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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meggie Sauer on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY105 at Wright State University taught by RobertGordon in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/231111/psy105-wright-state-university in Psychlogy at Wright State University.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Psychology 1 05 Dr Gordon Module 29 Language and Thought A The significance of language I 1 What is language I 2 Structure of language I 3 Language development I 4 Theories of language development I 5 Language and thought I 6 Language and other species I What is language I Language is defined as symbols that convey meaning plus rules for combining those symbols In turn these symbols can be used to generate an in n ae variety of messages I What is language I Language consists of four properties These include 1 symbolic 2 semantic 3 generative and 4 structured First language has symbolic properties in that it is used to represent objects actions events etc symbols used in an language are ar itrary That is there is no buih in relationship between the symbols and the concepts they standfor I What is language I Second language is semantic uhas meaning A word s sound is arb mary but each word has some significance to the person who hears a Third language is generative A limited number of symbols can produce an infin ae number of messages Fourth language is structured or rule bound With rules language can be communicated between others Rules govern the arrangement of words into phrases and sentences 2 The structure of language I Let s take a look at the structure of language The illustration above breaks down the structure of language Second asentence 39r quot39 1 2 The structure of language I Each phrase is reduced to words Words are made up of morphemes or the simplest un as of meaning Semantics is he u quotAc mmuiu ofwords and J L 2 The structure of language I Lastly morphemes are made up ofphonemes or the simplest un us ofsound Every sentence communication is based on rules that we call syntax Syntax is de ned as a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences Phonemes are simplest units of sound 2 The structure of language I The list to your left contains about 18 ofthe 40 phonemes in the English language 1o 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2 The structure of language I We are all born w uh the abil uy to recognize speech sounds from all the world s languages In Janet Werker s lab an infant is reinforced w uh applause activation of toy animals when he looks to the right after hearing a changed sound as in ba ba da 2 The structure of language I Aduh Hindispeakers and young infants 68 months from English speaking homes can easily discriminate two Hindi sounds not spoken in English By age 1 however English speaking listeners rarely perceive the sound difference 2 The structure of language I Children learn to use language in social situations This refers to pragmatics Withoutpragmatics our communications would not come atthe right time or rightplace In the illustration to the left this child has learned not to say no after a parental request However in the next lm clip learning language pragmatics is a lifelong process that some persons obviously lack 3 Language development I The table above describes the rst two years of language development 3 Language development I Let s look atsome o the that c 1 thefirst two years First receptive language understanding spoken speech develops sooner than productive speech speaking words 3 Language development I Another language development occurs around 18 to 24 months This is fast mapping Fast mapping refers to the process by which children connect a word onto an underlying concept after only one physical exposure ie seeing the object and linking a word to it 3 Language development I When infants reach the one word stage they often use overextensions Overextensions occurs when a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions In the illustration above a child calls a turkey quot on on a very lim ued vocabulary to express themselves 3 Language development I In contrast an is h 391 because J set o objects or actions For example a child only refers to hisher preschool teacher as teacher but assistant teachers are all called big persons 3 Language development 1 439 I 71 uunn r 3 Language development I The cartoon above illustrates telegraphic speech Myers defines uas an early speech stage in which a child speaks like a te egram using mostly nouns and verbs and om uting auxilliary words 3 Language development I A child can use rules o1 mu m c in Lhild a use o x o ten 1 mices or mouses for mice or u ins mm wented there