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Psychology 105 Dr Gordon Module 3 Neuroscience and Behavior Neural and Hormonal Systems A Introduction to neuroscience I The cauliflower comparison 2 The evolution of the brain 3 Phrenology 4 The Phineas Gage story To better understand the dimensions of a brain what is a good comparison Some brain scientists would say a cauli ower Its about the same size and weight However the cauliflower s texture is quite different from a brain That is a live brain s texture is more slimy The I Cauli ower and the Brain I The cauli ower comparison The slide below illustrates the relative size and sh ape of the human brain compared with the brains of 0th er species It is obvious that the human brain is larger and more complex than that of oth er species Closer examination of the human brain shows that it is convoluted By tucking and folding the human brain s massive surface area can t into a small container known as the scull The total surface area of the human brain would t into the singles area of a tennis court in fthe bra39 10 0 P geon 9 2 The evolut I Cerebmm PanelaHubE Cerethum Evamslem I Frumanobe I Temvma nbe E Occwpna obe What will our brains look like in about 100 000 years For all of you T rekies what a treat In 1966 the television series Star Trek presented glimpse of an alien s appearance Notice the massive foreheads In the episode The Menagerie the aliens below had remarkable cognitive abilities e g telepathy Science fiction has always been fascinated with the disproportionate head size the alien body and advanced intelligence e g telepathy 2 The evolution of the brain S g m S l4 9n K x H quotFreeze Okay nnw who 5 ma mums al um auW H m F arside s Gary Larson humors us with brain evolution ndphrenology In the 19th century F rantz Gall asserted that there was a connection between a thick frontal cortex protruding eyeballs and superior memory He proclaimed that specific regions of the cerebral cortex had specialized psych ological functions Gall s interest in the localization of psych ological functions began in his childhood wh en h e observed th at classmates with superior memory ability had protruding foreheads From his observations Gall devised a system for associating th e bumps and depressions of the skull wit intellectual abilities and personality Mf mx ffm Wits Hemm u n s mmum39u NE YORK 39 th tthe cerebellum mm controlled sexual desire and love Thus from a phrenologist s view a large cerebellum meant that one had a high sex drive 3 g m S l4 9n Phrenologist s map 39 From a historical perspective our knowledge of brain functioning has occurred through observing others l misfortunes The slide below is one of those misfortunes It is aboutthe tragic story of Phineas Gage Phineas Gage was a railroadconstmction supervisor While directing his workers Gage became the victim of a worker mishap The mishap occurred because a worker failed to remove a metal rod that was used to pack gunpowder in a hole 4 The Phineas Gage story 39 The gunpowder was used to explotk and remove rock so the workers could lay railroad track When the explosion failed Gage forgetting that the metal rod was left in the hole was distracted by other workers and miscalculated the timing of the explosion As a result therod shot out of the hole and into his scnll seen below This accident so tbamatically altered his behavior and personality that his friends said he was no longer the same person 4 The Phineas Gage story His scull is on display at the Harvard medical school One can see where the iron rod penetrated The exact location of the brain damage remained controversial until Hanna Damasio and her colleagues recently used ph otographs and measurements of Gage s skull and MR1 s of normal brains to plot possible trajectories of the iron rod The damage occurred in an area in the right and left prefrontal cortex thought to be involved in rational decision making and emotion processing An oth er view of Phineas Gage s scull 5 S v a 3 Lb g a E v 94 S V B The neuron and neural impulse I The neuron 2 The action potential I The neuron Neurons are the building blocks or basic units of the nervous system Neurons are individual nerve cells that vary39in their size and sh 39 nctions ons simply receive sensory neuron integrate interneuron andor transmit motor neuron in ormation e ectrical impulses The slide below illustrates a motor neuron Terminal branches nfaxan Lfrnm runmmu Wuh mhe CHM Dendmes messnvei ream J 7 mm mhw Kelli Axnn passes stmgvs my Hum HIP EH lmrlv O all body my neurons rm PII39s my mums m grands suppun mm Neural impulse murmur 5mm Murry d h axon I neurar nnpu 395 Neurons have