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Date Created: 10/29/15
2 3 4 5 6 7 1o 11 C Experienced emotion 1 Fear 2 Anger 3 Happiness 1 Fear 39 In our primitive years the list of potential fears was short However through conditioning the listhas grown longer In addition many fears are observed through observation For example our fear of telling the man 39 w 39 39 39 yi 39 39 J 39 e WmLh one mu lg I ingredient in acquiring fears 1 Fear Mm H F l 1 than others l l W For example if there is damage to the amygdala an organiwn cannot be conditioned to fear 1 Fear 39 I 395 damageto 39 l wimJem 39 39 Damageto the amygdala indicates that one is unable to acquire a fear An intact amygdala and hippocampus are quite adaptive because we remember what we fear Individuals with a damaged amgydala will most likely swim with the Marks 1 Fear I 39 g damageto 39 l wimJem 39 39 Damageto the amygdala indicates that one is unable to acquire a fear An intact amygdala and hippocampus are quite adaptive because we remember what we fear Individuals with a damaged amgydala will most likely swim with the Marks 1 Fear 39 As we know some individuals are fearful of any u39ght or sound However others appear to be fearless The sensation seeker or daredevil seems to have a less active amygdala The consequence of a broken leg 3m rim 39 quot 5 activities This a or he my l l u p a phenomenon has been connected to slowing of serotonin reuptake in the amygdala 2 Anger Angel 1 Haw m 39 I N r 39 quotw a J I to our culture s anger problem the majority of can 39 Align 39 win our ojfen rs 2 Anger Anger Im T 39 39 1 guys quot Today researcth have linked chronic anger to heart disease Furthermore the idea of venting one s anger or 1 s Hum114011 A 39 39 39 J 39 an 39 39 39 l 5 3935 w through anion or fantasy relieves aggresu39ve urges 2 Anger M 39 l 39 11111111401 in the literature In other word himng munching bag only commits one toward aggresu39ve acts As noted by anger researcher Brad Bushman Vm ng to 39 39 39 39 39 39 culture s perception of anger reduce uuge l Is it really something thathumors us 3 Happiness 39 Psychologists have recently investigated the happy emotion Though justified they have Went w39gny39icant 39 y 39 as 39 39 quot I 39 anx39ety and angry As noted byMyers one of the feelgood dogood phenomenon Thatis happiness just doem t feel good it does good 3 Happiness 12 13 14 15 16 17 39 39 39 39 39 mujem39m mmbein Thisrefers to a self perceived happinem or satisfaction with life Used along with meamres of objea ive wellbeing to evaluate people s quality oflgfe In terms off 39 39 39 t quot t 39 39 39 39 g 39 beginning of the day butthey decrease as the day progresses 3 Happiness 39 Research suggests that we tend to rebound even from tragedy and trauma According to IlIyers u l 1 J and undwestimate our capacity to adapt In an another twist does money really buy happinem aybe 1 r 3 Happiness Overall 39 39 asquot hwdry a n39 Wan thmoh 39 39 hingIna quotI I r1 1 3 Happiness Overall 39 5quot hwdry n 39 39 Wan thmah h vgnn urn I r39 1 Studies have own that the Yuppie Mentality 39 I 39 39 and prestige mmiug love we 39 39 men 4 life satisfaction Does the media send thismessage 3 Happiness 39 m l 39 u 39 mva First the milpram states that our tendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience In other way 39 Tr39 39 39 nrnraw Ifw at 39 4 II B 39 happinem is a shortlived experience 3 Happiness 39 The second explanation is the Relative Deprivation Principle This principle refers to the percqtion that one is worse ofquot relative to those with who one compares onese AsBertrand Rumell is quoted for saying Beggars do not envy millionaires though of course they will envy other beggars who are more succemful quot Tr 39 39 39 g l 39 l 39 Therefore our happinemis contingentupon our downward comparisons 3 Happiness 39 The slide below indicates the strongest predictors of happinem 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Psychology 110 Dr Gordon Module 3 7 Theories of Emoton A Theories of emotion 1 Introduction to emotions 2 The JamesLange theory 3 CannonBard theory 4 Schachter and Singer s Two Factor theory 5 Opponent process theory I Introduction to emotions 39 0ne s emotional experience can be divided into three components These include a conscious experience L 4 r a I Introduction to emotions 39 First one has a conscious experience of thoughts or cognitions and a quotect Cognitive factors play a major kin gnaw L L r n the person evaluate ullllltuMc 39 39 sense of our own I I I J I I I u 11 J and talking about one s emotional experience For example men experiencing anger have di iculty puu ing itinto words I Introduction to emotions EV 1 11m reaf rm 39 D 39 u my a 39 L a l J 4 physiological aaivation to emotion I Introduction to emotions Em 39 h 39 Thivroal39 m39 D J J 4 AN my 5 39 physiological aaivation to emotion I Introduction to emotions 39 Emotions are expremed in body language Each emotion brings with it a Wecific facial expremion and muscular activity This