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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Psychology 110 Dr Gordon Module 1 7 States of Consciousness Waking and Sleeping Rhythms A Waking consciousness I 1 Levels of consciousness I 2 Daydreams and fantasies 1 Levels of consciousness I Myers de nes consciousness as our awareness of ourselves and our environment This particular concept has had a stormy history in the eld of psychology In James Principles of Psychology he proposed 39 was lik Iv attimes Ifone couldtape record one s thoughts one wouldfind an endless ow of ideas 1 Levels of consciousness I I I t 39l ofawareness These levels included the consciousness preconsciousness and unconscious According to Freud the cr uical level is the unconscious It J P J l l 7 It is the root ofall neuroses and con ict 1 Levels of consciousness I Freud supporters believed that levels of awareness were analogous to an iceberg That is the tip of the I w I I I ofthe iceberg that was vast but unseen and unknown In the Freud view the conscious level matters the least tub Minus The 1 Levels of consciousness I During most ofthe 20th century ourfocus on view It w technologies emerged that consciousness again became a focus of study In response to stimuli scientists observed chan es in brain wave activity Brain researchers noted that di erent levels of consciousness corresponded to di erent patterns of brain ac vity 1 Levels of consciousness n technologies revealed that information processing is occurring atmuhiple levels of consciousness Consciousness is e ortful requires mental energy and has limitations The basketball player to the left is not consciously thinking about putting the ball in the basket Rather this skill comes so automatically that his consciousness may be somewhere else eg setting up full court pressure 1 Levels of consciousness I J as 1 quot J I but is skilledat handling unfamiliar problems The consciousness according to Myers depends on serial processing ie doing things in order t is like a chief executive w ose subconscious assistants go about their routine business The consciousness is nature s way of keeping us from thinking and doing everything at once 2 Daydreams and fantasies I Though lim ued our consciousness can wander just as James originally argued This wandering is often referred to as daydreaming or fantasizing Daydreaming is not necessarily a way for us to escape reality In act daydreaming has been found to be qu ue ada tive For example daydreaming can release tension increase creativ uy illuminate problem solving and lessen boredom B Sleep Quiz Circadian rhythms sleep rhythms deprivation and disorders 11 12 13 14 15 o N The human body never adjusts to night shift work During sleep the brain rests 0 WM The older you get the fewer hours of sleep you need 0 Q You cannot learn to function normally with one or two fewer hours of sleep a night than you need 5quot Raising the volume of your radio will help you stay awake while driving B Sleep Quiz Circadian rhythms sleep rhythms deprivation and disorders I 6 Resting in bed with your eyes closed cannot satis Y I your body s need for sleep I 7 Most people do not know when they are sleepy I 8 Boredom makes you feel sleepy even if you have I had enough sleep I 9 Sleep disorders are mainly due to worry or I psychological problems I 10 Snoring is not harmful as long as it does not I disturb others or wake you up I 11 Everyone dreams nightly 1 The human body never adjusts to night shift work T b These cycles can be yearly eg winter time blues monthly eg female menstrual cycle daily eg circadian rhythms that regulate body temperature 1 J eg sleep stages The slide above illustrates factory employees working the graveyard shift Do such shifts a ect one s circadian rhythm True I All living things have circadian or 24 hour rhythm This a ects us when wefeel sleepy and when we feel alert Light and dark cycles set these circadian rhythms When you travel across time zones your circadian rhythm adjusts when the light and dark cycle changes For a shift worker the light and dark cycle does not change so the circadian rhythm never adjusts Whether you work the night shift or not you are most likely to feel sleepy between midnight and six in the morning And no matter how many years you work a night shift alt511 quot L J 1 Shift u nrk N L 1 quot13c last half of the day block out I r Iquot bedtime quot r 39 1 before bed USA Today March 1999 1 The human body never adjusts to night shift work I The slide above illustrates the circadian rhythm for three bodily functions These functions include growth hormone release body temperature and alertness The graph above shows that growth hormone release actually increases during sleep 1 The human body never adjusts to night shift work I Besides the graveyard shift transcontinental ight can play havoc w uh our circadian rhythms The experience of jet lag is a common experience among those traveling across time zones There are two ways of d looking at jet lag eastward or westwar 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1 The human body never adjusts to night shift work Wm c hm iigm neips reset our 1 researchers have identi ed two types of light shifts that a ect our circadian rhythms A phase delay shift is