speci c functional areas First dendrites are branch like structures that contain postsynaptic sites that receive neural impulses Second the soma or cell body is a structure that maintains the cellular integrity of the neuron i e contains the DNA and machinery that gives the neuron life Third the axon is an extended fiber that sends neural information to other neurons muscles and other organs of the body Axons contain presynaptic sites called terminal buttons Terminal branches alaxnn rmm Wm n39onz wuh mm an endrims mam messagps 7 from 0va mm Axnn passus messages my V mm m 9H nle m m Erneumns mew 39swr 9 Illusrlvsmvg ands suppnn mm m Neurons are like charged wires but 35533753 5W slower M mumman exp me viauml Impu s39vs I The neuron Euul imuulsz Mammal Wm mwemg dnwn my axnn 1 The neuron 0 Terminal buttons contain vesicles or special sacks that store and release special chemicals called neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters are responsible for sustaining or stopping neural signals The myelin sheath is an important covering for axons M yelin is an insulating substance derived from glial cells M yelin regulates the speed of neural signals The thicker the myelin th e faster the neural signal travels along the axon 0mm Hezewmg mm Amquot uwmummm Myr n m w Q Q R 3 M Q E H N What about a look at the neuron up close and personal The slide to the right is an actual neuron seen through an electron microscope What are these structures Hi I am a terminal button The slide below illustrates an electronic microswp e of a neuron From the picture one can discern two somas and attached dendrites 1 Q k 3 m EN NI 0 Below two types ofneurons are illustrated 0n the left a neuron from the brain is compared to the spinal neuron on the right one might notice that the neuron from the brain has more dendrites that leads to rnore neural connections This explains wh y behavior at the brain level is more complex than atth e spinal cord 1 The neuron 0 Below two types ofneurons are illustrated 0n the left a neuron from thebrain is compared to the spinal neuron on the right one might notice thatthe neuron from the brain has more dendrites which leads to more neural connections This explains why behavior atthe brain level is more complex than atthe spinal cord i g kg location Spinal card Thalamus cerebellum Cortex motor neuron 1 The neuron I Flgure 4 4 leferent Kinds of Neurons Neuan vmy in size and shape depending In their oration unlijumlitm Mare than 200 type vfneumnx ham been identified in mummah ET NM i E N K N E N E 5 amp Q a E quotS C xi A neuron is a charged wire The neural impulse is basicauy Im 0390 hi Iquot 390 39 39 information within a complex network of neurons A neural impulse consists of special conditions These incmde a resting potential action potential an absomte refractory period and speci c ring principles 39quot a body um nfaxurl mmquotmummunmm vu m m m w u hnx a m Ilmv no I Direulnn nl neura lmumse Inward am lermlnab A neuron is analogous to a tiny battery ready to be tapped According to Myers neurons like batteries convert electric39uy from chemical events A chemical event at resting consists of pos39uively charged ions outside the axon and negatively charged ions inside the axon Thus a neuron s resting potential is an inactive stable and negatively charged axon At resting a neuronquots charge is 70 millivolts 2 Action potentials Neural impulse 392 Action potentials Neural impulse I 0 An action potential is described as a brief change in a neuron s electrical ch arge th at travels along an axon From three slides to the right the action potential is b J by the movement of positively charged ions in and out of channels Myers calls them manholes covers ipping open This exchange continues down the axon Cell body and of axon 1 Ne on stimulation c 555 change in electrical charge ll erong enough his produces depolarizaliun and an action potentlal blief 2 We depularlzallurl produces another acllurl polenllal a llch larlhel along the axallGr l105ilIlisllelghbellng in while he pusihvely merged atums in the previous serlmn ufaxon exlt w 3 As the anion potential continues speedily down the t u quot trazeis 7111101 br efchmjgereach illivalm Let senl ge the bottom graph 39and take r a closer examination at the cheming evenzsithat und rlie the action patentiill lnsmc elmnon 0mm eleurodc 1mm cxmmde a g E N t K R amp E a B 2 e 15 N Q v E E N 3 K v E E 3 a m S 6 V i The slide to the right illustrates the chemical events and th eir corresponding electrical events For example at the peak of the spike sodium ion channels close and an electrical impulse is generated As the spike moves downward potassium ion channels