has become the facial feedback hypothesis 2 J amesLan ge th eory 39 A number of theories of emotion have been proposed over the years We will take a look atsome of the clasu39cs Let s begin with the JamesL ange theory of emotion This theory states that our experience of emotion is our awarenem of our physiological rewonses to emotional arousing stimuli In other words we are afraid because we tremble 2 JamesLange th eory The amey 5 J J This theory suggests thatifwe are sad why not wnile By wniling the person finds it di icult to be sad or they experience sadness with lem inth 39 39 our body or through outward motions 2 J amesLan ge th eory 39 Myers cites other evidence in mpport of the JamesL ange theory AIyers cites the clinical research of r H In thmmn 4 39 39 39 39J39 J 39 39 39 uu uugu I 1 1 1 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 one s emotional experience For example those 393 39 l 39 A Iil nrt I 39 39 39 0f quot39 39 quot l quot39 Howevw thosewith lower l 39 39 39 39 I 3 CannonBard Theory Walter f lrnnnn hair39mmI rrm r 5 r 39n 5 r p m physiological or bodily distinction of I Instead the f an quot39 39 39 39 39 39 l experience of 11 39ml motion 39 m 39 l 39 l 39 5 structures and phyu39ological arousal through the aaivation of the sympathetic nervous stem 3 CannonBard Theory Walter f lrnnnn n39 139 all rrm Inmau B J 39 39 39 39 curln the absence of motion Second 39 39 39 g 39 t quot tquot of 39 39 39 quothe msubu 1111 my 39 39 highly u39milarpaaems of physiological arous 4 Schachter and Singer r 1 w 1 1 J embraces this relationmip is the Schachter and Singer Two Factor theory of emotion In short this theory states that to experience emotion one must be I phyu39cally aroused and 2 cognitively label the arousal 4 Schachter and Singer 39 Schth agrees with James that our experience of motion stems from our awarenem of our body s arousal Like CannonBard Schachter also 39 39 39 39 39 39 general As long as we merience arousal our human nature will lead us to interpret it Our percqtions of the environment are appraised to help us come up with a reason for our arous 4 Schachter and Singer m 1 B 1 1 J inf39ormationthataIEall 1 1 1 1 r39vuvel r39n 39 L quot B the emotion 4 Schachter and Singer 39 Schachter and Singer designed a study to detemline the validity of their theory of emotion They thothesized that attimes our arousal can spill over from one event to the next As a remlt we can 39 39 misl our 39 39 l 39 Tquot quot 39 39 mpzlilllzluui 139 1 protocol Let s take a look atit 4 Schachter and Singer 39 In the original Schachter and Singer protocol they gave an informed and uninformed group of subjects in one of two emotional conditions an opportunity to explain their arousal The emotional conditions were the l r 1 B l n l r 111 B confederate Mme s 1 I l 4 Schachter and Singer The 111511 39 39 39 39 experimmt In quot 39 g g steamed over the 39 39 39 eyes 1 s 1 waitingrommh 39 39 4 Schachter and Singer 39 39uumsulwasduetolm 39 l39 39 were told thatthe pill was a special vitamin a decqtion In support of the two factor theory subjects in em I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 confederate 4 Schachter and Singer 39 The slide above illustrates an analysis of the Two Faaor theory As predicted the subjeas in the 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 uninformed group tended to match their emotion to both situations In contrad subjects in the informed group amibuted their arousal to the adrenaline pill 4 Schachter and Singer 39 0thw studies have supported the two factor theory Button and Aron 1 974 found evidmce for the two faaor theory 39 39 highh 39 39 39 bridge at 230 feet to the left were more likely to call young woman doing dirvey for a date In contrast male mbjects on alow arousal quot39 quot39 39 39 39 quotk quot t quot quot 39 date The two factor the haviv four quot hameon quot I 39 0f 39 J an 4 I u interpretation of the situation 5 Opponent process theory 39 Tquot quot4 39 emotion 39 vim emotionsin opposition to one another For example when a strong emotional date a occurs itactivates an opposing emotional date b The mm of date a and date b expresses the actual felt emotion 5 Opponent process theory 39 The opponent process theory can explain why we go to scary sladter movies like Halloween As one 8 watches Jamie L ig Curtis run for her life the adate fear is activated but so isthe b date relief As the Jamie Leigh escapes the a date fear istumed ojfand the b date relief is activated until itreaches a baseline no relief no fear B Emotional issues 1 Must cognition precede emotion 2 Dimensions of emotion I Must cognition precede emotion 39 Does emotion precede cognition or vice versa 39 L J 39 39 w u offer B 39 39 W quotom Z ajonc s view has been dipported by dibliminal research That is a dtbliminal dimulus with different 39 39 39 L quot stimulus 1 39 work of 39 J39 quot 1 Must cognition precede emotion 0th B l 5 iv thatnf39LeDoux S 5 39 r n 39 39 39 amygdala to the cortex exid than vice versa As a redilt