current voltage resistance conductance capacitance inductance dielectric permittivity phase frequency and etc EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman Transducers Actuator Classification Signal Action Thermal heat cool radiate and etc Radiation emit light and other radiation Mechanical Provide displacement velocity acceleration force torque pressure mass ow an Magnetic Provide magnetic eld ux magnetic moment magnetization magnetic permeability e c Chemical ChangeProvide humidity pH level and ions concentration ofgases vapors a d odors muscle stimulation and etc Biological Provide mechanical actuation computing etc Electrical Provide charge current voltage and etc EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman 8 Transducers Ideal Sensor Characteristics Ideal Actuator Characteristics Linear Operation Aforementioned plus Noise Free Response Zero Baseline High Force Per Unit Volume Large Deflections Simplicity of Drive and Control Simple Interface Fast Response Time Large Frequency Bandwidth No Saturation High Sensitivity High Resolution Reliable and Rugged No Performance Drift Intolerant to Interference No Hysteresis Repeatable Low Power Consumption Simple Construction EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starmah 9 Overview Transducers Basic Mechanics Actuators Electrostatic EIectroTherrnal Bimorph Electro Thermal Residual Stress Mechanical Components 0 o o o 0 EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starmah IO Axial Stress amp Strain Strain 2 is the deformation of a solid ALL due to stress Stress o is the force acting on a unit area of a solid FA The Young s Modulus E is the ratio of stress over strain describes the rmness ofa material hard E Large so E small stress 039 E typically in Nm2 strain a Mmmgd quotShamsme 9 Km 4997 FFA HE llmmPl W H i Siarman ll Shear Stress amp Strain Shear stress is force applied to an object in the plane of an opposing o e Such as an anchor point The shear modulus of elasticity G represents the degree 0 displacement an object will allow under shear stress Shear strain 7 is related to the angle that a deformed element s sides make with respect to its original Gm l NH sheardisplacementangerad y g typ39cay39n m L Miami 3mm Yransduoers Saurc aaak e Kavsts ed 997 12 FFA m n iimmPr mm H l Siarman Shear Stress amp Strain Cont For isotropic materials those having identical properties in every direction generally not the case for most singlecrystal materials Shear modulus G is related to the elastic modulus E by 7 u is Poisson s ratio E72Gami3K072m Kisthe bukmodulus The bulk modulus is defined as the ratio of hydrostatic stress to volume compression K hydrostatic stress F A 2 volume compresSIon AV 39quot M V The bulk modulus of a material represents its volume change under uniform pressure In general solids are less compressible than liquids due to their rigid atomic lattices Water K 20 x108 Nm2 Aluminum K 7x10l Nm2 Steel K14x10l Nm2 For Ex Miciumacmned Tiansduceis Sumcebuuk G Kuvacs 1997 E 13 EE480680 Summer 2006WSU L Starmari Poisson s Strain luuml sl yt i uui bllug r 1 l AL I 39 r 81 agtltial strain f F La AD at transverse strain Do i v AD F gt F 5 transverse strain 7 ii 7 7 D0 F longitudinal strain g AL lt l gt T mu l L h a lrJL Poisson s ratio v or u always defined as a positive value Typical values are 02 to 05 for most materials For most metals Poisson s ratio is 03 Rubber