close and the axon returns to a state of rest smnum dunnvls clmc Pommum flow out Polnismm L hannul begin 1 0pm Sodium dmnnck Fmasnum open sodvum munch claw mm m 39 The period of time that positively charged sodium ions are pumped outside the cell and potassium flows out until the potassium channels close is called the refractory period In non chemical terms the refractory period refers to the minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin In your fwd Myers asserts that the refractory period is like a camera Others compare it to a time period between toilet flush es 2 Action potentials Neural impulse 2 Action potentials Neural impulse The neural impulsefollows specific principles First the neural impulse operates in accordance to an all or nothing principle That is a neuron eith er fires an action potential or it does not fire It is like squeezing the trigger on a gun Once the trigger is pulled the bullet cannot be stopped and retrieved Second the rate at which action potentials fire depends on the strength of a stimulus According to Myers a strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to re 2 Direnlnn ninaur luvpub award um ketmlnals Lastly neurons vary in their speed of transmission Thick and myelinated axons transmit neural inmulses faster than thin unmyelinated bers A neural impulse travels along a myelinated axon faster because action potential can jump from one axon node to the next A perceptual experience associated with a myelinated axon is sharp pain 0n the other hand an axon that is not myelinated is more likely related to a throbbing pain Because of its thick myelin V V sheath the lncation Spinaicard Thaiamus Cerebeilum motor neuron motor neuroni transmits the fastest I Figure 44 Different Kinds of Neurons Neuan vary in 33922 and shape depending cm theiv Intuitm Imd untliml Mam than 200 types ofneumm haw been inlmli rd in mamma 9 amp g 3 K 2 r vamp E N 53 Q aw S N U V 3 C Neural communication 1 The dynamics of the synapse 2 The neurotransmitters 3 Drugs The agnonists and antagonists Organization of the nervous system 5 Endocrine system By definition synaptic transmission refers to the chemical 4 39 39 39 39 nrtivitl that occurs This slide below illustrates a dendrite green surface of a postsynaptic neuron and a number of terminal buttons orange looking cheetos of a presynaptic neuron Although not visible to the eye there is a microscopic space between the dendrite and terminal button called a synaptic gap or cle mics 0f the synapse I Dyna The synapse is one emotions behaviors and thoughts stem from synaptic activity mzcs 0f the synapse 1 Dyna The slide below illustrates the connection between the presynaptic sending and postsynaptic receiving neurons Let s take a closer look at the area circled Remember this is wh ere the cheeto communicates with the green dendrite 1 Electrical impulses action potentials travel from one neuron to another across a tiny junction known as a synapse Sending neuron Receiving neuron nucs of the synapse 1 Dyna The slide below illustrates synaptic transmission The action potential stimulates the release of neurotransmitters from the vesicle sacs Once released neurotransmitter molecules cross the synaptic cleft and search for a binding site At the binding site th e fate of the presynaptic action potential occurs Sending rieuron polenlial Vesicle Unlaining neurotransmitters Axon terminal Synaptic gap Receptorsiles on receiving neuron Neumtransmitter 2 When an action potential xon terminal it stimulates the release 0 neurotransmitter molecules from sacs called vesicles 9 molecules cross I e synaptic gap and bind to s on the receiving here to enter the receiving euron and excite or inhibit a new action poten ia At the receptor site two critical phenomenon occur These are excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials EPSP s or IPSP s An excitatory PSP is a positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will re action potentials An inhibitory PSP is a negative voltage shi that decreases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron willfire action potentials 2 When an action potential Sending reaches an axon terminal it 9W0 stimulates the release of neurotransmitter molecules from sacs called vesicles These molecules cross the 39 synaptic gap and in to Vesicle containing receptor sites on the receiving nelrrotmnsmitters39 neuron This allows electrically 397 Aan charged atoms not pictured terminal here to enter the receiving m V E 59 my lCS 0 Action polenlial 1 Dynam K neuron and excite orinhibita Synaptic gap 3 l new action potential c RGCCPWSi eS 0quot Neurotransmitter receivmg neuron ics of the synapse 1 