hyjack quot m 39 B 39 precedes thinking 1 Must cognition precede emotion 39 In contrast Richard Lazarus argues that we cognitively appraise before we feel He contends thatthe appraisal process is not necessarily conscious Lazarus position is supported when considering more complex social emotions mbarrassment love or even hate The slide above illustrates the idea that cognition drives emotion I Must cognition precede emotion 39 AccordingtoJlIyersl 539 39 39 39 39 l confused T0 11 n 11 4 1 l employing Werent dimend39ons illustrated above For example rage would be cond39dered negative and high arousal he obscure and 4 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Psychology 110 Dr Gordon Module 53 Social Thinking A Attribution Theory 1 What is attribution theory 2 Fundamental attribution error 1 Attribution theory 39 How often do we find ourselves ying to explain the causes of others behaviors or unumal evmts After I the last exam you cu ulna w y Way you did When we do this 5339 B L nrnraw A 39L 39 l l A L L J othws behavior as well as their own behavior 1 Attribution theory 39 How do 5 3 quot quot princess neiuml behavior either quotV l or 394 I 39 39 39 39 39L 39 39L 39 ehavior to personal l 1 dispositions traits abilities and feelings In contrast external amibutions ascribe the causes of behavior to factors related to the u39tuation 1 Attribution theory 39 A number of theorist expanded Heider s ambution theory For example Heinz Weiner applied ambution theoryto mar 39 ess quot m n 39 39 39 39 39 I I if 5 I I succeed or fail Heinz ll nine 5 39 I 39 I quot39 m 1 n Weiner 111 4 l w quotW W m m on InnI failure 1 Attribution theory n 1 and our own mccemes and r 5 failures How do these amibutions contribute to our selfesteem 2 Fundamental Attribution error 39 How many of us have been in the situation above When someone dn39ves recklemly we tend to amibute tha39r failures to diwositional factors Unfortunately this a ects our behavior The effects are illustrated above That is our reaction is tolerant or unfavorable 2 Fundamental Attribution error 39 Dowetendto quotI 39 39 39 39 39 39 have proposed the fundamental amibution error According to IlIyers itrefers to the tendency for observers when analyzing another s behavior to underestimate the impact of the u39tuation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispou tion 2 Fundamental Attribution error 39 The observer 39 r l the observer 39 Im 39 39 o amibute the actor s behavior to situational faaors the obsmer is required to engage more congplexprocesu39ng The slide to the right illustrates the revised view of FAE 3 Affects of attributions 39 We are capable of making amibution biases in other ways For example we have atendency to blame the victim for their mifortune This is called the Defense atm39bution bias eg Joe was fired because he was 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 incompetent A quot 39 quot39 f t a tendency to quot 39 39 n39butes By doing so one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way According to the defense bias u 4 4 L we 5 guy down when bad things happen to them 3 Affects of attributions 39 Self rving quot 39 quot are involved A selfsming biasisthe tendency to amibute one 39 39 39 Do coaches ever blame their players or the referees for defeats You make the call whoops I mean the attribution 3 Affects of attributions 4 1 1 4 L h J 1 J J 5 l B I B 1 mm 39 39 39 l 39 39 umu g uup memberships In contrast collectivinn 39 l 3955 l B 39 39 139 39gone sidentityintemlsofthegroupone belongs to f quot quot39 39 l 39 39 I 39 39 J 39 J 3 Affects of attributions 39 In Mo 39 Furthermore self 395 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 B Attitudes and actions I 1 Whatis an attitude 2 Attitudes affect actions 3 Actions affect attitudes 1 What is an attitude 39 An attitude is a positive or negative evaluation of an objea of thought An object of thought can be a number of Werent things mch as institutions conmmw products people or social ismes such as gun control Our attitude toward gun control has three components cognitive a quotea ive and behavioral comma n t 4 L T v D t 1 1 What is an attitude 39 The slide to the right illustrates the di ermt components of an attitude 2 Attitudes affect actions 39 What about attitudes and actions In the early 1930 s a social psychologist Richard Lapiere traveled quot 39 quot Im f 39 39 39 39 th would r l a a 0 not be served because of prejudice attitudes Supriw39ngly Lapiere found that he and the Uzinese couple were served in all 184 estaurants Surveying all the restaurants he and the couple vin39ted Lapiere 39 y0 l quothinese people This raised the question about attitudes prejudice in this case as accurate re ections of one s actions 2 Attitudes affect actions 39 After extensive research on attitudes as predictors of anion the following concluu39ons were made First J hm what Wu my l l econ I predictors of one s actions In contrast vague and general attitudes do not predia actions Third the more value