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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Psychology 110 Dr Gordon Module 39 The nature of stress A What is stress 1 Stress as an appraisal process 2 Factors associated with appraisal 3 Stressful life events 4 The physiological response to stress Stress as an appraisal process According to Myers stress is not a speci c event or response Rather it is an appraisal process When 39 o 39 our person I 39 quot wit the whatever the environmentthrows our way Th 39I39 39 1998 39 39 39 stressj rl for one person is not for the other Stress as an appraisal process I In your text Myers tchs about challenge Challenge refers to whenever our resources match or exceed Factors associated with appraisal the demands of our environment Challenge can refer to transcending a umatrc event However when our resources fall short of the thrmtening event we have ourselves open to stress relatal ismse When returning to the states a number of Via Nam veterans did not have the resources to counter their post traumtic stress o astressor These in lud I guess 39 39 39 g f c e predictability familiarity perceived control and optimism Myers examines the histtwo rctors La s start I V quotm I J J Factors associated with appraisal 111 1 1 11 1 1 r r r susceptible to diswse Let s watch a short clip on an appraisal factor 17quotqu I o L most control because it can turn of the tail shock In contrast the animal in the center has the hast control because it cannot turn o the tail shock As a resuh it develops ulcers whereas the animal with control does not 1111 1 1 Factors associated with appraisal c 1 1 iumr uf 1 1 1quot I my J with wmhh and J 39 1 In sucimies 39 o 39 I 39 39 tw n 39 39 pmquot I I quot39 younger g 39 wmhhiest individuals Factors associated with appraisal Another factor rehltal to appraisal is optimism Optimism refers to one hoping that good things will happen in the xture One who is optimistic will likely say that the ghlss is half rll and not half empty c 11 chiMn quot39 quot I 1 11 1 39ndicatesthe 39 39 39 39 quot quot 11 death I f optimism hmndisease and Stressful life events c a 1 11 1 1 1 events A r 39 hrrgescale event that most perceive as threatening Catastrophes mnge om terrorist attacks e g Worbl Trade Towers in New York to natural disasters eg hurricanes mr thquakes etc According to some what ix J A h n 7 1 WI 11 1 1 1411 1 11111 1 1o 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 3 Stressful life events c 1 n u 1 TL 1 1 z 1 1 events 1 J quot 39 39 Let s start quot t r A r 39 39 39 hlrgescale event that most perceive as threatening Catastrophes ran ge om terrorist attacks e g Worbi Trade Towers in New York to natural disasters eg hurricanes mrthquakes etc According to some what it J A 1quot 7 3 Stressful life events I The slide above lists the worst ever natural disasters The 1931 ood of the Huang He River in China killed over 3 million people In history no other natural disaster was this devastating 3 Stressful life events Myerscitesthe 391 fquot 39 Jn39I I u n I of17nercent 7 39 39 I abandoning their village because of an mr thquake 3 Stressful life events Jurrrruba 39 M quot I 39 39 r The 39 39 o ofacts IIJ ternrare quot 39 39 crud chin chiMn a ofglu n 1 b we devastating 39v vuhlberg 39 J the Worbi Trade Tower disaster 3 Stressful life events I Stress rl life events are also considered life changing These events intensify one s self evaluation and test one s resilience my 1 39 o g 39 39 quot39f L I I I o r the most devasan life changes is loss 139 39 39 g 39I39 J 39 39 39 39 f those L 39 quot 3 Stressful life events rm 139 39 Fa nilquotnu I 39 I o of individuals at varying ages experiencing chronic stress The study shows that young adults baween the ages of18 and 34 reportai the y r o 39wvuw n L y 1 u 1 r 1 39 39 m that m39u39u quot o with change 3 Stressful life events I In early studies by Hobnes and Rahe they found that clusters of life changing events were associatai with disease The slide to the right is a short list of changes from the Social Re justment Rating Scale SRRS The corresponding numbers to the right indicate life change units LC U s Highly stressful events receivai a gre er number of LCU s As quot39f 39 g 39 39 39 39 39 39 also incrmses 3 Stressful life