Dynam The lack of excitatory or inhibitory PSP s are associated with breakdowns in the ve processes that take place at the synapse These processes consist of synth esis release binding inactivation and reaptake The next 39 illustrates the lack 0 inhibitor PS s n S To the left synaptic processes are identi ed 0 Let s look at the processes below Each is critical for synaptic transmission to take place F irst synthesis and storage of neurotransmitters must occur Some psychological disorders stem from the lack of synth esis e g a lack of synth esis of acetylch oline is associated with Alzheimer s disease and memory deficits Synth esis is associated with beh avioral deficits H S S mtcs 0 1 Dyna H E S mtcs 0 1 Dyna 0 Second for an action potential to continue or stop a release of neurotransmitter molecules into the synaptic cleft is necessary Third binding of neurotransmitter molecules to specific receptor sites establish es either an excitatory or inhibitory PSP Below binding is analogous to a key opening a lock Let s take a closer look at what happens at binding or receptor sites Neurotransmitter molecule Receiving cell membrane 39 v Receptor site on receiving neuron This neurotransmitter molecule has a molecular structure that precisely fits the receptor site on the receiving neuron much as a key fits a lock Behavioral excesses and deficits may be related to activity at binding sites t H S a S mtcs 0 1 Dyna 0 Any drug or substance is capable of mimicking the activity of aneurotransmitter The illustration below shows morphine mimicking the activity of endorphin neurotransmitter Morphine is an agonist drug because it stimulates endorphin receptor sites to send action potentials to spinal cord locations that prevent pain signals from reaching the brain Agonist mimics neurotransmitter This agonist molecule excites is similar enough in structure to the neurotransmitter molecule that it mimics its effects on the receiving neuron Morphine for instance mimics the action of endorphins by stimulating receptors in brain areas involved in mood and pain sensations 0 Any drug or substance is capable of blocking the activity of a neurotransmitter The illustration below shows a curare blocking the activity of acetylch oline neurotransmitter Curare prevents action potentials via E motor neurons to skeletal muscle The organism becomes 3 paralyzed andeasy prey for the South American hunter 3 Let s move on to the last two synaptic processes Antagonist blocks neurotransmitter e l39 8 An antagonist drug at work This antagonist molecule inhibits It has a structure similar enough to the neurotransmitter to occupy its receptor site and block its action but not similar enough to stimulate the rece tor Curare poisoning paralyzes its victims by blocking ACh receptors involved in muscle movement E 3 Q N mics of the synapse 1 Dyna 0 Fourth at the receptor site neurotransmitters are inactivated by special enzymes chemicals that speed up chemical reactions Lastly a reuptake sponged up into vesicles of neurotransmitter molecules occurs A dysfunction in any of the five processes can lead to psychopathology 3 The sending neuron normally reabsorbs excess neurotransmitter molecules a process called reuptake n Reuptake Schizophrenia disorderhas been linked to excessive release binding and lack of reuptake f the synapse lCS 0 I Dynam Prozac revolutionized treatment for depression and anxiety by inhibiting reuptake of serotonin Drugs andor different substances can affect synaptic transmission For example Prozac is a drug that blocks the reuptake process so the neurotransmitter serotonin can remain active and block action potentials Prozac inhibits the action potentials that regulate negative thoughts decreased mood or other symptoms related to depression Let s take a closer look at some of the known neurotransmitters 3 Neurotransmitters 39 Neurotransmitters hold the key to about everything we do think and feel These chemicals are easily in uenced by 4rugs and are r a l an t 1 1 1 Th 1 nrnhlpm t s I e slide below lisb all known neurotransmitters Le s start with the pvt unlpr tnnl 39 39 r r rABLE 31 SOME NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND THEIR ruuc39nous Funcllon Examples nf Malluncllans n r l sAChApm a 4 r I 39 Dopamlne 39 39 39 r39 m brain pruduzes me rremors and derreased mobilily ol Parkinson39s disease serommn W 39 39 me rather antidepressant drugs raise an r n and arousal and su serulonln levels Noreplnepnrine Helps annol alerlness and Undersupply an depress mood aruusal A marer mhibilcry neuro ler Undersupply nnked m seizures rrernurs lransrml and insumnia GABA garnrna ammabmyrlc acld Gluamale A mainr exmamry