when we extend our daylight by traveling westward A phase advance shift is when we shorten our daylight by traveling eastward 1 The human body never adjusts to night shift work I The slide above illustrates that even workers are more satis ed when placed on a phase delay shift that involves increasing the amount of light in one s day Improvement was greater for workers who had more time to adjust to each change in shifts Let s take a look atthe next film clip that reveals the dynamics of circadian rhythms 2 During sleep your brain rests D L L wnm n I J A c noted by Myers neural activ uy during sleep was discovered by accident A Chicago University graduate student Eugene Aserinsky placed an EEG electrode underneath the eyes ofhis sleeping son Arrnond DidAserinsky nd an inactive brain during sleep False I While your body rests your brain does not An active brain during sleep prepares you for alertness and peak functioning the next day USA Today March 1999 2 During sleep your brain rests I Our understanding of the brain J the country In addition to an EEG 39 use I EOG The EMG measures muscle activity The EOG records eye movements 1 c1 Phasz 1 1 1 11 mum J 2 During sleep your brain rests I Sleep researchers have identi ed di erent sleep stages Each stage has its own unique brain wave activity Stages 14 are consideredNonRE s eep ie absence ofany eye movements We all begin sleep in a relaxed or alpha wave state We begin to feel drowsy 2 During sleep your brain rests I Next we move into Stage 1 sleep that is re ected by theta wave activity The slide above illustrates the EEG monitoring the moment one moves into Stage 1 sleep Stage 1 has been rich found to be rich in imagery or false sensory experiences As slee ers move into Stage 1 the can feel a slight body jerk Others have experienced a hypnogogic sensations or oating weightlessly Interestingly the oating sensations in Stage 1 have been related to perceptions of alien abduction 2 During sleep your brain rests I Stage 2 I 1 I 1 A Min tn MI W sleep talking can begin in Stage 2 Stages 3 and 4 re ect slow deha wave activity Stage 3 is more a trans uion into Sta e 4 A number of phenomenon occur in stages 3 and 4 For example atthe end of the Stage 4 sleepers have reported bedwetting andor sleepwalking 2 During sleep your brain rests I Despite the Stage 4 s deep sleep one can continue to process information For example one can respond to a crying baby or selectively attend to the sound of one s name In terms of the latter EEG readings detect activ L 39r In short outside our conscious awareness 2 During sleep your brain rests I Some interesting things happen after the first sleep cycle According to Myers one does not stay in Stage 4 0n the contrary the sleeper returns to Stages 3 and later to 2 However after Stage 2 one 26 27 28 29 3o 31 32 33 34 35 experiences a new but familiar state of brain activity This state re ects a burst of brain activity similar to what one might see in a alert brain This state has been called rapid eye movement sleep or 2 During sleep your brain rests I The slide above illustrates the I sleep night are observed First REM sleep increases as the night progresses Second Stage 4 sleep decreases as the night progresses Third one spends the most time in Stage 2 sleep Let s take a closer look atREM sleep N During sleep your brain rests I Sleep research has revealed a unique stage called REM sleep This stage is described as rapid eye movement or paradoxical sleep Brain act39iv wy is characterized as beta wave Beta wave act39iv wy is similar to when the some interesting transitions during REM sleep 2 During sleep your brain rests Sleep researchers have identi ed changes in the body during REM sleep First one experiences rapid and irregular breathing Second the eyes move rapidly underneath the eyelids Third in males one can experience a penile erection whereas females experience increased vaginal lubrication and clitoral engorgement For ma es REM s eep is often indicates whether one s erectile dysfunction is physical or psychogenic 2 During sleep your brain rests I Sleep researchers have identi ed changes in the body during REM sleep First one experiences rapid and irregular breathing Second the eyes move rapidly underneath the eyelids Third in males one can experience a penile erection whereas females experience increased vaginal lubrication and clitoral engorgement For males REM s eep often indicates whether one s erectile dysfunction is physical or psychogenic 2 During sleep your brain rests I During the REM state the sleeper is paralyzed from the neck down despite brain act39iv wy in motor cortex The REM state has been called paradoxical sleep because internally the body is aroused but externally it appears to be at peace Lastly REM sleep has been assoc ed w uh persons reporting dream states n ike the sensory images of Stage 1 sleep REM dreams are frequently emotional storylike and accessible Because the individual experiences paralysis during REM sleep one is unable to act out their dreams 2 During sleep your brain rests I REM sleep has been discovered in other species For example the cats spend nearly 80 percent of their day sleeping To the right a cat is currently in aNonREM stage of sleep The meticulous observer knows this because the cat is