s have a Poisson s ratio closer to 05 Cork has a Poisson s ratio close to 0 MiciumacmnedTiansduceis Suuicehuuk e Kuvacs law FFA 08 n umm r one H l slarman Actuators Electrostatic Advantages Simple Designs Simple Fabrication High Frequency Operation Low Power Disadvantages Low Force Per Unit Volume High Drive Voltages Nonlinear Operation EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman Actuators Electrostatic Parallel Plate Two plate like structures facing each other with a potential difference between them will be drawn together due to the force of electrostatic attraction Fleque To Electrode Bottom Electrode EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman Actuators Electrostatic Piston Mirror Parallel Plate Examples w D CawmAFlT Contact Plates AttIactJ39 on Plate Attraction Plate Solder Joint 4 NC N O 1 7 Actuators Electrostatic Parallel Plate Examples Texas Instruments Digital WW MicromirrorDeviceW l I 43gt m 39 Eluclmda Suppnn pm 1 g My SXGA devicewithblack 2 g 7 7 suppnnpan aperture 1280x1024 2 mmummwm i c 1310720 mirrors r 39 V I 24 5 Wu mnnn ummvnnn m lrmn m EE 480680 Summer 008 Actuators Electrostatic Notes Displacement vs Actuation Voltage Spring Constants Damping Coefficient Lumped Element Dynamic Model H l larman EE 480680 Summer 008 Cross section of motor H l larman Actuators Electrostatic BumperLimiter Comb Drive za mg n Hmm r mm H tarman 21 Actuators Electrostatic Comb Drive Sandia Example EE ABE6m summermne WSU L starman MmmE EEImMEEHanma Systems MEMS Actuators Electrostatic Comb Drive Notes Displacement vs Actuation Voltage Spring Constants FFA nH n HmmPr nnH U l larman Actuators Electrostatic Scratch Drive Firstdemonstrated by Ak39 ama and K Shono 39 39 39 quot Micmeleclromechanical Sslems vol 2 pp 106110Sep1 1993 Inumal nf Ax few nm stron 9 force FFA nH n HmmPr nnH U l larman Actuators Electrostatic Scratch Drive EE480680 Summer 008 H i mrman Actuators Electrostatic Scratch Drive ROTATION VS DRIVE FREQUENCY i HHBHERDRIVI 150 V0 i must i 75 V RIVERS 30 V07 039 90 Lawv m Him nssomm VOLIAGC M0055 NORMAL MODE t30 vw gt r i V 1mm DRWE VOUAGE 1 fm o 3 6 9 Function Generator amp Amplifier Drive Frequency kHz EE 480680 Summer me u i mrman 26 Actuators Electrostatic When driving with a zerobias input signal the frequency of operation is twice the input signal frequency Wow 1 1 meM Human ummvnnn ill irmn 27 Actuators Electrostatic Cantilever Simpler Structure 2 r i1i Modeling Voltage vs De ection more m complicated L 39 x 7 v j zmm 5i 4 V qixlux g 0r 7 f quotv E I i 2 as A T 7 i 39 N quot 15quota 39 K E Petersen quot E 25 1mm mnnn ummvnnn ill irmn Actuators Resonant Freguencx 039quot 9 Best and Easiest By Eye Sperlmm A I Comb Setup Cantilever Setup 4195A NewmxkSpecmlm 4195A p mun Analyng SRSGOLWNmse Preamp Amquot mouwNmseanp Vacuun Chambn 603mm DC Pawn Supply w D anarLV M BnghtandG c Dam Nzasumgquuzncszswnse nfSurfaceercmmaclrnned Resnnatnxsquot m Procudmg ofmswx 3225 pp 32431997 Fxgmes farmaited bnyctm39 any FFAHF H mm mm m tvmn Actuators Transducers Actuators Electrostatic EIectro Thermal Bimorph ElectraThermal Residual Stress Mechanical Components FFAHFH ummvnnn m tvmn Actuators ElectroThermal Advantages Simple Designs Simple Fabrication High Force Per Unit Volume Low Voltage Disadvantages Temperature Dependent High Electric Power Consumption Low Frequency Operation EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman 31 