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Date Created: 10/29/15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Psychology 105 Dr Gordon Module 5 Genetic In uences on Behavior A Genes The biological blueprint I I An introduction Nature versus nurture I 2 The genetic metaphor I 3 Species heredity I 4 Genetic variation and gene complexes I An introduction Nature vs nurture I Thus far we have discussed psychology s history its scientific methods and ongoing questions that a ect the eld Now we willfocus one ofthe most cruical and oldest issues a ecting thefield nature versus urture Nature refers to the crlviiL 1 In contrast nurture refers to the J I An introduction nature vs nurture I Anastasi examined the historical development of this issue In the early 20th century she proposed that most theorists adhered to a which one or one or the other approach The issue t en advanced to one of w much of nature and how much of nurture Lastly theorists acknowledged that nature and nurture interacted in some way to produce individual di erences In this module we will discuss the dynamics of nature and laterfocus on nurture in modu e I An introduction Nature vs nurture 2 The genetic metaphor I In your text Myers discusses the components of nature Myers uses the Tower ofLondon metaphor to describe the different components that makeu or genetic blueprint First from the distance the Tower on London represents our individual biological development 2 The genetic metaphor I A closer view of the Tower reveals an endless number of individual rooms These rooms represent 1 1 quot Each quot b ueprint to the individual s biological development Let s get closer to a window 2 The genetic metaphor ch room we nd a bookcase This bookcase contains a series of volumes that outlines the entire architectural plan of the tower n 39 39 r nucleus of the ce Each nucleus bookcase contains 46 chromosomes or volumes 23 from each parental publisherl Each chromosome is composed of a coiled chain of the molecule DNA 2 The genetic metaphor I In each volume we nd what seems to be an endless number of words Again in biological terms words represent genes Each gene a small segment of this huge DNA molecule has a selfreplicating capac uy for protein synthesis Going a step further each gene word is made up of letters called nucleotides Interestingly the smallest chromosome volume contains 50 billion nucleotides 2 The genetic metaphor I If we compare human beings chromosomes a series volumes on the bookshelf w uh their gene segments of nucleotides would look similar to one another Only slight variations in gene sequences would be observed 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Genome researchers would draw similar conclusions w nh primates as well That is human beings and chimps share 95 percent of the same genetic sequences 2 The genetic metaphor I It only takes the slightest variations in 0 n if for the vas we observe in human beings When the slightest variations do occur the di erences can be major For example one person might have the genetic code for cancer and the other does not 2 The genetic metaphor I Genetic code variations can now be detected and make a signi cant impact on someone s life The genome technology has advanced to such an extent that DNA evidence taken from one cell can be obtained to determine one s innocence 2 The genetic metaphor I The slide above reviews all of nature s components Myers states that Contained in the nucleus of the each ofthe trillions ofcells in your body are L Foch ch m m 7 J L of the molecule DNA Genes are DNA segments thatform templates ofthe production ofproteins By 1 1 t t t t t t J 1 I quotLet s di eu rntm nc now tiirn our attention to atha nature s components are apZ lied B Evolutionary Psychology I 1 Natural Selection I 2 Sexuality and mating preferences I 3 Critiquing the evolutionary perspective 1 Natural selection I According to Myers evolutionary psychology refers to a subdiscipline w uhin the eld that studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of natural selection Natural selection is a process in which among the range of inher ued tra a ions those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Natural S election at Work 1 Natural selection es natural selection apply to human beings In the lm Revenge of the geeks un ue a univers wy community L L 1 I iluvlll mm in I that ensure their survival on campus This lm is satirical play on natural selection and evolution The message is that nerds have what it takes to adapt and survive and jocks do not Let s watch a film clip 1 Natural Selection erds a group of computer it39irt39ive 1 Natural selection I In spite of the humor in the previous clip human beings have experienced natural selection probably in more subtle ways Clearly nature has 1 vur uuions Per aps yea ago the jocks possessed variations that were more suited for the environmental demands that existed wever brut L 1 quot once were surely not on a college campus environment 1 Natural selection I As noted by Myers human beings have tremendous genetic variation however over thousands of generations J J J e 1 39 quot likelihood or our survival in a variety of environments Evolutionary psychologists are interested in those cognitive and 39 39 b L opportun wy to pass on their genetic variations Some have called this a second Darwinian Revolution Let s turn our attention to a behavioral tendency that ensures our survival of our genes that is sexual wy our art mm 2 Sexuality and mating preferences I I h 1 quot39 based on r female invest in protecting and raising his or her offspring is associated w nh the organism s speci c That is how much time does a male or 