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PY 370 Notes 1

by: Vanessa Alpert

PY 370 Notes 1 PY 370

Vanessa Alpert
GPA 3.911
History Of Psychology
Dr. Sheila R. Black

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History Of Psychology
Dr. Sheila R. Black
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Alpert on Tuesday January 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Sheila R. Black in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 142 views. For similar materials see History Of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/20/15
Study Sheet for Test 3 FY 370 Chapter 6 1 Psychophysics The relation between the mental and material world 2 Fechner s Epiphany Came to him before getting out of bed on October 22nd 1950 He described the relationship between the mind and the body bt the material and mental by quantifying the relationships between the physical and psychological worlds 3 Weber s contribution to psychophysics Weber s Law a Father of psychophysics b De Tactu describes experiences on touch c Measured the minimum amount of tactile stimulation necessary to experience a sensation of touch 1 Discrimination of two weights and two points of stimulation and how much a stimulus must change in order for a person to sense that change 4 Absolute Threshold How much stimulation do you need before someone can detect it his subjects could not sense very weak stimuli but they nearly always sensed intense ones 5 Twopoint discrimination When two points were very close together they were often reported as one stimulation point when far apart as two Between these two extremes of perception was a threshold where one touch sensation becomes two or two become one 6 Just noticeable difference The amount of stimulation needed before you can detect that something has changed lifting weightssmall differences often went undetected How large did the difference between the two weights have to be before it was detected reliably 7 Ebbinghaus influenced by Fechner believed that procedures similar to Fechner s objective psychophysical procedures could be developed and applied to higher mental processes Higher mental processes could be measured using precision mathematics and the scientific method Interested in how people learn new information that is unfamiliar Invented nonsense syllables syllables that he randomly put together he wanted to see under what conditions would his memory be better or worse Used syllables to examine the relationship bt the amount of material to be memorized and the time and effort required to learn it to a criterion of complete mastery As the number of original repetitions increases the time necessary to relearn the list twentyfour hours later decreases Investigated the effects of the passage of time on memory Savings Score it will take fewer repetitions for you to regain your earlier performance the second time around than the first time around because you were exposed to it before Forgetting Curve time elapsed since learning and percent savings 8 Barlett s Study Students reproduced a story that they read twice about the War on Ghosts after fifteen minutes and successively every two months for as long as two years and six months He showed the importance of Schemas if there was a long lag between when the story was told and when it took place it would change depending on when it was told we insert our own schemas into stories False Memories these occur when you are presented with bits and pieces of information that you remember but don t remember EXACTLY what happened you want to make sense of that information so you construct a story but unfortunately it may not be accurate and often after you keep telling the story you don t even realize its fake 9 The debate about ecologically valid vs laboratory studies in memory research Should the research study stimulate what s going on in the real world vs memory research not capturing the real world capture phenomena that people have to deal with in the real world 10 Brentano Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint Psychology intended to be empirical in the sense that it was based on experience similar to Wundt but did not agree with him Act stchologv psychologists should study the mental actions and processes themselves instead of the products of our mental actions The pleasure from seeing a beautiful landscape or hearing a harmonious sound results from the mental acts of seeing and hearing not from the sensation themselves 11 Why did Brentano disagree with Titchener and the people who emphasized introspection He believed it is impossible to make inner observations of our own consciousness Did not agree with Wundt s training program He suggested that mental acts can be observed in memory and therefore can be studied quietly and empirically we can look back for example at the last time we were angry and observe the mental phenomena involved in that emotion Proposed imagination it s possible to intentionally arouse various mental phenomena for study 12 Stumpf Musical background made him better able to evaluate research concerning tones provided him with a frame of reference for evaluating psychological research on auditory perception and especially on musical aesthetics University of Wurzburg Student of Brentano and an observer of Fechner and Weber Work on golden section appealed to Stumpf the ratio of a rectangle s width to length most pleasing to the eye Brentano taught him to think logically and empirically Proposed a nativistic inborn explanation of depth perception The cognitive act of interpretation was inborn or native function ex Addresses on letters are important but they would not be delivered without the carrier s knowledge of the route Cofounded Society for Child Psych and stressed importance of directly observing children child prodigies in music and children with phenomenal memories 13 Tone Psychology Phenomenology the notion that something should be considered in its