and accemibility we place on an attitude the more likely itwill predict our actions 3 Actions affect attitudes 39 How do actions affect our attitudes The footin the door phenomenon is a posu39ble explanation It refers penpie 39 3 l 1 wim alarger request A ImXLLLenv to In other words 5 I 2o 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 take I b 39 Do actions affect our attitudes 3 Actions affect attitudes 39 Salesman are notorious for exerciu39ng the footin the door phenomenon This phenomenon is about complying with a large request if one has previoust complied with a small request For example a J u M attitudes ambmuwl rigL yum ya to quoty u check on how you like the free magazine However during his return he presents you with an amortment of more expensive magazines The footin the now woumpreuiu 39 39 3 Actions affect attitudes 39 Role playing actions may also a ect one s attitudes At times we are asked to assume new rolesin life As 39 39 Lu quot a quot39 The drill swgeant at the left may have felt uncomfortable yelling at this enlisted soldier However over time his actions T 1 4 v mommy 3 Actions affect attitudes nun a g 39 quot g 39 39 dim39 onance view According39 to Leon Festinger cognitive s 4 If 39 quot g Whenr g g 39 39 39 39 ueuuviw illullluJu u with one s attitude one I 39 439 n 3 Actions affect attitudes 39 We often feel compelled to justify our actions to save face so to speak However whathappens when our actions and des are not consistent Leon Festinger argues that we experience cognitive dissonance Cognitive 39 l l quot 39 39 we eet When two of on 39 39 39 To 4 quot 439 quot changing our attitudes Let s take a look at a clamic Festinger study Im 439 Yuljerk in h 39gquot 39 g l h quot 39 justify why they participated in mundazte experiment for 1 dollar 3 Actions affect attitudes Th 3 Actions affect attitudes rh nhonnmonnn man 39 dissonance in 39 39ra nn 39 39 gin quot o mattw we are going to say itwas one ofthe bestmeals we evw had tojustgfv our ef rts ofstanding in ine Does this film clip create dissonance among those who have a negative attitude toward former preu39dent Ginton 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Psychology 110 Dr Gordon Module 52 Biomedical Treatments A Drug therapies 1 Introduction to drug therapy 2 Antipsychotic dmgs 3 Antiamciety drugs 4 Antidepressant dmgs 1 Introduction to drug therapy 39 l 39 39 39 The impact was so significantin the 1950 s manilamin togn m u r 39 of quotmm 39 1 r the century 2 An tipsych otic drugs 39 Inthe1950 s 39I 39 39 39 39 39 39 Wan originally used for the treatment of allwgies By accident clinical researchers discovered that psychotic 39 39 39 39 39 39 Thorazine were given As one can see the patient quotWWW l 1 1 have long terrIn side 2mm I 2 An tipsych otic drugs J 4 4 1 obsmed in Parkinson s disease patimts As a remlt atypical antipsychotics wwe introduced The slide I I I m those l r a a 393 2 Antipsychotic drugs 39 Myersb glydismmesthecostsof quot 39 39 39 39 39 39 quotquot 39 g costsof I I 39 gr Imam 39 developed atWical antipsychotic medications to counter these w39de gfects as Mown above 3 Antianxiety drugs Autumn J I 39 39 I ders antiama39ety medications include Xanax and Valium The disadvtmtage of these medications is that they are addictive Some 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 u veil mummw J 5 drugs like Buspar 39 l I u I t I I J 4 Antidepressant drugs I l J u of I 39 I 39 and serotonin 39 SRRI 39 39 L I 39 andor removal of serotonin from the synapse A 5 l B B 5 m J J SW 1 39 A intense I 39 I to 10 weeks into treatment 4 Antidepressant drugs 1 w I 39 39 quot Iquot SRRI s like prozac Prozac and other SRRI s like Paxile Zoloft Luvox etc block the reuptake of serotonin In doing so serotonin remains I L I I r J 1 4 Antidepressant drugs l 39 139quot 395 period Drug I 39 39 d 39 I39 39I I 39 39 thatbene ts of SRRI s have been observed Nevertheless other studies cannot rule out posn39ble placebo gfects 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 4 Antidepressant drugs 39 In these studies the rate o 39 T a r r 1 H I J 39 mental health I B 39 39 l l critical role in succesyul outcomes Furthermore they answer their critics by stating that the expectations 39 doing of medications are beyond what they are capable of B Electroconvulsive Therapy 1 What is it 1 What is it l E 39 wnr39r n IIYIIIIIII39V a 39 39 tom E thoIrr unt s depresu39on is so sevwe and does not rewond to medication Overall the effectiveness of ECT is mixed It I 39 39 39 4 39 IV I eprem39nn The risks of ECT center on loss of 1r u cognitive functioning with chronic use 1 What is it 39 How doesit actually workAccording to Myers 39 39 argue thatECT triggers an increase release of norepinephrine If one recalls a lower level of ll l l L J a afrmmd cemem B u I L 1 B prvr better alternative than severe depresu39on 1 What is it n 4 913 1 vv 4 I 39 mum nn 1 393 rMs r I MS 39 39 B 5 mm In conmasttolECT r TMS does l menwry m it is painless dies have shown that it can be re