Actuators ElectroThermal Material expands due to Ohmic or Joule Heating causing motion of actuator structure V T0 T1 TZ 0 X it L 2 2 2 I P 12 V2 qPower12R OrV VA q ower 2por2 A R Lp Volume A L p Heat Transfer Thermal Expansion 62T k 6x2 q 0 X Tx 1Lxx2T2 T1xT1 Lnewx1 NIP To EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman 32 ElectraThermal Actuators F1 d a H 111 I1 1 10 10 1 m 1 11 m ulm 1 111 01 V1 1 I 1 S b 0 p e S d 1 S m M I H p m 1m e 1m 1 I m p 11 1 11 111 v 11 111 w D H a 1m W n 1101 Am w a 1 F1 m g e 1 1 1 m 11111 V1 m m 1n1 S 4 n b m m quot 1 m 1m S 1 h 1111 AFV m n 1 11 11 W1 1 111 W 111 m M1 L 01 1 1 10 n 1 0 1 u 1 1 e 0 1 w 11 WI 1 3 0 p h 1 M W h W 01 m 1 MIub U LU h W W 11 1 WM an n V S M 1 11 m m w 1W1 1 1 11 111 17 S 0 d n11 M 1 01 11W m1 01 1111 11 1 N 1 1 I w 1 1 u 1w m 1 1 S 101 13 11 1 am on m 1H Aw PmJ 1u 1 m 111 1 11 11 1 11v 1 a I 11 11 1 m g 0 0t 1U h m p me wl 11 E 1 Am 1 m M1 1 H 1mm 10 AU my 11 11 I 1 11 enlu 1m n e m I m 11 quot 11e 1a 1 M w 1 an WI I1 8 0 3 m1 1Aa a D 111 1quot S1un 0 s s n 1m 2 I 1 I e m 0 U1 I n a h u I11 1H1U 0 h 1 0 I1vuu 1wa m n 0 2 I uh 61 VII I 0 A V 1quot 11quot 11 11 n 11 a 0 1a m uA1V M p m a 1 S 1 111 En LL 11111111111111 Actuators EIectroThermal 39 Low resistancewiring and SiAu eutectic 0 3 0 0 0 f v 0 39r 039 0 39 0 03 Hquot 0 039 w 0 1 I quot 7 V 039 0 J 0 1 0 x I 0 V 0 0 0 0 v a 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 i a 0 0 A 3 39 3 0 0 L r f 3J0 0 0 0 0 0 0 r 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 0 039 0 e 0 1 J 39 Burned01106160000116er Eutectic C0000000186Si814A0 3001130001100 am withmeltingtemperature00363 C EE480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman MicroElectroMechanical systems MEMS 35 Actuators ElectroThermal 39 Temperature Distribution Relative Magnitude 105095 v39 quot l 0 A I 0 M I 39 v n 0 0 0 I l 5001 0 00040001 E 0 C0ldArm H 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 K V I T I ww39 2930 I 0 00010 1109 2000 00000 200 EE480680 Summer 2006 WSU LStarman MicroElectroMechanicalSstemsMES 36 Actuators ElectroThermal J Actuators ElectroThermal V Bright AFIT EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman 38 Actuators ElectroThermal inner hot arm Double Hot Arm anchor substrate contact um exure anchor path d1mple cold arm lH actuator 2H actuator Electrical resistance 1510 K52 2413 K52 Maximum de ection positive 10 um 14 um D39 Burns et a1quot Maximum de ection backbending 8 pm 12 um Maximum force 114 uN 205 uN Maximum current before backbending under load 512 mA 559 mA Des1gn measurements for Maximum operating frequency air 12 KHz 17 KHz thermal actuators Maxrmum operatmg frequency 40 mTorr 4 KHZ 27 KHZ lH actuator 2 H actuator Comparison of single hotarm lH Cold arm length 162 pm 162 um Cold arm width 14 um 14 um and double hot arm 2 H actuator Flexure length 38 um 38 um Operatlng pI Opel tICS Flexure width 25 pm 20 pm Inner hot arm length 200 pm 221 um Outer hot arm length not applicable 252 um Hot arm width 25 pm 25 pm Separation between inner hot arm and cold arm 3 um 3 pm Separation between hot arms not applicable 3 pm EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman MicroEIectroMechanical Systems MEMS 39 Actuators ElectroThermal I rH Elma 1 EH r A l 1HI Etc3t I l H Bevel hr Double Hot Arm 4 C1 Defle cti ari microns quotDI a 1 2 3 all 5 a D Burns et al AFIT Eurrent mm 25 l 1HEIala all E Htflata 7 EU 