22 23 28 29 so 31 32 2 Sexuality and mating preferences The cartoon above illustrates Parental Investment Theory 2 Sexuality and mating preferences I Therefore the sex females that puts forth more investment tends to be more selective in its mating preferences In contrast the sex that invests less time and effort males tends to compete for mating opportunities As a resuh the human male prefers more sexual partners thinks about sex more often desires a variety of sexual partners and is more willing to take more risks through uncommitted or casual at is males are more likely than wnmpn In Purequot I eck the Clark and Hat eld 1978 study in your textquot quotIf 1 MM 2 Sexuality and mating preferences I Furthermore males tend to r s likely to initiate sexual relations and prefer more partners Males also show signi cant rage when their female mates having sexual relations w uh other males According to Myers studies indicate that females show much the opposite in their tendencies u 2 Sexuality and mating preferences 2 Sexuality and mating preferences I Human females are much more selective in choosing their male mates Some evolutionary psychologists J J who r Jul their o spring In ancient times the man w uh the most resources was strong and agile He could hunt for food and protect the female s o spring It was not in the female s best interest to have a m weak and unskilled Extensive research has been conducted to test some of these notions 2 Sexuality and mating preferences I How do males and females differ in their perceptions of a longterm commitment Males would prefer a 1 fshe 1 11 JJ q 1 1 s BM mnr 39 I Buss cross cuhural studies Innis p e e I 2 Sexuality and mating preferences I In contrast females preferred a mate who was ambitious intelligent and who obtained higher social status A male w uh these raise her offspring Again was more likely to r Buss cross cuhural w i a quotsum w uh 2 Sexuality and mating preferences I quot L 39 esearch quot women tend to show different types ofjealousy For men they tend to worry aboutpaternal uncertainty is the child really his As a resu ma s are more concerned about sexual in delities In contrast females tend to worry about losing their mate because of the possible loss o1 Maintaining quote quotHue depends on his in elities As a resuh by the male s emotional 3 Critiquing the evolutionary perspective I b 1 do not paint a very flattering picture of human 1 u m mu J n generally I the genders are really like this then maybe it can be attributed to cultural and sociopolitical factors 3 Critiquing the evolutionary perspective I As noted by Myers what is considered an attractive male or female does change w uh time For example in the 50 s the voluptuous female like Marilyn Monroe and Jane Mans eld was considered the standard for beauty and youthfulness Myers cites Eagly s social role theory of gender According to Eagly in gender inequality socie es w 7 I 1 J 7 h 7 le 1 refer youthfu an domestically skilled females In contrast in cuhures emphasizing equal uy gender di erences in mating E a 33 34 35 36 41 42 43 preferences are minimized 3 Critiquing the evolutionary perspective I I 39 cr J not sexual predators or materialists respectively On the contrary human beings or any other specie is capable of evolutionary change depending on demands of its environment In other words the observed patterns could change given natural selection of desired 1mm and challenges of the environment C Behavior genetics I 1 An introduction Predicting individual di erences 2 Twin studies 3 Adoption studies 4 Temperament studies 5 What is heritability 6 The nature of geneenvironment interactions 1 An introduction predicting individual differences I Along w uh evolutionary psychology behavior geneticists embrace nature Behavior genetics is define as the study ofthe relative power and limits ofgenetic and environmental in uences on behavior Behavior geneticists rely on two procedures to determine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental n uences These procedures are twin and adoption studies Let s begin w uh twin studies 2 Twin studies Belmvim twin 1 J 3 1 3 t J 1 differences The slide to the right shows the origins of two types of twins identical and fraternal Identical twins develop from the same fertilized egg In contrast fraternal twins develop from separate eggs Identical twins are the same sex on y Twin studies Twin studies I Investigators have employed a number of correlation studies to determine the contributions of genes and environment me and again investigators conclude that identical twins are more similar on a number of psychological characteristics than fraternal twins The slide below illustrates the correlations of identical e MM MLquot umquot ibmwm 59m 2 Twin studies 2 Twin studies in uences can be He reviews a study by J ofidenticaland I oth er M cGue and Lykken 1992 39 fraternal twins Examining the incidence f 39r I twins were ve times more likely than fraternal twins to end their marriages Even identical twins reared I m uunn I 2 Twin studies I On occasion behavior geneticists have come across some bizarre stories about identical twins who had been I J L c 39r your Iim Turner andJim Springer case shown below 38 years previous these gentlemen were separated at birth and adopted into blue collar families A renowned behavior geneticist at the University of Minnesota Thomas Bouchard discovered some amazing similarities between Turner and Springer 2 Twin studies I Both Springer and Lewis drove Chevolets owned dogs named Toy chewed their fingernails to the nub served as deputy sheri s enjoyed vacationing in Florida marrie women named Linda and got divorced and then married