nzumr oversupply an uversrirnulale brain prur V k k h memory some people avoid M55 monascdium glur d lamale in fun I 3 Neurotransmitters I Acetylcholine activates motor neurons that stimulate skeletal muscle Acetylcholine is also v 3quot involved in cognitive function 39 39 That is it actively regulates attention memory and arousal Through postmortem analyses neuroscientists have discovered a depletion of acetylcholine in the brain autopsies of Alzheimer s patients De ciencies in acetylcholine is associated with Alzheimer s disease Different substances have been identified as acetylcholine agonists and antagonists For example nicotine is an agonist drug that stimulates acetvlcholine receptors so the smoker feels more alert and cognizant The venom of a black widow spider however has an extreme agonist effect That is the venom causes a release of excessive acetylcholine to flood across the synaptic cleft causing violent muscle contractions and convulsions The black widow Spider left is 1 of 30 venomous spiders in the world All venoms cause havoc to synaptic transmission g 3 E a 3 5 amp R 2 06 Below a South American native uses a blow gun to kill his prey Blow gun darts contain a drug called curare that blocks acetylcholine receptor sites As a result action potentials to important skeletal muscles are inhibited and paralysis ensues Myers identifies Botulin poison in improperly canned fooaD as another acetylcholine antagonist substance that blocks acetylcholine receptor sites and causing paralysis as well Indiana Jones spent much of his time dodging curare tipped darts 3 Neurotransmitters 3 Neurotransmitters Dopamine is a member of the monamine neurotransmitter family Dopamine hasbeen linked to voluntary movement attention de cits learning and emotional regulation If one is given astimnlant medication dopamine activity is elevate IABLE 3 1 SOME NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS Dopamine Serutonin r e s and arousal mood hunger sleep m b pruduca quotEmorsanddetreased rain 5 m mnbllily or Parkinson s disease Llndersupply Ilnked tn depression Prozac and same lather amidzpressant drugs raise serolnnln levels Norepmephrine Helps wmrulalevlness and aruusal Undersupply an depress mood A gamma A maim lnhlhllory neuro aminobulyric and lransmiuer Undersupply linked m seizures lrEman and insomnia Glutamate A major axdlalury neuror oversupply an uverslimulale brain pmr r w k k memory some people avoid MSG monusodium glur lamale in fund 3 Neurotransmitters Nenroscientists have discovered dopamine pathways in the brain upper right An abundance of activity in these pathways has been linked to a psychological condition known as parano39 schizophrenia Treatment for schizophrenics lower right is typically an antagonist drag such as T h orazine that decreases dopamine activity 3 Neurotransmitters 0 However with every medication there are side effects Chronic use of antipsychotic medications such as Thorazine has led to Parkinson like symptoms Parkinson s disease has been linked to a depletion of dopamine synthesis and activity Two famous celebrities have been diagnosed with Parkinson s disease Do you recognize them I 3 Nenrotransnu39tters Myers discusses the blood 39 39 This 39 brain barrier er might39 also prevent life saving substances from entering the brain as well Such is the casefm dopamine Michael J F 0x picture to the right making a speechfar his research foundation on Parkinson s disease 3 Neurotransmitters Neuroscientists discovered that dopamine in a synthetic form could not penetrate the blood brain barrier Instead a precursor to dopamine known as Ldopa was used because it could pass through the blood brain barrier The next film clip from Awakenings demonstrates the temporary effectiveness of Ldopa In Awakenings Robin Williams plays the fictional character Dr Malcom Sayer T he film is based on the life of Oliver Sachs who was one of the first to use LDopa for the treatment of Parkinsons 3 Neurotransmitters Norepinephrine NE is another of the monaminefamily of neurotransmitters NE has been h39nked to attention and arousal regulation NE appears to have signi cant effects on mood regulation YABLE 31 SOME NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND THEIR fUNCTIONS Neural smmer Function 25 or MaHundiuns I sAChrpr 39 I I u Dopamine I r 39 dui i limer n d he brain prudutes he ramors and denaased mob or Parkinsun s discasc Serotonin m c n n W and arousal same ulher amidzpressan drugs raise serumm n tevels Norepmephrine Helps antral alenness and Undersupply an depress mood aruusal GABA gammzh A mam mnmuory neuro Undersupr y lmked lu Seizures nemms Iansmmer and insnmnia Elmamale A majm