events I More recent research has examined the daily hassle as putting one at physical and psychological risk A L J Admquot r L mu woe one I I l s s of an accumuhltion of m inor stressors or hassks The slide below indicates the top daily hassles in the early 1980 s 3 Stressful life events 39 Mye I 39 types 4 with I sks For exampk 39 r 39 L quot 39 0 higher kvels o poverty overcrowding etc 39 I 39 39rr ls139 r A j cjam 4 The physiological response to stress w I I r f 39 J yum The J andpitnitarv gmrur mm rugbu39rbr 39 1 o o I r immediate threat This mobilization has been what Waher Cannon referred to as the ght or ight phenonenon 4 The physiological response to stress 39 39 f39L L 39 quot quot pathways 1 4 The physiological response to stress 22 24 25 26 27 28 29 so I Fight or ight is a common physical response to stress We either approach or avoid what we perceive to be a threatening situation The slide to the k illustrates two individuals who have decided to ght Myers identi es uthet thht m quot39 39 39 39 39 witmtmwiug pulling back conserving energy and seeking and giving support Now kt s turn our attention to a lm clip that illustrates a genuine case of ght W ight 4 The physiological response to stress 1 rm 1 r I I Hans Selye extended our knowkdge o the I 4 1 u n m n c l o r I o 7 changes when rats were injeaett witn 39 Tquot 39 39 39 39 39 shrinkage of the o thymus ghind contains white blood cells bkeding ulcers and an enhirgement of the adrenal ghind Regardkss of the stressor Selye found the same generalized response Selye called it GAS or the general adaptation syndrome 4 The physiological response to stress I Selye s 39 39139 F A S I 39 39 reaction resistance and exhaustion phases The ahirm reaction is the immediate activation of the sympathetic nervous system The ahirm rmction is the same as the ght or ight Second the organism oes into a res39 ncep e 39 J 39 39 39 139 39 39 L ly the body s energy resources become depkated and the body gives up 4 The physiological response to stress I Studies hum 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 of mol 39 J o MRIsatus 139 139 quot 39 In short chronic stress causes memory loss B A closer look at stress and disease susceptibility I 1 Stress and coronary heart disease Type AB personalities 2 Stress and its effect on the immune system 3 Stress and AIDS 4 Stress and cancer 5 Is it more than just stress 1 Stress and coronary heart disease quotquot o 4 I fquot 1 39 o 39 39 039 39 o ftwo centuries In ronn 39 killers were 39 39 139 In contrast atthe beginning of the 21st Mn tun 39 39quot were stress or ueutt Vinr 39 H ant disease remains the primary killer followed by cancer N Stress and coronary heart disease I Coronary heartdisease consists of a weakening of the heart musck due to restricted blood ow Studies I l 1 f high 1 4 l l J uetttt um eus l39l t I b W J a mug r39 L39DL I mmmingn n39 J39 etc In additionpersonality and other 39 quot quot 139 quotquot 39 1 Stress and coronary heart disease Interestingly it was not a group 4 I o 39 hut the work 01 39 o 39 39 personality to heart disease Initially in 1956 two cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman r t L u 1 TL ofoneyx o t 7 stress kvel that predictai heart attack risk I l n 1 1 Stress and coronary heart disease Basedon the quot o 39 quot quot 397 39 quot quot39 Iquot quotin year longitudinal study of 3000 men between the ages of 35 to 59 During the initial een minute interview investigators observed the behaviors and mannerisms of their sub 39ect s From these observations Friedman and Rosenman divided their sampk into Type A and Type B personalities 1 Stress and coronary heart disease 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 J39 39 39 39 o Tvne A quot 39 I 39 o 39 39 reactive competitive harddriving impatientalways interrupting ambitious a sense of time urgency verbally aggressive and shows anger with minimal provocation In contrast the Type B personality showed opposite traits Easygoing was the typical qualifier for a subject identi ai as Type B 1 Stress and coronary heart disease I The slide to the k is a short quiz to determine if you have Type A or Type B personality Eight yes 39 39 39 Tww A J 39 J 39 new 1 um m e e o oo 1 Stress and coronary heart disease I The slide to the k is a short