11M fil ill I Bet1 fit r l E i E 3 g is El E ED S D x U ii 9 3 4 5 Current an EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman MicroEIectroMechanical Systems MEMS 40 20 Actuators ElectraThermal p MLij mm mm m axssr seas annn ummvnnn AH tvmn anchors hot arms PolyZ 4 pm actuator tip Actuators ElectraThermal An actuator Piston Mirrors x 75 r r w it u 9630113 quot12 w D Cowan AFlT annn ummvnnn m tvmn Actuators ElectraThermal Assembled Devices MicroRobot Leg EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman 43 Actuators ElectroThermal resistance electrical path electrostatic quot l 3 39 m acmators Does not warkfar electro thermal EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Slarman 44 22 Actuators ElectraThermal i 1 i K r I L i JrP39J39 39 a ala Lib 1 a14Kx 71 WD CowanAFIT FFA mm m HmmPr mm H i farman Actuators ElectraThermal Back bending The permanent plastic deformation of a hot armquot Performed once before beginning normal operation i i t h i a IEKU BLSKR T 9 can EE ASH6m SummerZDDE WSU L Starman 23 Actuators ElectroThermal The design of an electrothermal actuator is a compromis tumalm umm between thermal and mechanical effICIency Optimized design by J Jonsmann et al Compliant my Electrothermal Microactuators 1999 Design domain size MM mam Location of electrodes I Location of work point Kt quotw s39 Electrical resistance V Design rlomnin TimIHIh Amount of material used Available voltage mmmmw 5 00 m Work pom Winfl Mm 550 Mm EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman Systems MEM Actuators ElectroThermal Optional Analytical modeling of the temperature distribution of a laterally de ecting electro thermal actuator 15237436 1400 1200 1000 Temperature Celsius oo o o mex1303 pm Distance along actuator m EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman Systems MEMS 24 Overview Transducers Actuators Electrostatic Electro Thermal Bimorph Electro Thermal Residual Stress Mechanical Components FFAHFH ummvnnn lll lvmn Actuators Bimorph Electro hermal naduatorm up u alluwil ade I a n u 39 different coef cients ofihermal expansion and an internal electric heater EX M Alaka S Omulsks N Takesmma and H Fulllanrammalmnanu upeiallun ulpulylmlde mmmpn actualuis im a may mullmn lEEEASME JournalotMlcmeemomechamcalSystems vul 24m A pp 14545 a a 1 Vanderbilt EE tan6m Summevl WSU L Stavrnan MlquleclmMecnamcal Systems M EMS Displatlmrll polyimide 2 01 6 pm 0 1gt0 1 TltT0 polyimide 1 Del metal heater gold amp nickel 100 pm 500 pm EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman Actuators Bimorph Electro Thermal direction of actuation Actively moves when heated by an internal electric heater Error K ovum or coef cient of thermal expansion T temperature T a reference temperature Overview Transducers Actuators Electrostatic ElectroThermal Bimorph ElectroThermal Residual Stress Mechanical Components EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman 26 Actuators Residual Stress A passive actuator usually in the form of a cantilever made up ofa sandwich of at least two layers with different coef cients of thermal expansion Assembled with residual stress cantilevers Possibly assisted by unintentional agitation during release rinse andor dry EEA on n HmmPr mm H l tarman 53 Actuators Residual Stres Assembled with intentional agitation during release and rinse Assisted by stressed cantilevers EEA on n HmmPr mm H l tarman 27 Actuators