occur smw 1 that children 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 so do not learn language over night overregulations decrease as children enter the school age years 3 Language development I Vocabulary grows signi cantly by age seven By the time a child reaches the 5th grade their vocabulary will probably reach between Cid40000 words 3 Language development I By the time children reach early elementary years they begin to understand the complex dy of language In particular 7 J is 1 quot f39 on one s use of language Children begin to appreciate language in terms of humor puns poetry and use in different situations I we 4 Theories of language development I There are four major theories discussed in the text These are the behavioral nativist and interaction and statistical learning theories One a the most prominent developmental psycholinguists is Noam Chomsk pictured here in the latter years of his career Each theory can explain some aspect of how we acquire language Let s take a look at each of the theories 4 Theories of language development I The behavioral theory of language acquisition proposes that children learn language the same way the 7 L club ie J According 1 39 II 39 vocalizations are achieved through shaping This theory clearly accounts for lan uage acquis dion but ddoes not account for the speed that children acquire language nor does itaccount for overregulations Behavioral J 4 Theories of language development The t t of t H language C L 3 39 quot1 h to acquire 1 or LAD According to Chomsky children s language acquisition is facil dated by an inborn readiness to learn grammatica rules 4 Theories of language development I As it relates to acquisition solely in terms 0 because children I39 producing speech errors that they had never heard The slide above illustrates a typical toddler s conversation w dh his mother The child is not going to im date the above conversation because chances are slim that an aduh would say holded or petted Chomsky argues that all languages have the same grammatical building blocks J ucr 1 1 f language C L 4 Theories of language development uTh ith I 1 I many language examples a neural network can learn a language s statistical structure eg where syllables break or knowin that won means victory and not one as in single This theory proposes that infants and toddlers learn statistical probabil dies in speech 4 Theories of language development I Th u39mmy of 1th I 1 I many language examples a neural network can learn a language s statistical structure eg where syllables break or knowing t on means victory and not one as in single This theory proposes that infants and toddlers learn statistical probabil dies in speec 1 w 4 Theories of language development I There is increasing I First studies indicate that people most easily master the grammar of a second language during childhood Second compared to deaf aduhs exposed to sign language from birth those who rst learn sign language as teens are less likely to comprehend grammatical subtleties 5 Thought and language I Does language in uence our thought Benjamin Wharf proposed the linguistic determinism hypothesis that 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 states di erent languages impose different conceptions of reality In other words our language 1 1 L L 7 I 39 warm Rilinmml I sp nln nu two di erent languages can have di erent senses of self and personality depending on what language they are using 5 Thought and language There is strong evidence that language determines how we think However some argue that linguistic determinism is too extreme That is instead of determining thought language simply in uences a The work Guinea tribe the Dani cuhure who had only 2 basic k and bright could attached nonsense words to 11 basic colors just as easily as English speaking subjects 5 Thought and language I The notion that language in uences our thought has been well documented For example our use of pronouns clearly in uences our thought What happens when we are presented w uh the pronoun he Research evidence revea s t at w en used in a sentence subjects usually view it as male and not its generic usage includesfemale as well The use of he or she strongly in uences the way we see occupations social status and personality type For example the following sentence She was a dominant CEO clashes w uh He was a dominant CEO 5 Thought and language I Many argue like Wallace Lambert that bilingualism expands our word power and academic pursuits Furthermore I 7 39 quot ch ren have a bilingual advantage This advantage manifests uself in knowing how to inhib u one s attention to irrelevant information In bilingual Canada Lambert s studies reveal that English speaking children who are immerse in French in their