ective Early shock treatment ECT shock treatment C Psych osurgery 1 A last resort 1 The last resort wannabequot 39 Nobel prizehr his mm surgery 1 The last resort m mm L a Neverthelem anumber na 1 of side 2mm wwe observed 39 l 39 39 lethargic Today because of these w39de gfects neuromrgeons select other brain surgery procedures 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Psychology 1 I 0 Dr Gordon Module 12 Vision A Vision I 1 The properties of light energy I 2 The eye I 3 Visual processing pathways I 4 Feature detection I 5 Color perception 1 Properties of light energy I The cartoon to the left reminds us how much the eye dominates our sensory and perceptual experience In this module we will examine the anatomy ofthe eye visualprocessing colorperception and constancy 1 Properties of light energy I The slide to the left illustrates the spectrum of electromagnetic energy Wh ue light energy is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave moving naturally at the speed of light Other forms of energy are not visible to the human eye 1 Properties of light energy I The slide above illustrates how a human being and bee perceive the same ower A bee can only detect uhraviolet waves In contrast the human eye is sensuive to the visible light spectrum and therefore sees a yellow ower Reptiles and sh can perceive longer wavelengths like in the infrared spectrum 1 Properties of light energy I A light wave will vary according to its amplitude height or brightness and wavelength the distance between the peaks of the waves or the perception of color Typically when we perceive color we actually perceive a mixture of colors Light can also vary in its purity 2 The eye I Let s turn our attention to the anatomy ofthe eye Some ofthe visual structures to be discussed include the cornea pupil iris lens the retina and fovea 2 The eye I The cornea is a protective covering that shields the eye ie It is like a plexiglass The pupil and iris regulate the amount of light that can penetrate the rear of the eye 2 The eye I The iris or the color ofthe eye is actually a muscle that contracts given the amount of light in the environment The lens is a transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays on the retina The lens can remind one ofa soft contact lens 2 The eye I The lens is jelly like and changes its shape depending on how far away objects are from the viewer 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Accommodation is theprocess in I b quot39 L 1 ofnhiprrc come i rm of nearsightedness close objects are seen clearly but d stant objects appear blurry and farsightedness distant objects are seen clearly but close up objects are not 2 The eye I Let s take a closer when light rays from distant objects focus in front of the retina When their image reaches the retina the rays are spreading out blurring e image In contrast farsightedness occurs when light rays from nearby objects come into focus behind the retina resuh39ing in blurred images 2 The eye I Let s move on to one of the most important structures of the eye the retina The retina is ric neural tissue that lines the surface atthe back of the eye It absorbs light processes images and tmnsm us neural signals to visual cortex of the cerebrum 2 The eye I The retina is unique because it is an extension ofthe brain The retina is a thin lining of neural tissue 2 The eye It is a very sens u39ive piece of visual hardware because it contains important visual receptors rods cones bipolar cells etc and axons that run through a hole called the optic disk 2 The eye I Bipolar and ganglion cells assist in the transmission of neural messages to the optic nerve We can think of these cells as lters 2 The eye I At the back ofthe eye there is a hole called the blind spot That is where the optic nerve leaves the eye there are no visual receptors The optic disk is the location where axons converge to form the optic nerve 2 The eye I Let s turn our attention now to some ofthefunctional units ofthe retina starting w uh the rods and cones the retina serves three functions First the conversion of light energy to neural impulses is the primary function L J rnnd J J I b ada tto changes in environmental light 39 J quot L J processing or me I mum L intensities or what J I Third fibering informati n before it gets to the brain This is called lateral antagonism 2 The eye I These are actual photographs of rods and cones First rods are specialized visual receptors that play cr u39ical role in night and peripheral vision Rods are more sens u39ive than cones to dim light Since a greater number ofrods are located in theperiphery J itis not I 39 1 I Jul peripheral vision 2 The eye I Cones are specialized visual receptors that play a key role in daylight vision and color vision Cones provide visual acu wy perceived sharpness and precise detail Cones are in higher concentration at the center of the retina At the fnwn n I rum u me I mum 2 The eye 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 so I The b quot J J 7 J Most