extilalury new Oversupnly an uvers mulale brain prur memory some people avoid MSG monascdium glur ama E in fund 3 Neurotransmitters Varying levels of NE are associated with affective disorders First with high levels of NE have been linked to bipolar disorder In contrast low levels of NE are associated with major depression As an NE agonist drug a stimulant would not be indicated because it increases NE activity Below famous artists who would stay o stimulants because they were h ypomanic Did th ese famous artists have too much NE activity From the upper left Walt Whitman Virginia Wolf Edgar Allen Poe Mark Twain Ernest Hemingway Margot Kidder 3 Neurotransmitters Serotonin appears to have a significant effect on mood andsleep regulation This explains wh y it is closely associated with depression and anxiety It also explains wh y sleeping problems are a symptom of mood disorders Prozac is a serotonin agonist ABLE 31 SOME NEuROYRANSMIn ERs AND THEIR ruucnous Function Examples nfMaIfunclinns u a 5 AChpV l gt n n r r Dopamine I n r n r th brain pruduces tne lrernors and dztreaszd mobillly or 39 I Serotonin an r n n W and arousal and same utner antidepressant drugs raise seratonin levels Norepmepnrine Helps counul alertness and Undersupply an depress mood amusal GABA gamma A matter Inhlbllcry neuro Undersupply linked to seimras tremers ammnbulyric acid I nsmiuer and Insomnia Glutamate A major Exdmmry neuron aversupply an uverstirnulate brain prur memory some people avoid MSG monoscdium glue tarnate in fund 3 Neurotransmitters Serotonin appears to be a critical neurotransrm39tter in hunger regulation Neurosa39entisb discovered that low levels of serotonin are assoa39ated with carbohydrate intake The slide below shows how actensive the serotonin pathways are in the brain Low levels of serotonin have been linked to depression Serotonin pahways 3 Neurotransmitters GABA or gammaaminobutyric acid is major inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is a great stop sign A lack of GABA has been linked to uncontrollable conditions such as seizures tremors and insomina ABLE 3e1 SOME NEuROYRANSMIn ERs AND THEIR ruucnous Function Exampies nfMalfunclinns u n s AChpV l gt n a r r Dopamine I n v39 n r39 m brain pruduces me irernors and dztreaszd mobillly or Parkinson s disease Serotonin M r n i W and arousal and same mner anridepressanr drugs raise seruionin ievuka Norepmephrine Helps camml aienness and Undersupply can depress mood GABA gamma A maror Inhibllcry neuro Undersupply linked in semims lrzmms ammobulyric acid lvansmmer and Insomnia A in rm Luaiuly Ileuvur rue memory some people void MSG monoscdium glue mate in fund A GABA de ciency has been associated with panic and other anxiety disorders Valium and other antianxiety drugs are GABA agonists That is when binding with GABA receptor sites inhibitory action potentials are produced and random electrical activity is shut down 3 Neurotransmitters Panic is attibuted to a deficiency in GABA neurotransmitter 3 Neurotransmitters Endorphin is the last of the great and known neurotransmitters Discovered by Pert and Snyder in 1973 endorphin is an endogenous opiate thatis released in the brain during times of pain perception Endorphin acts to inhibit pain impulses to the brain Endorphins have been linked to a phenomenon known as Runner s High 3 Neurotransmitters 0 According to Myers endorphins are an act of mercy When one is near death a ood of endorphin shoots through our system lessening the sting so to speak Though not death running long distances can vary from feelings of agony and ecstasy depending on the release of endorphins The slide below is a marath oner s description of the rnnner s high during training Runnun lhernselves pIobably hm dcscnbe the runnEr s hngI r half hour 39 Thiny out and soumhmg Ims Legs and arms bccmnv light and rIryIIrrmr Thu auguu and ccllnggt of puwcr begin I khmk III run 25 miles today I ll double hc r mg Tlu n another szIch imm mum gear imu overdrive Sometime quotno rm sLcnd hour comes um Ipooky lime Calnrc arr bright and bI ul vnlcr sparklca 39I r IvIl myl i IAN1 I need m Irw Ir l39nI gcxng In ve 511ch 1979 p 79 My lIrsl Iep I elk nghker an quscr than ever before My shin dung m rm and I Mr like A sk I re nuran 39 felt like I m cheating II was Ike gating ln39lv body um no nrw else rm he My mind was Mr cry ual clear um I mum have held 1 n r x p rd ahuuL lt nsduon else V Dxaxanct nmc monun went a one here were my If the c L mung of legs and IIw wmirrg dusk I tore on I Could In ru r p 4 I h I w even n 7 mad and Grind lean 0f lay and sorrow uy or being alive arr w my a vague feeling DI lumpuralnes and a knuwledgc m Im InIpussibiliiy