entirety of tones Often considered his greatest contribution to psychology Phenomena such as tones colors and images are either sensory or imaginary distinguish between phenomena and mental functions 14 Clever Hans and Stumpf Brilliant horse owned by Von Osten convinced horses are capable of inner speech and therefore mathematics stomp its feet to indicated right answer Stumpf was head of Investigative Commission observed von Osten s demonstrations and issued a report that no tricks intentional in uences or aids from the questioner were involved in the performance but recommended further investigation Pfungst Noticed that the horse had learned an association bt cues and movements of the trainer the whole thing was a hoax Withwithout knowledge Questioners knowledge was crucial GesturesCues blinking standing in front or to the side visual cue leaning forward upward movement of the eyebrows and head 15 Effect of WWI on Stumpf Most young people left the Institution of Experimental Psych to serve in armed forces Disrupted relationships with many collaborators Important discoveries lost due to the mainstream of sensory psychology his work was not elaborated by later generations 16 Oswald Kulpe Mentor was Muller Muller studied effective ways of learning and described the effects of interference old learning with new learning Reported when memory was much better after a twoday interval presumably as a result of the longer time available for its consolidation Jost Law when two memories are of equal strength the memory that is newest will benefit from repetition Kulpe s views about Wundt and Titchener Kulpe performed experiments that challenged fundamental assumptions held by Wundt and Titchener but still had respect for Wundt 17 Logical Positivism Believes science should focus on what is observable when natural scientists observe and record natural events they do so through their sensory experiences 18 Research at University of Wurzberg Kulpe Introspection can only get you so far in figuring out what was going on mentally Free Association given a word and come up with the first word that comes to mind given a task that falls back on introspection and the experimenter would ask them how they came to that conclusion and they would say I don t know this made people feel there is imageless thought giving answers that didn t relate back to an image or sensation consciousness does not necessarily have to involve an image or sensation 19Bryan and Apprehension Apprehension was used to describe attention to relevant items but not to irrelevant items in a set of stimuli Shown a random arrangement of six letter and six numbers and told they would be asked to recall letters they will be able to do so but will have difficulty recalling more than one or two of the numbers 20 Watts and Volition and Cognitive set Watt s believed that the volitional act occurs in the preparatory period preparing for presentation of the stimulus In uence of cognitive set in mental operations had a cognitive set to add rather than perform other arithmetical operations Chapter 7 21 Gestalt Psychology Central Principles The mind forms a global whole with selforganizing tendencies This principle maintains that when the human mind perceptual system forms a percept or gestalt the whole has a reality of its own independent of the parts Holistic Thinking the whole is always more than the sum of its parts Isomorphism Psychological processes are directly related to biological especially brain processes Phenomenological basis Phenomena are the subject matter of psychology Psychological analysis must proceed from phenomena to their essence Methodology Gestalt psychology makes use of lifelike reality experiments with small numbers of subjects Form Quality example table is the source of many sensations see touch and possibly taste it but the table is something more than compounding of those sensations It has a form quality that persists even when the sensations change 22 Transposability When a melody is played in different keys or played by different instruments the different notes produce different sensations but the melody retains its form quality Example A song sung by different voices remains the same song 23 Gestalt Perceptual OrganizingPrinciples Similarity Equal and similar elements form groups or wholes group elements that are similar into perceptual units ie columns or rows Proximity Elements that are close together tend to be grouped Closure and Good Gestalts Closure refers to our tendency to fill in or complete the missing parts of a configuration so as to make it perceptually complete 24 Wertheimer s Discovery Father of Gestalt Psychology Stroboscope Experiments at the correct projection rate the stationary child walked and stationary horse began to trot Tachistoscope projected light through two slits to expose visual stimuli for an extremely brief period Participants report that when they saw rapidly alternating vertical and horizontal lines they saw just one moving line 25 Phi Phenomenon Introspection could not explain phi phenomenon The apparent movement of the line from one slit to another differed from the sum of its part the whole is greater than the sum of its parts 26 Generalizability of Gestalt Zeigarnik Effect German waiters could remember for a long amount of time the details of a customer s bill However once the customer paid the bill the waiters often could not recall the amount as long as the bill remained unpaid the transaction lacked closure and this tension facilitated recall payment completed the transaction produced closure dissipated the tension and erased the memory Had people perform a variety of tasks that were left uncompleted they recalled unfinished tasks better than finished Media Takes advantage of this with cliffhangers and commercials 27 Alpha the Chimpanzee and Closure Want to find out if chimpanzees show this need for closure Alpha was given a circle with part of it missing to see what she would do with