have experienced mum after being outside on bright sunny day It can be quite frustrating waiting for our eyes to adjust to the dim light Dark adaptation is a process in which the eyes become more sens uive to light in low illumination 2 The eye I n 39 J Jul over time In the rst 10 minutes the It takes about 30 total minutesfor the eye make in dun retinas to adapt to dark 2 The eye I In contrast light adaptation requires less time It is the process in which the eyes become less sens uive to light in high illumination However there are exceptions 2 The eye I For example before one s visual examination the eye doctor puts drops in the eyes to relax the iris The drops prevent the contraction ofthe iris As a resuh a bright sunny day becomes qu ue annoying because light adaptation takes longer 3 Visual processing pathways I There are a number of stops for neural information between the retina and visiual cortex First neural impulses converge on a group of axons called the optic nerve The optic nerve ex ns a hole called the optic disk 3 Visual processing pathways I The optic nerves from both eyes cross at a point called the optic chiasm The optic chiasm ensures that Before information is sent to the visual cortex 39 superior colliculus sc 1 L visual cortex r 39 39 some 1 1 I of the midbrain The with other y p 4 Feature detection I Let s turn our attention to H in the J L J work ofHubel and Wiesel Hubel and W b 1 39 in the primary visual cortex detect the angles of different lines This discovery actually occurred by accident 7 h lPri myquotme 4 Feature detection I Feature detection refers to nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus such as shape ang e or movement ubel and Wiesel discovered specialized detector cells in t e in the primary visual cortex From the slide below the electrical activ wy of a specialized cell is recorded in response to the type of line shown 4 Feature detection I 71 rquot h help us identify letters The slide above also displays what we refer to as bottom up processing That is we start with different elements angles lines etc to form a whole egword 5 Color perception I Color perception has been linked to our evolution We need to distinguish objects eg dangerous predators from their backgrounds Our discussion of color perception rst turns to characteristics of color that include brightness height of wave saturation purity of wave and hue type of wavelength 5 Color perception I Different theories of color perception exist Let s start w nh the trichromatic theory that asserts that we have three primary color receptors in the retina red blue and green When stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color This theory does well to explain color blindness The slide to the left illustrates a test for color blindness 3 1 5 Color perception I The opponent I wwr receptors I quot antagonistic yellow blue blackwhite and redgreen In theory colors are signaled in pairs by neurons that re faster color and slower to another color 32 5 Color perception Dolor Fur nunnip 39 39 39 39 A n n nn39mna 33 34 35 36 37 5 Color perception I Color perception researchers have concluded that both theories are supported Itmight be that color sensitive cones account for tr39ichromat39ic theory as illustrated below In contrast opponent process theory suggests that color perception is processed later in the visual cortex thalamus and some of the ganglion cells in the retina 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Psychology 110 Dr Gordon Module 31 Assessing Intelligence A Understanding IQ testing 0 1 A historical review of intelligence testing 0 2 Principles of test construction 0 3 Does intelligence change over time 0 4 Intelligence goes extreme I A historical review of intelligence testing Finl ha I Vnmnd 39 39 39 It Mp nd m Eugenie 1m roman Ema 39 39 39 In thing so he cused an uluuln J J 39 111mm 1 A historical review of intelligence testing m In WIN That it 1 A historical review of intelligence testing I 1 39 39 J J 39 39 39 39 39 m39 nd pt Heals a1 Kinet s concept uf memal age 1 A historical review of intelligence testing ngi Tmmn 39 39 39 39 myrtlan ynviwd Thismvisim 39 39 39 mmthistest Mdu wm 9 1g 39 39 In thaw 1452 quotJune 39 39 39 39 have an IQ nf100 111139s was also when 1g 1 A historical review of intelligence testing I mWh39vv39mI 39 4 r Hananquotn a 394 am mum mu 1 39 39 39 Tannin 8 9 1o 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 lives adults 1 A historical review of intelligence testing 39 uurt39u vmuumr 39 39 A 39 pevl39ally J 39 In response in my Wechsler derequ nee 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 llqlpeu 39 39 quotre vmm 39 39 1 A historical review of intelligence testing Arm mm In 39 quotnth tasks quotHunter We w l address types nftem shortly I A historical review of intelligence testing 39 39 Wand ulmzu un um WAIS or WISC 39 39 39 39 That is to receive rrndr39l 2 Properties of test construction jlunp stunquot First tests are used tn c mmt mini penple antlv However