women named Betty Both also enjoyed mechanical drawing and carpentry Each twin had built their own basement workshop as shown to the rig 2 Twin studies I New Yorker magazine directs humor toward the work of behavior geneticists One can only conjecture that the New Yorker humorist had Springer and Turner in mind when developing this cartoon 44 45 46 47 48 49 so 51 52 2 Twin studies I 0th er cases include Oskar Stohr and Jack Yufe According to Arthur Allen 1998 of the Washington Post he writes L twin L quotmi uiun in Trinidad Oskar was brought up Catholic Ii Hi1 r Vnurh In Iz 1 I aribbean was raised aJew and lived for a time in Israel Yet despite the stark contrast of their lives when the twins were reunited in their fth decade they had similar speech and thought patterns similar gaits a taste for spicy foods and common peculiar nies such as flushing the toilet before they used n 2 Twin studies I Critics of behavior genetics argue that many of Bouchard s ndings are not unique to identical twins In your text Myers identifies the Patricia Ann Dibiasi and Patricia Ann Kern both named Patricia Ann 1 Campbell case in which two biologically I L 397 striking simi rI quotIf choices However despite this quot39 J L Bouchard 39 support for identical twins reared together and separately 3 Adoption studies I Behavior geneticists I 39 J 1 L This is an ado tion study An adoption study allows the investigator to compare two sets of relatives ie adoptive and genetic parents Overall adoptive studies indicate that adoptive children do not resemble their adopted parents on certain I L I 7 option studies suggest that even adoptive parents could not have prevent the antisocial ways of Charles Manson 3 Adoption studies I Given these resuhs adoption uself is not about being similar to one s adoptive parents Studies indicate that adoption can have a pos nive in uence on an individual especially if one is adopted as an infant 1 1 1 0 r 1 i 1 1 L with quotan I I implications for one s social and emotional heahh 3 Adoption studies I In some cases staying with one s birthparents quotI L J A on the child I In short C I L I I I children need not havepersonal nies that resemble those of their adoptive parents This finding has a strong implications for couples who adopt children overseas 4 Temperament studies quot39quotM L I I L 391 P 391 I L I This response mm I Temperament is the soil from which personality develops In your text Myers indicates that heredity seems to predispose temperament differences ml in 4 Temperament studies I Buss andPlomin ch 39r J I These J Ii quot nrtivitv J the J nfants I Activity refers to the energy levels of the infant highly active versus sluggish Sociabil ny is the degree of comfort I ced cu a m mum Hawaiian 4 Temperament studies I Through extensive observation Thomas and Chess identi ed three temperament styles These included easy di icuh and slow to warm up temperament styles An infant w nh an eas temperament is even tempered content happy open to new experiences and are adaptable Furthermore these infants show regu rityin 1 39 1 LatlyIL I I L L levelsof quot notshow intense reactions 4 Temperament studies I An infant w nh a di icult temperament is basically active irritable and irregular in their hab ns They do 53 54 55 56 57 58 not like unexpected changes in their environment whether it be changes in routine or the introduction of strangers These infants do not like bodily discomfort As a resuh they often cry w nh high intens wy and du on S ow to warm I I regular 1 but less so than eas temperaments S TW do not show intense reactions to novehy but rather adjust quietly to new situations 5 Heritability I Behavior geneticists can determine the her uability o1 7quot how much quec nn that A quotnetlei 1 1 This 1n 1 1 1 1 1 Fr 1 This refers to the proportion of ti we The heritability of a ry depending on the range ofI I J studquot 139 Myers I L bility is I I 39 L L Upper right Jensen claims I I m J J J 39 factors 5 Heritability I In aperfect world where environmental in uences are the same genetic di erences in individuals would be more apparent In contrast ifall of us had the exact same genes then environmental di erences would r we in mum of 1 1 observed In the real world separating the contributions ofgenes and environment may be more a mootpoint That is in a realistic world Myers proposes that Genes and environment work together like two hands clapping with the environment reacting to and shaping what nature predisposes 6 The nature of genetic and environmental interaction I Myers states forget nature versus nurture think nurture via nature We are the product of a cascade of interactions between our J aulluurldiu This complex wy of interactions will always capture the behavioral genetic scientists D A conclusion Molecular genetics I 1 Moving toward genetic perfection 1 Moving toward genetic perfection I Today the field of genetics has reached the molecular level We have a good idea of genetic expressions stemfrom polygenetic in uences There is no Jul I 39 ayulluiu that expression In spite of this complexity molecular geneticists attempt to identify di erent DNA codes that may in icate one s risk to a particular psychological disorder 1 Moving toward genetic perfection I This of course raises ethical issues As long as we know our DNA codes we can intervene and eliminate the risks In the future parents will remove all the bad codes and create the designer baby Even today in cuhures w lar genetic technology parent can determine the sex of their child As a result selective abortions are performed in societies that might value one gender over the other
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