it and she would scribble in the missing area to try and get rid of empty spaces in drawings 28 The Gestalt Completion Test If an individual is able to recognize a figure as a man another figure as a dog and another as a horse with a rider it shows that their right hemisphere is not impaired 29 Gestalt psychology and our ability to really perceive reality Is the vertical line or horizontal longer Physical and psychological worlds often do not correspond our tendency to organize our perceptions leads to illusions or deceptions of the senses You bring your own biases and own experiences to any situation and it can prevent you from seeing what is actually there objectively 30 Kohler and Gestalt psychology at its peak The dominance of the Gestalt approach was confirmed when Kohler succeeded Stumpf as director of the Berlin Psycholical Institute In 1933 Jews were expelled from the civil service which included all professional positions in Germany 12 of the faculty at German Universities were Jews Some faculty ed to the US including to historically black colleges in the US 31 Wertheimer Removed from University position in 1933 and expelled from Germany joined institution in US Kohler wrote an article critical of the regime of the Berlin newspaper which was the last antiNazi article to be published which lead to his abuse Founded the New School wanted to create America s first university for adults It viewed education as the most effective way to transform society and protect democracy Wertheimer studied human thought and education Productive Thinking documents a small part of the material he presented in his lectures and seminars He recommended a Gestalt approach that considers the problem as a whole Students and area of a parallelogram 32 Kohler Insight learning and Chimpanzees Thorndike was arguing that animals are not capable of higher reasoning but Kohler felt that the proper tasks had not been used to examine reasoning Kohler developed his famous insight learning tasks in which the animals would have to problem solve in order to get to a goal basket of bananas Ability to switch to an indirect solution when a direct solution is blocked Insight learning involved positive transfer learned that if you stand on something you can reach the boxes Does not depend on rewards Animal sees or perceives solutions AHA whereas Thomdike s trial and error is slow and gradual Results Chimpanzees are capable of using insight and problem solving to obtain bananas 33 Kurt Lewin Role in social psychology One of the founders of social psychology Interested in motivation and action Topological Fields used to depict psychological phenomena Life Space Psychological Field Includes everything about you at that point in your life experiences A child has a simple life space but an adult has a more complex one Bf PE Function of both the person you are and the experiences you have B om unique but the environment in uenced you well Cafeteria Study Reached for items farthest from them If you work for something you value it more if something requires work then it must be valuable 10 year old boys study Used to investigate the effects of authoritarian and democratic leadership styles on the behavior of children Autocratic lead to increased aggression both overtly aggressive acts and more subtle joking hostility there was also a sharp increase in aggressive behavior when the autocratic leader left the room aggression was more common the following day The boys preferred democratic leadership Action Research Social Justice Identify problems in society and create a study in order to address those specific problems Industrial Psychology Virginia Plant Marrow had problems with his corporation eager workers but management found it difficult to train them to meet the company s production standards Lewin organized group problemsolving sessions with the workers amp found that the workers thought that the company s policy standards were widely viewed as impossible to attain allowed them to set their own goals Results Production improved slowly as did worker morale The workers liked Lewin and were encouraged to discuss his suggestions before deciding to accept or reject them Mead Lewin and campaign to persuade Americans to eat visceral meat Margret Mead nutritionistadvantages of eating visceral meat vs group discussion no expert facts but people just talked about why they should eat visceral meat vs other meat Group discussion showed to be much more effective more people in group actually purchased cooked and ate visceral meat compared to the people in the eXpert condition Importance of attitude change group discussion gave people a change to change their attitudes about visceral meat when an expert was talking they passively listened and may or may not have been persuaded less active thinking CCILewinAntiSemitism Blacks not hired in Dep t Stores Interviewed customers in one of the few NYC department stores employing clerks of both races after either a black or white sales clerk had served the customers They found that antiblack prejudice had no effect on sales Knowledge and courtesy of the clerk was crucial Lewin and Housing Project Study Interviewed 100 white and 25 black housewives and 24 teenage boys and girls living in four housing projects in NYC and Newark two completely integrated and two partially segregated whites and blacks living in alternate sections Partially segregated projects prejudice against blacks was stronger and sharper than it was in the fully integrated projects and the white residents in these projects expressed a strong preference for still more segregations People in the more integrated projects had a greater sense of community less prejudice and better morale The white residents of integrated projects expressed pride in the open character of their buildings and were less suspicious and hostile than the people in the segregated buildings 34 Gestalt psychology and Perceptual psychology Triumvirate of Gestalt