first three years of school achieve increased aptit d math scores and gain an appreciation for French Canadian cuhure w uhout a ecting their English uency 5 Thought and language I Can we think without language Language is not the only in uential vehicle for thought Cogn uive scientists have shown that mental images can in uence our thoughts Mental practice imagery has been e ective for both athletes and students Elite athletes have used imagery to improve their physical skills Through imagery performance improvements have been shown consistently in the la mture Researchers have concluded that imagery is more effective if one focuses on the process and not the outcome 6 Language and other species I Historically researchers have attempted to teach language to a variety of species The cartoon above re ects the controversy andor humor surrounding this issue 6 Language and other species VP i s I 1 1 oftimc with each other but do not use speech to communicate For example honey quot J J wnereaoouis of nectar Tofind the nectar the other honey bees stay close to feel the direction that the lead or explorer honey bee is going 6 Language and other species I Animals may not be able to produce language speak but do they have receptive language abilities This is the classic case of Cleaver Hans This was a horse who impressed onlookers by solving arithmetic problems nuns L by tapping one ofhis hooves unti he reached the correct answer 6 Language and other species I The controversy surrounding Hans amazing abilities was revealed 0skar Pfungst showed that Hans stopped counting in response to tiny movements ofhis trainer s head The head movements cued the in on and termination ofHans counting When the trainer knew the answer Hans was correct almost all of the time But when the trainer was wrong so was Hans Therefore Cleaver Hans receptive language abilities were simply a product of cued response and imitation 6 Language and other species I When attempts to teach chimps how to speak w uh their vocal cords failed researchers turned to American sign language to communicate Allen and Beatrice Gardner taught Washoe to us American sign language Above Washoe is signing sweet in response to a lollipop In four years Washoe acquired a sign vocabulary of roughly 160 words Washoe actually combine these signs to form simple sentences 6 Language and other species In this picture Herbert Terrace trains his own chimpanzee Nim Chimpsky According to Terrace Nim uses sign language only in response to cues from his trainers This photo shows Nim learning the sign for drink Nevertheless though impressed Herbert Tu through simple im nation Terrace believed that chimps w J ciun lmuuw ere unable to employ language rules 6 Language and other species I As an infant observing his mother s sign language training Kanzi was able to develop amazing language abilities D L 77 of660 sentences Critics ofthis research were even impressed by Kanzi abil wy to understand language semantics and syntax 6 Language and other species I Kanzi apygmy chimpanzee may have nquot quot some cimpl c m n c off this computermonitored keyboard Nevertheless as stellar Kanzi s performance has been it cannot compare to human language abil uies Human language is more uent exible and complex Any toddler can outperform any chimpanzee in language abilities In short chimps are simply lim ned in their use of syntax but can communicate meaning through symbols 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 Psychology 1 05 Dr Gordon Module 21 Operant Conditioning A Operant Conditioning 1 Introduction to operant conditioning 2 Shaping 3 Principles of reinforcement 4 Punishment 5 Revising Skinner s position 1 Introduction to operant conditioning I 5 WV ew processes One of the Inuij 39 l 39 of when a stimulus eventis delivered 1 Introduction to operant conditioning l B J J B l opemmc B J 3 s the body In operant l minmun These conditioning I 39 reinforcers increase the probability of a response 1 Introduction to operant conditioning 39 Edward 39 1 Its the law of effect By definition the law of effect states thatif a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfving effects the association betwem the stimulus and the response is strengthened In other words rewarded behavior is likely to recur 1 Introduction to operant conditioning 39 To testhis notion Thorndike used the puzzle box In the presence of a stimulus suing the kimm J 4 c 1 u L a 1 u 3 5 T 1 Introduction to operant conditioning Thorndike s law of effect 1 Introduction to operant conditioning 39 Based on Thorndike s ideas Skinner developed his own puzzle box and called it an operant chamber 0thw behavioral psychologists refmed to it as the SkinnerBox Skinner believed that the reinforcw was en hushquot 39 39 39 39 