quiz to determine if you have Type A or Type B personality Eight yes 39 39 39 Tww A J 39 J 39 39 eme e o oo 1 Stress and coronary heart disease I According to Myers Type A s are more susceptible to hmrt disease because they smoke consume ca einated drinks and skep kss A closer examination of TypeA s is thatthey have an exaggerated sy onse or combat ready When faced with a compaitive situation Type A s dispth heightened blood pressure pulse rate I 39 f 39 Th 39 39 causes a hardening of the arteries o N Stress and coronary heart disease I Recently investigators continue to search for the toxic components of the TypeA personality Myers reviews a num er o studies Auger prune 39 quot quot 39 39 390 39 39 39 r 39 139 Anger is characterized as hostik or even cynical Studies have shown that individuals with even normal blood I 39 quot7 39 quot 39 I 39 quot 39 g problem 1 Stress and coronary heart disease I The slide above illustrates the e ths of pessimism on cardiac health Persons showing pessimism are 1 r r 4 n F r l r twice as likely as I urfh am Inn has identi ed a Type D m I 391 o I r Ill l h has rhnwn 39 39 39 39 l 439 1 Stress and coronary heart disease I Studies have found that happier peopk live longer Those persons experiencing negative emotions or quot39 39 Jquot 39 39 Ilium 0 ealso quot 39 39 39 39 r o e acerbateuuesI 039 139 J In suiting 39 39 39 39 39 to hmrt disease have also caught the eye of humorisns contributing 2 Stress and its effect on the immune system I Why does stress make us vulnerable to disease Why woubi stress cause our physical to deteriorate The answer to these question is simply II II 39 The 39 39 39 c r 4 39rl 1 r n I 1 1 u 1 T r r macrophages ingest harm rl agents Imn mnrrnw mhmm r and 2 Stress and its effect on the immune system I 139 39 J 39 39 J 39 quot flight When we are ill our 14 u LLJ39 If z m0ur o o r bodies become vulnembk because our immune systan does not ga the energy to ght the disease As a resuh um 39 39 39 39 39 T39 39 390 39 39 wny muse who live to 100 years are very good managing their stress 3 Stress and AIDS I As most know AIDS refers to an I 39 y o nearly 22 million individuals died of it during the 20th century AIDS is more di cult to control because it kills slowly Persons do 39 39 39 39 39 J 39 139 n r r n c A A r rll I If the AIDS virus 4 Stress and Cancer 12 th 39 o 39 an L n connection between loss and cancer Those who are widowed have a greater chance of developing cancer As in AIDS the speed 01 cuntbl I m 39 39 Therefore 39 II 39 the next module we will discuss management of stress a 39 I N J one s r v 39 39 m an of ghting disease In 41 5 Is it more thanjust stress I so m I 39 39 pm obytivu of stress Interestingly RobertAder and N ichohls Cohen discoveral that they could chlssically condition the immune response The slide to the k illustrates the conditioning sequence 42 5 Is it more thanjust stress I a u h Pinr with 39 Thus 39 39 39 3900 J 39 u 39 0n the other hand 39 quot 139 39 39 promoters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1o 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Psychology 110 Dr Gordon Module 45 Psychological Disorders An Introduction A What is a psychological disorder 1 History of psychological disorder 2 De ning psychological disorders through criteria 3 The Medical versus Biopsychsocial models 4 Classification and the DSMI V 5 Prevalence rates 6 The impact of psychological disorders and labeling History of psychological disorders History of psychological disorders History of psychological disorders History of psychological disorders History of psychological disorders History of psychological disorders 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 History of psychological disorders 1 History of psychological disorders 1 History of psychological disorders 1 History of psychological disorders 1 De ning psychological disorders 1 De ning psychological disorders 1 De ning psychological disorders 1 De ning psychological disorders 39 However if clinicians view streaking as atypical they need to consideritshistorical context In the mid 1970 s our culture was more tolerant of streaking In 2004 and 2005 streaking is more atypical and less tolwated The historical context and its interpretation of abnormality can change in a moment Myers