psychology Koffa Kohler Werteimer Made important contributions in sensation and perception Important contributions in cognitive psychology and animal cognition insight learning Lewin was responsible for the establishment of social perception and psychology Chapter 8 35 Clinical Psychology newest subdivision of psychology Since the beginning of recorded history there have been accounts of mental illness Clinical Psychology is the newest sub division of psychology 36 Hippocrates Antiphon and Galen were fairly enlightened with respect to mental illness but individuals in the dark ages were not so open 37 Girls in the Salem Witch Trials Eight young girls developed disorderly speech hallucinations odd postures bizarre gestures and convulsive fits Their symptoms were finally diagnosed as being due to bewitchment Girls accused a Barbadian slave living in Salem and then Sarah Good as being the women who had bewitched them made further accusations after a month of their conditions not improving 115 accusations they were tried as witches hung and sent to gallowsstoned Witchcraft became a law that was almost impossible to prosecute 38 Plight of the mentally ill in Bethlehem and Bedlam whippings bloodletting chains St Mary of Bethlehem institution for the mentally ill in England Old Bedlam uproar and confusion Patients put on display for amusement people would pay to see this Patients were subjected to whippings bloodlettings and chained Those patients who were not good for amusement were sent to the streets to beg for food Typical accommodations for patients in Mental Health Hospitals Chained to the wall Naked No shoes 39 Ineffective cures for mental illness Water pouring ice cold water on the patients Whirling in a chair or bed as fast as 100 whirls per minute the notion was that this would cure their mental illness Bloodletting 40 Benjamin Rush Father of Psychiatry Thought bloodletting was effective but many patients died because of these treatments 41 Pinel s work at asylums male and female Current conditions in asylum pure chaos he believed people needed humane treatment Approached Revolutionary Council Needed to gain permission to remove physical restrictions form many inmates Thought he was crazy but gave permission Pinel met with ridicule Pinel approaches patients Spoke quietly to them asking if they would promise to be calm and not hurt anyone lead to good outcomes There were great reductions in death about 1 in 8 died Women s asylums La Salpetriere Conditions were just as bad as they were for the men abused sexually by guards Pinel unchained these women as well 42 The Wild Boy of Aveyron Found in woods acted like an animal Itard attributed child s problems to social isolation Attempted rehabilitation but never learned to talk critical period when you must be exposed to language and social relationships 43 William Tuke and Quaker Community Quaker disturbed because heard that the Quakeress couldn t receive Visitors in asylum Quakeress died Tuke was appalled when he Visited the asylum dirty maltreatment etc Established a Retreat for the Persons Af icted with Disorders of the Mind York Retreat Patients were NOT chained Patients were given freedom respect kindness good food etc PatientsStaff were family Model for other enlightened institutions 44 Dorothea Dix and Reforms Taught in a women s prison many were mentally ill who were treated worse than other prisoners Dix was motivated to improve the lives of the insane so she started a movement to reform hospitals Voice for the Mad Provided hearings for congresstraveled overseas and became a well known speaker Obtained facts about what was going on in many psych hospitals and showed them evidence of the terrible things happening within the hospitals Lectured Queen Victory amp the Pope who became outraged about the conditions in Italy 45 Mental Hospitals in USA In 1770 the Virginia House of Burgesses enacts law providing for the support of persons with unsound mind lead to opening of the first public institution in the US devoted to the care and treatment of the insane Williamsburg VA 1773 46 Clifford Beers Mental Hygiene Movement Committed to Hartford Retreat in a delusional and suicidal state Recovered and write a book A mind that found itself Spoke out about his experiences and used himself as an example of a mentally ill person who improves WWII resulted in a decline of financial supports and the care and treatment of the mentally ill also declined 47 Lightner Witmer 48 Founded the first psychological clinic in the US Trained Experimental Psychologist but felt that psychology must help people Mostly focused on children Founded journal of Clinical Psychology Contributed to comparative psychology peter the chimpanzee humanized Clients Charles Gillman bright and articulate but had difficulty reading visual verbal amnesia trained the recognize words without having the spell them S aw other children with developmental delays Radical Therapies for mental illness ie electric shock Lobotomies Neurosurgical operation that involved severing connections in the brain s prefrontal lobe Electric Shocks Sometimes did improve symptoms of psychological illness depression when severe High risk and huge side effects effecting memory Psychoactive Medications Still used today Antidepressants drugs to decrease dopamine etc Many side effects 49Mesmerism and hypnosis Mesmerism and hypnosis used to treat mental and physical illnesses Mesmer claimed that patients fell into trances when he waved a magnet over their bodies Commission of eminent scientists report that mesmerism is dangerous and a hoax Mesmer took advantage of young women possibly when they were under magnetism He would suggest things to people under trance and change their behavior John Elliotson Famous for mesmerism surgery on mesmerized patients Harriet Martineuau believed she was dying of cancer mesmerized with such striking results that the next day she was able to walk 15 miles and write 15 pages of text wo