Other Most other actuators are further extensions of the basic examples covered in the previous slides Other types of actuation include Piezoelectric MagneticElectro Magnetic Pneumatic Shape Memory Alloy FFAHFH rimmvnnn lll rimquot Actuators Piezoelectric In a piezoelectric material an applied voltage induces an internal stress resulting in an expansion ofthe material Conversely for sensor use the application of an external force induces an electric eld across the material Ex M J Mescher et al A Novel Highspeed Piezoelectric Deformable Varifocal Mirror For Applicationsquot 2002 rW nmmk r m w de ection um 0 2m no 600 eon xum FFAHFH mm mm lll Actuators Magnetic Electro Magnetic Ex H Rothuizen et al Compact Copperepoxy based Electromagnetic Scanner for Scanning Probe Applicationsquot 2002 3 g E um nunm Impllludn mA Actuators Pneumatic EX Y K Lee et al A Multi channel Micro Valve for Micro Pneumatic Arti cial Musclequot 2002 Emma SLEEVE Amount al cantmclmn mm Figure I mu mm w mmrw ummm Hmu n FFAHFH ummvnnn lll tvmn Micer Pneumallc Muscle r 4 Conlrachon Tensileload x z 3 Tenslle mu on muscle my Actuators Shape Memory Alloy SMA Ex 8 Takeuchi Three Dimensional SMA Microelectrodes with Clipping Structure for Insect Neural Recording 1999 1 Pauemmg 2 3D shape memonzaum 4 Healing up Die slruciure Muse um nawe 2 Clip the nerve supply unmnl tor Joule healing i0 20 3D 4D Cuuem mm A S if MicroEleclroMechanical Systems MEMS 59 EE 480680 SuTn mer 2006 wsu L Slarm 7 Overview Transducers Actuators Electrostatic EIectroThermal Bimorph EIectroThermal Residual Stress Mechanical Components EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Slarman Mechanical Components Substrate or Staple Hinges Z 1 1 2 minimum fabiication spacing for agt 90 394 Iii Mechanical Components Scissor Hinges UpFolding lhztpcotj 1 1 2 minimum fabrication spacing for a gt 90 annn iimminnn Ul lvmn 62 Mechanical Components Scissor Hinges Poly 1 Down Folding FFA m n HmmPrZDDE WSU L Starman 33 Mechanical Components Hinges Mechanical Compone nts Pin Joint EE Annnan ummsrzooeJAI II I iarman 39 39 65 Mechanical Components Linkages Plate 2 I v39r 39 x 39ku 126 w e 2 EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L 33 Mechanical Components Locks EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Slarman 39 39 67 Mechanical Components Locks Locking Mechanism EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Slarman 39 39 68 Mechanical Components Springs punm Wm M Qymn E9 Mechanical Components other o Gears Flexible Hinges Corrugation or stiffening FFA m n Hmmv HHR m Hm n 7n Wright State Universitgl EE480I680 MicroElectroMechanical Systems Summer 2006 LaVem Starman Ph D Assistant Professor ept of Electrical and Computer Engineering mail avemstarmana tedu W KanRn nmmrnnn iii irmn Overview Capacitive Other KanRn nmmrnnn iii irmn Piezoelectric Piezoresistive Thermoresistive Microelectronics and MEMS WRIGHT STATE Transducers Sensors mnnn nmmrnnn iii irmn 2 Sen sors A F 7 A good reference for sensor interface circuits J W Gardner Microsensors Principles and Applications John Wileyamp Sons Ltd 1994 ISBN 0471941360 mnnn nmmrnnn iii irmn 6 g Sensors Piezoelectric AF7 A piezoelectric material induces a charge or develops a voltage across itself when deformed Anisotropic behavior High Q Low Damping Offset temperature effects parasitic currents limit operation to AC gt 5 Hz DC operation impractical i i