cites J I r the American p phi1m 39 J m L 5 clinical syndromes 1 De ning psychological disorders 1 De ning psychological disorders 1 De ning psychological disorders Lastly me ueuuviw 39 A child of three has an 39 39 39 To most ofus uu39a ueuuviw 39 39 B L 39 39 l j 39ied Thatis achild ofthree can have an active imagination However itquot Dr Gordon walks into class and introduces his imaginary fn39end Your J l quotis ueuuviw 39 2o 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 so 31 32 1 De ning psychological disorders 1 De ning psychological disorders 1 De ning psychological disorders 1 De ning psychological disorders 1 De ning psychological disorders 3 Medical versus Biosoa39al models 39 In the middle ages one might say this guy s problem iswith his demons We know better today He is depressed and cannot snap out of it How do we explain the origins of his condition Clinical researcth have looked to two models to explain mch phenommon These are the medical and biosocial models Let s start with the medical model 3 Medical versus Biosoa39al models 39 The medical model obviously starts with Phillippe Pinel in temls of moving the mmtally ill to a hospital 8 I L L u I m e muuy However argued for a connection between 1 u y I the organic causes and mental illness was Richard Von Kraf Ebing 3 Medical versus biosoa39al models 39 39 39 slump 0 Nevertheless signyicantscientgfic way In 39 39 39 g diseasel For example Kra tEbing s discovery of the cause and effea relationmip betwem sjphilis and paresis paralysis and psychosis is well documented 3 Medical versus biosoa39al models uA39t n t I kin1m J B Thetm l 39 39 539 vulh 39 39 Wt1mg 1 5 1 4 J B B n T 391 J 39 be the father of modern American Benjamin quot 39 39 psychiauy and advocate of the medical model 3 Medical versus biosoa39al models 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 Thomas V ow disease mmlugy 39 39 39 L questions 39 numedical 1 t 1 l u snugly 3 Medical versus biosoa39al models 39 39 39 39 39 s ulvlvslLm nature is mbe within a environmental system In other words psychopathology is the product of biological psychological and social factors 3 Medical versus biosoa39al models 39 For example in Weci c cultures we nd certain psychological disorders In western cultures the engphasisona 39 39ug 39 ce ain Usquot 4 quot 39 Icelanders have to be concerned about alcoholism In your text AIyers brie y discusses other culturally speq c disorders 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 4o 4 Classification and the DSM IV 39 All sciences rely on clasnfication schemes to make order out of the many observations generated Psychological disorders are no exception In 1883 Emil Kraqelin devised the firstmodern clawi cation system for psychological disorders In 1952 the first DSM diagnostic statistical manual was publi zed The DSM is now in its fourth edition with the h to come out some time in 2010 4 Classification and the DSM IV 39 The DSMI Vis pictured to the right With any new DSM edition certain terms andor diagnoses are ommiued or added In fact since the first DSM there are now three times as many diagnoses in the DSM IV For exanmle 39 39 39 39 the nsM mph 39 A L 4 4 111me new m m I A J J ncunr Themama total of17 clinical syndrome categories eg depresu39on anxiety disorders etc 4 Classification and the DSM IV 39 Studies have shown that the DSMI Vhas fairly high reliability In other words Riskind and others 1987 found that 83 percent of quot 39 39 39 uiuguusis quot The slide to right illumates a thwapist employing diagnostics to obtain a diagnosis 4 Classification and the DSM IV 39 Some argue that the DSMI V is not reliable That is the categories are simply arbimaly and label people Nevertheless the DSMI V diagnoses 39 T 39 39 and to plan treatment The cartoon makes light of psychodiagnostics 5 Prevalence rates 39 Prevalence studies have been conduaed do detemline who gender ethnicity gmdw etc has what disorder Below data from the Robins and Regier 1991 survey is presented What are some of the vital 7 l Em I in 5 cs from a major clinical syndrome 5 Prevalence rates 39 Second 1 in 6 nm urnquot 39 other 39 I 39 are high 5 39 nnvem As such dungrvvnll does having a disorder lead to poverty To answer this question it may depend on the disorder 39 39 4 quot 4 39 39 39 