psychological 2 Properties of test construction JrJ Pemrmlity tests 111p intn the We due 39 nne s values interem rmtr39ves mrit tendencies ete In Irddr tr nn wrung runwun In m quotInquot 39 39 39 39 1 intelligence 2 epdtede ends achievement 2 Properties of test construction In 1th wrmtlr e e 9 2 Properties of test construction 39 39 By dn m39tr39nn 39 39 1 39 39 That it 39 39 39 A gmnp 2 Properties of test construction 39 I Wu mum I I 39 11m 139 devia m is 15 points 39 39 39 eg gi ed mentally retarded borderline etc 2 Properties of test construction Arnwrult eelled the Flynn Eject en 2 Properties of test construction Gemnd 39 Lynn Em 1 8 2 Properties of test construction I 39 39 17391th 39 quot unl smre 39 39 thetestgiverednmtmnm Foremmple 39 39 39 39 39 metquotm experience etc 39 39 quot 39 39 2mmquot Mmquot A um 1 9 2 Properties of test construction the st h mntwnt the times we mnpteted the teen 20 2 Properties of test construction mere J quot 39 39 39 39 39 Wu WAISIII A 39 39 39 39 21 2 Properties of test construction Fur eumrple semnd testing In mmquot scams 22 2 Properties of test construction That it 39 39 mm m 1 i u a m39tm39nn quot Camillle 39 39 Atesttlwl mmnnn sense and not sta m39cs 23 2 Properties of test construction 12 end In the 11111 teemen RF GATnt J m explains why aptitude tem Jquot have greater diversity er wtder mnge efdhth39des 24 2 Properties of test construction m mnmvut Fnymmnmln 39 39 39 L 25 2 Properties of test construction quotI J J Nnvnwhplnn 39 26 3 Does intelligence change over time time ntr 39 WWW prett39c vemwzr 27 4 Intelligence goes extreme nThrmgh39 39 I J m 4 VJ Wm tabhs i at Firrt J J L i 1 1 de ciencies 39 39 39 1 n I 28 29 so 31 without both criteria IQ kvel and adaptive nctionin g Some causes of MR are known while others are k ertain owns syndrome right has a known cause 4 Intelligence goes extreme 1 unnamme 39Hrnvm nndz nm unvd 112 r M1111 Mn nnnmnent etc placements 4 Intelligence goes extreme Mn unwnm pom nIm39i In etc 4 Intelligence goes extreme 39 In It nar zrt wand In wnh39tv dimibutim IInne re the minimum 1 smmfnrll gi ed eInId weld be 130 4 Intelligence goes extreme 39 39 mnwunnl 39 In Iernnn m m Ig r nhnve Fill In thaw 1 eemuu 39 39 J 39 ndings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Psychology 1 I 0 Dr Gordon Module 48 Mood Disorders A Mood Disorders I I Introduction to mood disorders I 2 Major Depressive Disorder I 3 BipolarDisorder I Introduction to mood disorders I Every one has moods These moods change given the s nuation For most of us our moods do not a ect 1 1 1 J P J order characterized by um n can In I emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical perceptual social and thought processes Mood disorders are classi ed into the types a major depressive and bipolar disorders 2 Major depressive disorder 11 1 wmmun n 1 1 11 J I Depressive disorder has In this decade it will surpass cancer and heart disease as our number one heahh problem It is described as a persistent feeling of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure also called anhedonia Ot e symptoms include fatigue sleep and appetite problems feelings of guih personal worthlessness dejected Most of us will experience a bout of depression sometime during our lifetime 2 Major depressive disorder I When one considers all the criteria for depression there becomes 161 ways to diagnose a Everyone feels the blues from time to time These feelings usually hit us a er bad news or the resuh of personal failure As depressive symptoms ucwnm mum J L one I 39r n dysthymic disorder One continues to function butat a cost The cost is low energy lack ofmotivation problems making decisions and diminishing selfesteem 2 Major depressive disorder YAMJUI J I J h I J I is severe and long lasting psychological pain According to Ronald Comer he reports that the World H eahh Organization estimates that 1 65000 new cases ofdepression occur every year In the Un ned States 5 to 10 percent of adults are diagnosed with a severe quot I 39r quot Three to I wim a milder form of mood disorder 1 J I mm c 2 Major depressive disorder The average age for depression onset is around 27 years One can be diagnosed with depression at any age Children display their depression di erently than aduhs more somatic less cogn uive Women are twice as likely to develop depression as men Gender differences in depression remain a consistent nding in prevalence studies Caucasian Middle aged Americans have a slightly higher rate of depression than other groups 66percent uj quotcmluclu for mp vaaiun likel 3 Bipolar disorder I In your text Myers defines bipolar disorder as a mood disorder in which the person ahernates between the I J I I fquot I ofmania Theperson is basically driving 85 in a 35 zone or 35 in a 85 zone Those diagnosed w nh bipolar disorder seldom experience a balance in 39 J quot euphoricjoy that is out ofproportion mst The mm Wm 9 1o 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 to one s actual life A mild but chronic variation of bipolar