ilcir v High output impedance makes piezoelectric sensors u j m i sensitive to load and electromagnetic radiation i are 1 Emma Small displacement output in grit I gagier L M Madou Fundamentals of j Microfabrication 1997 EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman MicroElectrolVIecnanicaI Systems IVItIVIS O 1g Sensors Piezoelectric I libquot Table 714 Piezoelectric coefficients of materials at 300 K Material Type Form Coefficient 533 Permittivity er pCN Quartz Xcut Glass Bulk 233 40 PV DF Polymer Film 1 59 PVDFTrFE Polymer Film 180 62 ZnO Ceramic Bulk 117 90 J W GardneLMicr se sors ZnO Ceramic Film 124 103 Samples and Appl cat ons BaTiO3 Ceramic Bulk 190 4100 PZT Ceramic 3qu 370 300 3000 PbZrTiO3 PZT can also be deposited as a thin film q 2 EF 5 2 EH CV F applied force Ax q applied voltage 8 Z x x0 2 C 80814 x0 x0 x0 V V H 39Fx x0 X V 0 0 80814 Ax E V EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS 6 Sensors Piezoelectric sagas Ex Surface Acoustic Wave SAW device Generates surface waves 30 MHz 1 GHz Senses surface waves Phase andor frequency of the sensed wave is changed while traveling through the bulk Anything that changes the bulk will affect the phase andor frequency temperature chemicals vibration strain viscosity density etc Metal Lines Receive a g Piezoelectric H Material 4 P l Q Glegnc Bulk 7 Material EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS 7 ii J Sensors Piezoelectric 4 gFmi A piezoelectric charge amplification circuit v SUPPLY 02 SENSITIVlTY H r R o VN 0 a lt R5 m csI R1 2 LPF N A T T C1 V V OUTPUT AMP m CHARGE AMP quot4 SETZERO L Ristic Sensor Technology and Devices 1994 Piezoelectric devices include actuators temperature sensors pressure sensors accelerometers ultrasound transducers etc EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS 8 Sensors Piezoresistive gr Piezoresistance is when a material s resistance changes when the material IS Stressed 39 TABLE 45 Resistivity and Piezoresistance at Room Temperaturem 9 AnisotropIc behaVIor p 9 cm W W n Temperature sensitive pSi 78 66 11 1334 nSi 117 1022 534 136 Expressed in 103912 cm2 dyne391 or 1039 Pa 0 O39t 39t M Madou Fundamentals OfZlIicrofabrica on 1997 EX For the longitudinal direction of lt1 10gt the longitudinal l and transverse t coef cients are 721277114397712 7744 1 721 377117712 7T44 w pzype ntype M Madou Fundamentals ofMicrofabricaa39on 1997 EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS 9 EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS 10 Sensors Piezoresistive 7 Sensors Thermoresistive e lF r Ex Motorola ManifoldAbsolutePressure MAP Sensor Xducer Piezoresistor oriented to take advantage of 7c 20 m tthk mem fame Differential voltage sensed between 8 and S This type of sensing takes advantage of the fact that resistance varies with temperature A linear approximation R R0 0 RT 39 T0 ocR is the Temperature Coefficient of Resistance TCR Platinum ocR 39 x 10394 K391 nSi ocR 25 x 103 K1 rumuu ETCHED NAPHRAGM BOUNDARY l I l I I I l TRANSVERSE l VOLTLG I I I E STRAIN GAGE lGROUND 2 59 I JVEX 43 A I Illm Isa Eula karl 54 Emlkgrdmll Dunner11m EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS 11 EE 480680 Summer 2006 WSU L Starman MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS 12 J Sensors Thermoresrstive A J Ex Humid y Sensor H Lee et ai A Micromachined Robust Humidity Sensorfor Harsh EHViFDHmEHtAppiiCEtiDHS 2001 J Sensors