ur givyng rm expeviancc 0 anyone MIke Spinu 1971 p 272 4 Organization of the nervous system 0 Through brain technologies the nervous system has been mapped The nervous system is divided into two major divisions the central and peripheral branch es The central branch contains the brain and spinal cord The periph eral system includes anything neural outside the spinal cord and brain Nervous system Cemer 1min and Perlphelal spmal cord Aulunamlclcommls selfrreglllakd mm m lnlemal organs and glands Samarquot OM rols volunlaly muvemeMSnf skeletal mustles Sympameli Parasympathellc arousmg Calming 4 Organization of the nervous system Closer examination of the peripheral nervous system reveals two major branches These are the somatic and autonomic divisions respectively The somatic nervous system contains neural pathways that activate skeletal and voluntary muscle An athlete depends on the somatic nervous system to perform physical skills Michael Jordan depends on the somatic nervous system to slam dunk a basketball and write his W The slide to th e right shows th e two branches of th e autonomic nervous system One might notice h ow th ey work in opposition I 4 Organization of the nervous system I SYMPATHETIC PARASYMPATHETIE NERVOUS SYSTEM NERVOUS SVSTEM musing Braquot calming Commas 2 j S1ows Hem Accelmmei i hzartbeal heaubeal x U gtii H Spinal Slnmath 31 quot Inhxbns4 l mgesrion j Males pup 39 quot summates Pancreas Stimulates y diges mquot live luco remse 5 1quot bylivev ft x Adrenal3 S H Hz 5 5 3quot sewennnuf Kidney epmephr me Cunuacls umepmephv bladder bladder 39 AHawsbmaa 539 l mu mates sexmgzms ejatulahun m ma e 4 Organization of the nervous system I The autonomic nervous system is further divided into two branches These include theparasympathetic and sympathetic nervous associated with conserving energy and regulating watch a lm related clip that all 0 us have experienced to certain degree 4 Organization of the nervous system I The sympathetic nervous system prepares us for the Yight or flight experience According to Myers the sympathetic nervous system expends energy During times of emergency such as Jamie Leigh Curtis in Halloween one requires sympathetic activity Let s take a look at a classic clip that demonstrates sympathetic activation IJamie Sympathetic Curtisl 4 Organization of the nervous system The central nervous system contains the brain and spinal cord The brain and spinal cord consist of three units These include a sensory interneuron and motor neurons The slide below shows a simple re ex consisting of th ese three units If the top of the spinal cord is severed one becomes out of touch with their body 1 In his srmple handwithdrawal I3min reflex infulmation is carried from Sensory neuron y the re arrows From here u quot quot g 39quotfmma wm is passed via interneurons to motor neurons that lead to muscles in the hand and arm blue arrows Interneuron J gt J Motor neuron our o rng rnrorrnarron Skin r 2 Because this re ex involves only the receptors 39 n 9 s a a 2 u 5 m m mg E a m s o lt a 3 5 m causing the experience of pain 4 Organization of the nervous system Myers focuses on the brain The brain is a computing machine made up of neural networks The slide below illustrates the many connections that neurons have Myers compares neural networks to cities That is in the brain neurons network with other neurons much like in a city wh ere people network with people Neurons in the brain connect with one anotherto form networks a The brain learns by modifying certain connections in response to feedback 5 The endocrine system The endocrine system is like the nervous system in that they both receive and transmit information However th e endocrine system is much slower communicator Endocrine system depends on glands th at secrete h ormon es Th e slide to the right illustrates important glands of the body and their function x a T aHPUS memhahsm Hy nlhalamus luava mgmn mmm mg Hie gummy gum d laud mqu ulhm lhmgs resu s segues male sex novmmvesl Pnuimy gland 4smmmanm mm Hmmmms scum M mm HUIt my guns 39 7 Paralhymids he weguwuh lem nr mmum m m mood Adrenal glands a m m Maum MW V sewems female smmmuum 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1o 11 Psychology 105 Dr Gordon Module 1 Historical Foundations in Psychology A Historical Foundations 1When psychology was prescientific 2When psychology became scientific 3 Contemporary developments in psychology 1 When psychology was prescientific I Historians would say that the discipline of psychology has a shorthistory but a long past In other words 9 n I T I r um m um I becam I contemplate two essential questions about human nature N When psychology