disorder is known as cyclothymia 3 Bipolar disorder I The manic individual wants continual excitement Mania is characterized by having minimal awareness of how one s behavior a ects others F mboyance excessively loud talking rapidly verbal outbursts un nished projects perceptions of not having enough time etc are all ways of describing a manic phase When confron ed about slowing down they seldom conform As many men are diagnosed w ah it as women It also appears to have a strong genetic link 3 Bipolar disorder I Myers discusses the potential for creativity among those having bipolar disorder The slide below illustrates a number of different who 1 J I 1 1 bipolar disorder During a hypomanic state intense focused energy one is able to take their creativity to the next level 3 Bipolar disorder I This may be one ofthe most ever live 1 39 Vincent Van Gogh s incredible talent was fueled by his bipolar disorder The selfportra a was likely completed in a state of depression 0th er quotnquot c were I th B Mood disorders Perspectives I I Introduction The facts I 2 Biological perspectives I 3 Social Cognitive perspectives I Introduction Thefacts I Myers cites the work ofPeter T v st number ofresearch studies concerning mood disorders The slide below indicates one such nding First across cuhures women are twice as susceptible to depression than men Second many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression There is a considerable difference in someone when the depression lifts I Introduction Thefacts I Third in most cases depression tends to lift on its own without therapy This is not to say that medical and psychological interventions are not warranted If anything intervention can speed the rate of recovery but also t o L L Fourth depression is usua ly an J r I outcome of a stressful life event or personal crisis I Introduction Thefacts I Identical twin studies have shown that if one twin is a smoker and experiences a number of stressful events eg divorce a lack o aquot 1 b 1 I 1 other does not Depression also appears to be cohort related That is w ah new generations depression is on the increase The s ide below shows that teens and young aduhs are most vulnerable I Introduction Thefacts 1 been I 1 J p 1 Since Freud s view ofdepression rigorms L 1 cmmeuiuu Atthis time let s take a look at those perspectives The slide to the ri ht mm 1 1 I s hate cond uion s emming from significant personal loss and unresolved con ict w ah parents Let s start w ah biological perspectives 2 Biological perspective I First do mood disorders have genetic connection There is empirical support for a genetic link Twin 1 r L I 1 1 L Jul mm apm L concordance rates among identical twins is even more staggering if one considers bipolar disorder According to Myers he cites research Tsuan raone 1990 indicating that identical twins have 7 in 10 chance of developing bipolar disorder compared to 2 in 10 for fraternal twins 2 Biological perspective Genetic LJ 1 anar 1 1 w a w 397 Re a a links basically 19 20 21 22 compares the genetic links of family members who have a history of depression and those who do not In s ort L J is ofpolygen etic in uences Let s move on to some of the neurological ndings 2 Biological perspective I Brain research has also indicated a strong structural and neurochemical factor For example in the depressed brain there appears to be an overactiv ay of noriepinephrine neurotransm ater during manic states of those diagnosed w ah bipolar disorder In contrast individuals diagnosed with depression shows a depletion of norepinephrine and serotonin Furthermore nicotine addiction appears to simulate norepinephrine activity This might explain the strong correlation between smoking and depression 2 Biological perspective I Furthermore PET scans indicate a lack of activ ay in the depressed brain Speci cally there is a lack of activ in thefrontal lubc L s y the c J L II I o the limbic system Structural damage to the hippocampus is associated w ah prolonged stress induced states 3 Socialcognitive perspective I Depression is induced by the selfdefeating thoughts 0ne negative thought feeds the next until the person n el t I Th 7 I icious cycle of brain chemistry cognition and mood Depressed persons tend to ruminate about their depression People stick to negativ ay just like velcro In short there is strong evidence to suggest that negative thinking leads to depression 3 S ocialcognitive perspective I The slide above illustrates the thinking of someone who is depressed Mood disorders have been linked to cognitive factors Martin Seligman I I L I s a er o and explanatory styles First individuals who are depressed are more likely to feel that they do not have control over future outcomes It is like a giving up or a learned pessimism Second according to Seligman persons w ah a pessimistic explanatory style ie They explain bad things happening to them to internal global and stable factors are more prone to major depression
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