39 probability of a response 1 Introduction to operant conditioning qemu luuuuma T 39 However the old r was just as effective Thousands of quot quot quot l l r 39 39 39 39 wua useu m meamre a rat s accumulative response rate 2 Shaping 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 39 quot quot115 39 l l 39 39 39 39 39 ulwulu closer and closer approximations of a deu39red goal The Maping technique is employed in a variety of contexts It has been used from training animals to do unusual things left to autistic children learning words AIyers notes a 1 r quot1 5 391 1 3 Principles nfreinfnrcment n i 39 39 l 39 39 39 5 resyonse Reinforcement can be conceptualized in Werent ways For the most part psychologists identify two major 3 Principles nfreinfnrcment nr typeV quotJ 39 r r film clip 39 quot 3 Principles nfreinfnrcement Delayed 39 Reinforcemmtis not always immediate In reality most of us understand that we mustwait for reward Delayed reinforcement is syecifically a human condition Thatis we team that important rewards are deferred for later Walter Mischel and others have found that children as young as four years are willing to wait for a bigger reward later and an immediate smaller reward 39 n u l 39 39 39 5 resyonse Reinforcement can be conceptualized in Werent ways For the most part psychologists identify two major m J Let I 3 Principles nfreinfnrcement Przmary vs Secnndury J l l u u eg food drink sex waste release 5 39 39 39 J PM 51 J 3 Primm reinforcers 39 J 39n Itnm L 39 am 0ftquot above primary reinforcers 3 Principles nfreinfnrcement Cnntinu nus vs Intermittent 39 39 39 39 B may 39 39 With 39 39 39 First when 1 J 5 l Second 1 J quot39 quot39i l 39 aswell u itquot we wm39mully 39 39 asking for something 3 Principles nfreinfnrcement Cnntinu nus vs Intermittent 39 39 rein oning I 39 quotIn 5 the time Unlike continuous intemliuent schedules lead to a slower acquisition of l arning resyonses and are more reu39stant to ex 39 aion Formost inta miuent schedules re ect the real world 3 Principles nfreinfnrcement Cnntinu nus vs Intermittent 39 Fixed ratio schedules involve giving a reinforcer after a predictable or xed number of nonreinforced rewonses Frequent flyer packages are based on FR schedule The conmmer ies so many miles for free airline tickets 3 Principles nfreinfnrcement Cnntinu nus vs Intermittent 39 A variable ratio 5 g 39H after l 39 4 reyonses A slotmachine 39 39 quot I require to win the jackpot 3 Principles nfreinfnrcement Cnntinu nus vs Intermittent Fwy1 infamyll 39 wit I J m 39 l 39 mm One s 39 In 39 gemng39 matfive birthday is Im 39 o clock every work day is a xed interval schedule 2o 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 3 Principles of reinforcement Cantinu aus vs Intermittent 39 Variable intmal schedule involves giving a reinforcer after an unprediaablepen39od of time Sulfws know thatifthey wait quot3 B l Wave 39 39 39 39 39 v IraInto This schedule is the most reu39stant to extinction 4 Punishment 1m 14 x l wiin negaiive l 39 39 39 1 been 394 4 L 39 39 39 39 4 Punishment How Rowanh w A l J J haw it is delivered fltisphy ml v H 39 39 uliachmm vhnum Ianl n Se 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 Punishmentis If Tr I J h learned 4 Punishment l u u l Humm t 39 B 39 39 39 39 39 39 u l For example even though we get a couple of speed tickets we go I 39 deieuw so we quot39 lead foot 4 Punishment l u u l Humm L 39 B 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 u l For example even though we get a couple of speed tickets we go I 39 deieuw so we quot39 lead foot 5 Revising Skinner s position wm J 1 me iaeu of an animal L 3 W m a 3 39 l 39I 39 39 39 l 39 Nevertheless cognitive procemes seem to find their way into behavioral studies When we think of animals 39 39 l 39 th deliver f 39 395 39 39 g 1 39 l 39 39 39 quot cognitive 5 Revising Skinner spasitian Wm M m 1 u need reinforcement to learn It would appear that animals can use cognitive procemes to learn Tolman 5 Revising Skinner s position 39 Most importantly cognitive procemes appear to be involved in human leaming Myers uses the concept of overiusti cation to support this notion According to Myers overjusti cation is the effect of promiu39ng a reward for doing 39 likes to do rather than intrinsic interest f I a response What if rewards are information based 5 Revising Skinner s position 1 1 u u l that any operant principles could work on any rewonse Today we know better We cannot underestimate 39 539 l 39l 39 39 39 39 39 391 I For example thisraccoon can depositone coin into a piggy bank but when given two coins it mbs them together Rubbing two objects together is instina ual and cannot be modi ed by conditioning or leaming experimces
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