upright 2 During sleep your brain rests I However the same cat progresses to aREM state of sleep One can observe the temporary state of paralysis by the cat s limp muscles and body opped to the side The relaxed muscles and paralysis explains why we do not act out our dreams 3 The older you get the fewer hours ofsleep you need I Does sleep need vary with age Do older people require more sleep than teenagers infants etc Sleep 1 h been r L y wuimiuu in need can be attributed to genetics temperament If any age di erences exist they are probably related to sleep e iciency False I Sleep need remains unchanged throughout aduhhood Older people may wake more frequently through the night andmay sleep less buttheir sleep need is 1 I J L J m I W quotnquot 1 3 1 L L L deha sleep What are the implications 3 The older you get the fewer However as we age we get less slow wave 36 37 38 39 4o 41 hours ofsleep you need I Do infants require more sleep than aduhs The need for sleep does not necessarily change but sleep patterns do c ange For example infants on the average sleep about 16 hours a day but w uh 6 to 8 two hour intervals At birth infants do display greater percentage of rem sleep 50 By the end of the rst year infants spend about 30 of their time in rem sleep 3 The older you get the fewer hours ofsleep you need I For aduhs there quot sleep Adults in rem W J 7 4 deha wave deep sleep They also spend more time in stage 1 sleep It is not unusal for aduhs to experience more frequent awakenings during the night However the need remains the same from young to older aduhhood 1 ram Mr M 4 You cannot learn to function normally with one or two fewer hours of sleep a night than you need I Sleep I our needfor sleep Why does it vary In one person to the next This raises the important question ofsleep debt One may need to think ofsleep as a cred u card If we stay awake putting money on our cred u card do we have to eventually pay it back w uh sleep money Jr 1 A True I Sleep need is biological While L n 139 mnr r L J how m p y is genetically determined Most aduhs need8 hours ofsleep to function at their best How to determine what you need On a night youfeelfairly well rested try sleeping untilyou wake up on your own Ifyoufeel rested the length oftime you slept is your sleep need Sleep need however does raise the issue ofsleep debt through sleep deprivation USA Today 1999 4 You cannot learn to function normally with one or two fewer hours of sleep a night than you need I Sleep deprivation is not life threatening but it can make us less productive and prone to accidents These marathon dancers have been on thefloorfor about 60 to 70 hours What can we expect to happen to both of them after they leave the dance floor If we measure them on cognitive and perceptual motor tasks we can expect modest declines We can also expect changes in mood 4 You cannot learn to function normally with one or two fewer hours of sleep a night than you need n J 139 139 I r leads to an accumulation of sleep debts According to renowned sleep researcher William Dement most Americans no longer know what it feels like to be fully alert Partial de n has proven very costly for our society Some have linked to the accidents ofExxon Valdez and Chernobyl andfalling a sleep atthe wheel 4 You cannot learn to function normally with one or two fewer hours of sleep a night than you need I Myers cites the work ofCoren and others who examined the relationships between partial sleep deprivation eg time changes on the number of car accidents The results were clear less sleep contributes to more car accidents Longterm deprivation may lead to decreased immune function attention de cits and of course 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 so 51 more accidents 4 You cannot learn to function normally with one or two fewer hours of sleep a night than you need I I been 1 For example Pilcher and Wahers 1997 deprived subjects for 24 hours and found them to score lower than nondeprived subjects on the WatsonGlaser cr uical thinking test 4 You cannot learn to function normally with one or two fewer hours of sleep a night than you need I What about REM deprivation 0ne variation of sleep research is to deprive subjects of REM sleep As a result researchers observed a greater frequency of REM periods after prolonged deprivation After returning to normal sleep subjects often reported a REM rebound effect That is they spent more time in REM if deprived of it over time 4 You cannot learn to function normally with one or two fewer hours of sleep a night than you need I Sleep deprivation studies raise an important issue why do we need sleep What is real function of sleep According to yers r willtiuua Tquot I our emt adaptive to function in the dark restoration brain repair and growth during sleep growth hormone is released mu u was not 4 You cannot learn to function normally with one or two fewer hours of sleep a night than you need I Can you wake without an alarm clock If you scored three true statements you are likely deprived 5 Raising the volume of your radio will help you stay awake while driving I Partial sleep deprivation has been linked to car accidents Drivers drink co ee take stimulant drugs talk to passengers and turn up their radios just to stay awake Do these things