In contrast poverty likely leads to aAmt39I Third 4 4 such disorders as depression 5 Prevalence rates onset of 39 There s life Interestingly the onset for In soquot hotic disorders alcohol 0 is Wong J 1 J 2 Wquot quotanquot 39 L 4 as L 39 Psyc abuse 0CD and bipolar disorder merge around 20 years Later at around 24 the onset of depresu39on ccurs 6 Labeling and psychological disorders 39 Once a diagnosis is given it can set offquot others paceptions One perception is that a psychological diagqu is a label and one that endures test of time Furthermore investigators have revealed stereotypes 0quot l A thatthose with saious mmtal illnem tend to be violmt Lastly those diagnosed with a disorder tends to be bizarre and quite di ierent from normal people 6 Labeling and psychological disorders 39 39 aquot 39 u 339 quot quotDtlvid Rosenhan conducted an ingenious study The study detemline whether or not Rosenhan and his students L 4 availnail ll l l 39 these uppmmmy in to they heard voices A er an average of19 quot umrv 39 l 39 w 39 39 39 41 6 Labeling and psychological disorders During their stay atthe hawital Rasenhau l 39 m quot J 39 39 the patients Infact itwassafe t0 39 39 39 ume hp 1 4 4 5 1 1 1 1 ane s chances afsecun39ng Im l 39 5 reduced 39 39 B If th iv aw decreasing because of the understanding thatmental disorders are cause by diseases of the brain and not ane s character 1 2 4 5 6 7 Psychology 1 I 0 Dr Gordon Anxiety Disorders Module 46 A Anxiety disorders I 1 Introduction to anxiety disorders I 2 Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD I 3 Panic disorder I 4 Phobias I 5 ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 0CD 1 Anxiety an introduction I Anxiety is defined as any state of tension fear apprehension etc an anxiety disorder is any disorder marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety Feelings of anxiety are normal However when thesefeelings become 39 cmumtfunct39ion 39r quot may be indicated We will cover four anxiety disorders They include generalized anxiety disorder panic phobias and obsessive compulsive disorders 2 Generalized anxiety disorder I Generalized anxiety disorder is a cond u39ion that displays a chronic high level of anxiety not associated w dh any general or specific threat GAD has been called a free oating anxiety In layman s terms a person D is considered a wo wart These persons are continually worrying about matters they do not have control To the right Charlie Brown is the classic case of GAD Women 66 percent are more likely diagnosed than men 3 Panic Disorder I Myers de nes a panic disorder as an anxiety disorder marked by a minuteslong episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain choking or other frightening sensations Panic can be misperceived as a cardiac arrest A panic episode is so intense that one develops a fear of fear 3 Panic Disorder I For the most part the panic attack is unpredictable Panic does not necessarily have a known trigger Nevertheless persons avoid situations they believe provide the context for an attack Prevalence rates rcent of individuals in the Un ed States will develop the cond u39ion in their lifetime These rates appear to be consistent across other cuhures 3 Panic Disorder w r 1 1 1 L 1 n J L 139 I I I fear u I I intense fear of being in places or s duations from which escape might be di icuh embarrassing or help unavailable if panic like symptoms were to emerge L A Want Finding Forrester s agoraphobia 4 Phobic Disorder I PL 39r J I u an object or s duation that presents no immediate danger A phobia is not a concern as long as the individual can nd ways to avoid d Some hobias are easy to avoid eg snakes while others are not thunderstorms Phobias are classified in three ways 1 speci c phobias 2 social phobias and 3 agoraphobia Leave it to Beaver s phobia 4 Phobic disorders 12 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 I The table below of A object situation or circumstance Beaver s specific phobia was Acrophobia or fear of high places 4 Phobic disorders I The slide below illustrates an adolescentfemale who has developed a socialphobia A socialphobia is de ned as an intense fear of being evaluated or scrutinized by others The social phobic will avoid speaking engagements eating in front of others or using