fatigue described her case but critics branded her as a hysterical woman and dismissed the claim that she was cured of cancer First person in England to use stethoscope James Esdaile Surgeon with British East Indian Company Used mesmerism to numb pain in surgery Survived and claimed no pain Cloquet used mesmerism when performing mastectomy Horace Wells Invented anesthesia James Braid s contributions to understanding hypnosis Coined the term hypnosis Demonstrated the importance of fixation and suggestion in inducing trance described hypnosis as sleep induced by suggestion and a narrowing of attention Described how hypnosis had relieved illness and suffering Ambrose Aguste Liebault and Hippolyte Bernhheim With the assistance of a chemist they combined hypnosis with drugs Liebault began practicing as a hypnotist in Nancy He claimed a number of cures of physical illness and convinced the initially skeptical Bernheim of the value of the procedure became important for the treatment of psychosomatic illness 50 Breuer and AnnaO Anna O was a patient showing evidence of a conversion disorderhysteriashe spoke many languages and was nursing her father back to healthshe started to experience symptoms of hysteria thought it was the stress of caregiving and the death of her father that was creating all of these problems talking therapy led to paralysismutedeaf symptoms go away talking cure when she talked about these things she was able to understand them better 51 Breuer s relationship with Freud Talked to him about Anna s case which played an important role in Freud s developing interest in hysteria and the formulation of psychoanalysis Later was unable to accept Freud s analysis of his relationship with Anna 0 and the professional relationship of the two ended 52 Freud and Drug Use Cocaine relieved his depression so he gave it to many other people that he formed relationships with such as his girlfriend because he liked the way she was when she used it He was an advocate for use advocated injection of cocaine but when people said it was bad he blamed the injection and said it was ok to snort it His friend became an addict and died from it Nicotine smoked all day long even after cancer and multiple surgeries B elieved it could quit cocaine but not nicotine 53 Freud and Charcot Freud received a grant to study hysteria and hypnosis under Charcot in Paris Freud was very in uenced by Charcot Freud overheard a comment by Charcot that everything could be reduced sexually sex was the heart of everything Freud was surprised that he would say this but he wanted to make it known 54 Hysteria according to Freud Psychosomatic Illnesses physical symptoms with psychological causes Hysteria could arise because of upbringing Often there were environmental triggers this is when the person would exhibit symptoms often felt this was unconscious 55 Freud s views on malefemale hysteria Freud publicized his views on male and female hysteria Not well received did he think men had a uterus 56 Freud s theory of psychoanalysis Free association patients were asked to describe everything that came into their minds Transference and counter transference when the patient begins to transfer feelings about significant people in their life onto the therapist and the therapist responds 57 Freud Hypnosis and Emma Von N Freud abandon s hypnosis 58 Freud s seduction theory 18 patients both male and female that reported sexual trauma during childhood sexual shock people who develop hysterianeurosis have experienced some form of sexual shock or may have had fantasies about sexual abuse Neurosis due to childhood sexual abuse later saying that neurotic women imagine sexual abuse 59 Oedipus Complex A desire for sexual involvement with the parent of the opposite sex and a concomitant sense of rivalry with the pa rent of the same sex a crucial stage in the normal developmental process Stems from interactions with patients reporting sexual abuse 60 Freud and dreams and slips of the tongue Patients are often surprised of what psychoanalysis uncovers Dreams are road to unconscious Manifest content literal things that happen in your dream dream you are walking on clouds you walking on clouds is manifest content Latent Content true meaning of the dream underlying meaning Slips of the tongue also reveal unconscious 61 Personality and psychosexual development Oral infanttoddler Freud felt that gratification came from the mouth feed soothed with pacifier nurture this can lead to oral fixation needydependent adult eats too much bites nails satisfaction from food Anal Stage in which toilet training takes place up until that stage you can do practically whatever you want as a baby people may grow up to not want to make any messeswants to be perfect because parents scolded them when they did something wrong pickyuptight PhallicOedipal complex and Electra Complex girl Preschool child this is when child falls in love with opposite sex parent and when children learn that there are gender differences Genital Each stage represents a con ict bt gratification of instincts and limitations of the external world 62 Structure of Personality according to Freud Id Pleasure Principle I want what I want now knows no morality or consequences feeling good now unconscious Ego Reality Principle capable of strategy develops later Super Ego contains moral valuesvalues taught by parentssociety and religion If a person is mature all 3 components will have an effect on you 63 Freud s reaction to those who disagree with him Unable to accept people who disagreed with him Adler critiqued Freud s sexual theory and was forced to resign from the society 64 Freud s feelings about Americans AntiAmerican daughter did not want people to know this 65 Freud s refusal to leave Germany He was in denial about many things such as antiSemitism he believed Hitler would not kill him refused to leave Germany Finally left Germany and got out alive


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