really work Myers notes that2 percent of car accidents can be attributed to partial sleep deprivation False I If you are having trouble staying awake while driving the only shortterm solution is to pull over at a safe place and take a short nap or have a caffeinated rink The only longterm solution is prevention starting after a good night s sleep Research shows that loud radios chewing gum and open windows fail to keep sleepy drivers alert USA Today 1999 6 Resting in bed with your eyes closed cannot satisfy your body s need for sleep I As long as persons are resting could they be satisfying the need to sleep False I Sleep is as necessary to heahh as food and water and rest is no substitute for sleep Sleep is an active process neededfor health and alertness When you do not get the sleep you need your body builds up a sleep debt Sooner or later the debt must be paid w uh sleep 7 Most people do not know when they are sleepy I This particular driver may not really know that he is sleeping This might explain why people wonder why their car is in a ditch and have no idea how it happened True I Researchers have asked thousands ofpeople over the years ifthey are sleepy only to be told nojust before thepeoplefall asleep What does this mean Many people do not know whether they are sleepy when they are sleepy or why they are sleepy When driving do not think you can tough it out when you are sleepy even ifyou are only afew milesfrom your destination Ifyou are sleepy enough you can fall alseep anywhere 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 6O 61 8 Boredom makes you feel sleepy even if you have had enough sleep I Is this person going to sleep because she is bored Or is becoming sleepy due to other factors False I When youfeel bored you may notice you are sleepy but sleep loss is the culprit Boredom like a warm or dark room does not cause sleepiness it merely unmasks u 9 Sleeping disorders are mainly due to worry or psychological problems I Sleeping disorders are a significant problem in our society The most common among them is insomnia 0t ers include narcoleps night terrors sleep annea quot 39 39 disorders Is itall psychological or all biological Is it an interaction of both False I Stress is the number one reason people report occasional insomnia but chronic sleep disorders have a ca ses Sleep apnea for example is caused by obstruction of the airway during sleep Narcolepsy which is characterized by severe daytime sleepiness and sudden sleep attacks appears to be genetic No one causes restless legs syndrome in which creepy crawly feelings arise in the legs and are relieved on momentarily by man 9 Sleeping disorders are mainly due to worry or psychological problems I Insomnia refers to chronic problems in getting adequate sleep Insomnia can show one or all three patterns These include problems in falling asleep maintaining sleep and persistent early awakenings Insomnia has been quotn ed to Jmi ue I problem Sleeping pills are a last resort as they can negatively affect the REM cycle 9 Sleeping disorders are mainly due to worry or psychological problems Mostpersons who L 7 L mm u sleep time Some effective suggestions for reducing the e ects of insomnia might be exercise to stay t change one s diet stop smoking re uce ca eine intake avoid alcohol around bedtime have sex go to bed later do not fret if one looses sleep time and learn to value sleep as much as other lifestyle choices 9 Sleeping disorders are mainly due to worry or psychological problems 11 mm c hm win I U experience more presleep attention of an imators 9 Sleeping disorders are mainly due to worry or psychological problems I Sleep researchers have identi ed other sleep disorders These include narcolepsy nightmares night terrors 7 L J L especially a problem for children Night terrors are aNonREM disorder Whereas nightmares are aREM disorder mumquot m 9 Sleeping disorders are mainly due to worry or psychological problems I Night terrors can be quot L J of on I L quot wakes up feeling terrified in cold sweat Night terrors usually occur in stage 4 about2 to 3 hours into the sleep cycle Nightmares are a REM disorder Nightmares are associated w uh neurotic symptoms a neurosis in aduhs In children nightmares of high frequency and intens uy are associated w uh emotional disturbance 9 Sleeping disorders are mainly due to worry or psychological problems I Like night terrors sleepwalking is more common in children It is aNonREM disorder observed during stage 4 of the sleep cycle W uh age sleep walking tends to decrease because less time is spent in stage 4 of 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 7o 71 72 LJ L the sleep cycle 7 I quot J not quot own or withfamily assistance Furthermore sleepwalkers cannot recall anything about their walking incidents 9 Sleeping disorders are mainly due to worry or psychological problems I Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder that a ects 1 in 2000 persons Narcolepsy stems from the absence of a I I I r Research indicates that malfunctions in the activ wy of the small brain peptides known as either hypocretins H0 interfere with the sleepwa e cycle he 9 Sleeping disorders are mainly due to worry or psychological problems I Researchers recently found that Dobermans and Labrador retrievers