a public bathroom They avoid potentially embarrassing situations 4 Phobic disorders I quotquot 1 39 iejt Jul ailulllv or meri r cnrinl J L It would appear that snakes bugs mice and bats are the most prevalent in the Un ed States Ironically most of these species are gentle creatures 4 Phobic disorders I The slide below illustrates what happens to phobic cond uions as we age Studies suggest that children possess the greatest number of irrational fears 5 Obsessivecompulsive disorder I quotI I quot disorder J quot inumim o I The atter serves to reduce the anxiety created by unwanted thoughts The slide to the left illustrates the popular 0CD detective Monk 5 1 in 111 1 0CD in Goodas it Gets 5 Obsessivecompulsive disorder I Obsessions center on undesirable thoughts such as harm to self and others performing sexual acts in public unulul nu s ase u es experienced intense contamination obsessions His compulsive r nuals were so complex that he became reclusive in his old age As noted by Myers 0CD does become less intense with age 5 Obsessivecompulsive disorders I Compulsions are repet uive stress reducing and r ualized behaviors Some of the most common are hand washing house cleaning checking counting etc Compulsions are debilitating because they disrupt one s dailyfunctioning 5 Obsessivecompulsive disorders I The slide unturv m Contamination obsessions and cleaning r nuals are the most common 0CD symptoms 5 Obsessivecompulsive disorders I The cartoon above provides a humorous view of 0CD Ahh it just doesn t get better than this suggests that compulsions can reduce the sting of unwanted obsessions 5 Obessivecompulsive disorders I Compulsions re ect the need to sustain predictability and order in one s life Let s move on to theoretical perspectives and anxiety disorders B Theories of anxiety disorders I 1 Learning perspective I 2 Biological perspective 1 Learning perspective been a 7 Ir L to I 39r J The slide above illustrates John Watson and his assistant successfully cond uioning Little Albert tofear a cond uioned stimulus L J Anxietyl J 1 I 1 mmquot I 1 1 3 L objects he learned to fear 1 Learning perspective Classical conditioning and acrophobia 26 27 28 29 3o 31 32 33 34 1 Learning perspective Classical conditioning and acrophobia 1 Learning perspective I The previous clip exemplifies another another learning process influean in the development of phobias This process I t eci c stimulus aiilllulua In the clip our robot generalizedhisfear I i the same y response from two stories to thirty seven stories 1 Learning perspective I 0perant conditioning can also explain the etiology of anxiety disorders For example avoidance of phobic 39 I H J A I 7 l I H J becauseof nsstress reducing qualities Overall the learnin I I I 39r quot increased over the last half century ouvLia 2 Biological perspectives The biological perspective explains why some fears are learned quickly and why certain individuals are more susceptib e than others to anxiety disorders Myers discusses three biological perspectives These include the y Biological perspectives The evolutionary perspective explains why we acquire some phobias and not others Martin Seligman calls 1t preparedness That is um outlets If we did not fear certain things like snakes our survival was compromised Furthermore our compulsions re ect I I bewm N m m ear I es u iukiu vnuu mt mg locked door 2 Biological perspectives I 39r J 1 quot roots If L L39L I disorder a clinician usually asks the child s parents about the family history of anxiety The graph above indicates that the concordance rates among identical twins is greater han fraternal twins 2 Biological perspectives 39 39r quot quot For example 0CD has been linked to an unusually high level of activ wy in the frontal lobe Panic disorder an generalized anxiety disorder have been linked to de ciencies in the neurotransm uter known as GABA N Biological perspectives Other areas of the brain have been linked to anxiety disorders Further investigations linked specific brain structures to panic disorder Brain researchers found that ESB in areas of the locus ceruleus a structure rich in norepinephrine activ wy ign ned panic symptoms in monkeys However damage to the locus ceruleus produces no panic symptoms even if the animal was confronted w nh clear danger