Change in Resistance A 7 Don t forget the Wheatstone Bridge Tnmmmgis dunebyvanableresistnrs foEhw andurbyphysical mndi catmn Df MEMS sensm39s 1 2 laser ablatiim nfresistm material i mum is quot an xx w u a i in w m M m w I mum 14 Sensors Change in Impedance Furthermore the Wheatstone Bridge ain tjust or resistors anymore phasor analysis 0m PVmcosmt vmem e 9 zap 1ij zm ij 9 Z m mum we capacitors 0 t V Single Capacitor 0 nterdtgtmd i mum 9 Sensors Capacitive a MEMS structures can be viewed as arrangements 0 kV xed 3 maveabl e xed 3 H t A m m Dr ermftm emmgmdori eedbmk Control qmoveablextmlure v y Sensors mm mittenquoty mmmugn mm i mum Fabrication iii rrune mums iatz deviLe Water Tap Antan tmn mp giasspiate edema warm imitnm giass piate Capacitive F 7 WE Eim eptiaveisfinp AmsmmprH Wet mm with eiELtmLhemiLai aim 8L Ri rm eptiaversBaLilt Pattern WiiES mi mp giass piate V Sensors Capacitive ExAcceerometer D Lapadatv etai i DvaiaxesCapacitive inciinometerLow g Acceierometer forAvtornotive Appiications ZUUt V Inductive Magnetic Sensors Other mum AFT 53 Microelectronics and MEMS 39 Interation Bulk Etched cmos A 7 A For the most pan MEMS are fabricated using the same techniques Post RIE patterning and isotropic Si etch to release bqu struaure materials and chemicals as microelectronics Can MEMS and Microelectronics be integrated Major characteristics of microelectronic structures uu trates por n l on claims or amorphousthin films Major characteristics ofMEMS structures Crystalline Semiconuuctor materialsr Bulk Mlcmmacnmmg Miami ldl Surface Mlcmmachmmg Electroplated metalepoivmers etc Mommaam The combination of MEMS and Microelectronics is usually referred to as HlNTEGRATlONquot n amammmmmn quot mmmmmgmmammal 5mm mammal mi N W M9455 mo mnm mm w ill cm Egg Interation Trench Interation Alabrication process that enables both CMOS circuilryand surlace micromachined MEMS to be created on the same 39 SNL integrated Micromechanical CMOS CMOS Device Area r ammm 011mm llmu a Mlcrnnlechanical Device Area Post RIE patterning and SiOZ etch of SOI to release bulk E Microelectronics Si Subs tme s mam Aulmlplmlulmu Funon ummvnnn lll mmquot rmymn lnteg ration Trench Integ ration A F 7 Ex Threeaxis forcebalanced accelerometer designed by Berkely Sensor and Actuator Center BSAC at UC Berkeley FFA m n Hmm y nnn Integration MultiChip Arrangement AF 7 Wire Bond Electronics Chip ElectronicsMEMS Chip ElectronicsMEMS Chip Intermediate Substrate or Circuit Board Patterned Metal I terconnects Laminated Film Electronics Chip lntemiediate Substrate FFA Fr rimminnn lll tvmn electronics and mechanical structures 951 GaAs to AlGa hydrogen peroxide H202 30 Kovac Awat 4w 1 A Lott at it mime RedVerucal Cavitysuface EmitungLasdersUsngFiexible rLicierrectierrech rap Mimicquot lEEELEUSlmmmoml Conference on UPIrm MEMS Kauai rrr pp mz zuuu Sacri cial etch for EpiSi systems Polysilicon electronic devices FFA F rimminnn lll tvmn g Integration IllV Thin Films AF 7 Sacri cial etching of IllV materials yields inherent combination of As with 101 ratio of citric acid CEHEO7 50 S GaAs etch with mixture of CEHEO7 KSCHSOZ H202 Raley f lover mpax AAX631 geemew Parallel Plate Examples Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror DeviceTM SXGA device with black aperture 1280x1024 1310720 mirrors FFA m n iimmi nnn ll l ulnar stian but man Vim Viaran mug


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