w ah narcolepsy have a defective gene that impairs hypocretin activity Nevertheless nding the same gene has been problematic in n rese rch p y b J 1 p disorder because ucan strike at any time It can be especially hazardous if a person is driving 10 Snoring is not harmful as long as it does not disturb others or wake you up I 39r that we not dun it suggest serious heahh problems False I Snoring may indicate the presence of a lifethreatening sleep disorder called sleep apnea People w ah sleep apnea snore loudly and awaken repeatedly during the night gasping for breath There is e ective treatment physicians and sleep specialists should be consulted USA Today 1999 10 Snoring is not harmful as long as it does not disturb others or wake you up I According to sleep researchers 1 in 20 persons are affected by sleep apnea Sleep apnea involves frequent a I 1 11 1 cl P C I I quotring their middle agedyears who are L J smnk The newly 400 over the course of the night causing signi cant sleep loss Most persons su ering from sleep apnea are not aware of having the condition I m a I 10 Snoring is not harmful as long as it does not disturb others or wake you up I Persons su ering from chronic sleep apnea tend to be overweight and smoke Nevertheless treatments include weight loss and surgery by breaking the jaw to open up the airway If sleep apnea goes untreated people run the risk of cardiovascular disease 11 Everyone dreams nightly I What is dreaming Does everyone experience it What is a lucid dream Does dreaming serve any purpose biological or psychological True I Many people fail to remember their dreams but dreaming occurs for every person every night USA Today 1999 11 Everyone dreams nightly I What is a dream Dreams are mental events during REM sleep that have a story like quality to them nvestigations on dreaming were at a ma 39or disadvantage before the discovery of REM sleep Sleep at dreams recovered during REM interruptions were extremely vivid emotional and confused with real wy especially among children Ahhough dreams are not exclusively from REM sleep anything NonREM is less vivid and story like In short Myers notes that we spend about 6 years of total life dreaming 11 Everyone dreams nightly I di emucea as It t t I First one in thirty women tend to have sexual imagery in their dreams In contrast one in ten men have sexual imagery in their dreams Second women tend to dream about males and females equally but men tend to dream about males nearly 65 percent of the time 11 Everyone dreams nightly I What about the content ofdreams The content ofdreams tends to be mundane and center on familiar 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 so people places and activ uies The slide above shows dream content that is most frequently reported 11 Everyone dreams nightly I Dream content may stem from our previous day s experiences For example Dement and colleagues found a link between one s dream and what happens during one s day In one experiment while in REM sleep subjects hands were sprayed w ah water As a resuh 42 percent of subjects reported water in their dream They dreamt about swimming oods baths rainfall etc 11 Everyone dreams nightly I What about dreams and cuhure Dreams may not have as much signi cance in western societies as they do other cuhures Nonetheless snm r 39 1 h or impact social change Dreams mean di erent things to western and nonwestern cuhures For western cuhures dreams do not play a major role in people s lives However in nonwestern cuhures dreams play a central role in one s life 11 Everyone dreams nightly I Even though dreams may nothold as much signi cance in western cuhures they do get the attention of h s s 11 Everyone dreams nightly I Why do we dream A number of theories explaining dreams have been proposed These include Freud s Cartwright I cnlm nu 1 L 11 Everyone dreams nightly I Why do we dream A number oftheories have been proposed These include Freud s notion of wish ful llment problem solving m 39 and L theIrv Let s take a o at Freud s theory Freud believe that dreams were the uhimate road to one s unconscious mind Freud J L quot J 7 wishes Lets take a look ata humorous clip that implies Freud s notion ofdreams and wishful llment 11 Everyone dreams nightly Freud proposed that dreams consisted of two types of content These included manifest and latent dream content The manifest content is what a person basically remembers from their dream The manifest content is a su e cial version of one s dream storyline The latent content is the underlying meaning ofthe dream Freud proposed that dreams were a product of the unconscious If waking life was ungrat39ified dreams prov ed an outlet for satisfaction If one were sexually frustrated by day nightly dreams about erotic experiences allowed for satisfaction 11 Everyone dreams nightly I Cartwright proposed that dreams provide a means to solving daily problems dreams help one to restore a sense of competence Only lim aed support has been found for this theory 11 Everyone dreams nightly I Activation synthesis theory proposes that dreams are simply the byproduct of bursts of neural activ ay coming from subcortical areas in the brain Neurons re in lower brain centers are synthesized by higher brain centers to make sense out of signals