was prescientific The first question focused on the relationship between mind and body Greek philosophers Socrates and his studentPlmz J J um 1 I They I were separated 1 When psychology was prescientific I However Aristotle the grandson ofPlato believed that the mind and body were connected Unlike his grandfather Aristotle derived his ideas of human nature from rigorous science In contrast Plato derived his from principles of logic 1 When psychology was prescientific I Aristotle believed the soul could be subject to the rigors of science To Aristotle the soul was expressed through the body The body and soul are inextricably bound Aristotle believed that early philosophers mistaken the meaning of the soul by regarding it in an abstract way 1 When psychology was prescientific I A second uestion centered on the origins of our knowledge Plato believed that knowledge was build in Aristotle viewed it much di erently That is knowledge is not preexisting but rather but rather grows from the experiences stored in our memories Aristotle laid the foundation for what is commonly known as in uences of nurture n 1 When psychology was prescientific I The debate surrounding these questions took a leave of absence until Augustine s fascination of human nature in the 4th century Like Aristotle Augustine believed the body and mind had a reciprocal in uence 1 When psychology was prescientific I Augustine anticipated modern heahh psychology In fact we could say that Augustine is heahh psychology s Heahh psychology inmm n how one s I L 1 quot vice versa Augustine would infer that his guy s mood will likely stimulate his bile production 1 When psychology was prescientific I In the 17th Century J J of J J L J byproposing the notion of dualism That is the mind and body were separate entities Using deduction Descartes believed that the 1 1 1 h I I 7 I pinealglad 1 When psychology was prescientific I n m I I that ndoes not have a hemispheric complement He also proposed that the pineal gland contained the soul Today we know better The pineal gland does not have communication powers rather it plays an active role in regulating one s circadian wakesleep cycles 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 1 When psychology was prescientific Even though Descartes was wrong about the pineal gland he was right about the function of nerves to a lesser degree He viewed nerves as vesicles for animal spir ns that owed from the brain to the body This ow oflmimnl I ofmemories The slide to right illustrates Descartes hydraulics view of the simple re ex 1 When psychology was prescientific In the 16th Century Francis Bacon It is 1 1 r 1 r fr 1 mbm 139 s method 9 fascination f human nature Bacon produced a number of essays on human behavior For example he wrote an essay on anger When psychology was prescientific con s view on anger has afeel of21st Century Anger Mangement Bacon stated Anger must be lim ned and con ned both in race and in time We will rst speak how the natural inclination and hab n to ay I 1 1 1 Q prnm v I mmium ofanger may be repressed or at least refrained from doing mischief Thirdly how to raise anger or appease anger in another When psychology was prescientific I caught the interest of modern day These include um ue Va wdiu I or er ou ofa random and chaotic world and our need to con rm whatever we believe The slide to the right illustrates these two phenomenon Is this apicture ofayoung woman or and old woman 1 When psychology was prescientific In the 17th century another important philosophical view would in uence modern psychological science This view was called empiricism and its founder was John Locke Empiricism is de ned as the view that knowledge comes from experiences via the senses and science ourishes through observation Locke is best known for his essays on the origins of knowledge When psychology was prescientific In his classic writing Essay Concerning Human Understanding Locke proposes the limits of knowledge In the essay Locke states the major sources and nature of human knowledge First he argues that we o not have innate knowledge In other words L slate on which experiences writes I I we are born blank 1 When psychology was prescientific Second Locke argues that ideas are thefoundation ofknowledge According to Locke an idea stands for whatsoever is the object ofand all ideas comefrom experience Essay I 1 8 p 47 Experience is J 1 a r a 1 1 a 1 c 1 With the external world Re ection is an internal process that makes us conscious of our minds 2 When psychology became scientific Though open to debate historians recognize Wilhelm Wundt as the founding father of psychology the 1 n 1 1 a 1 1 1 1 science AtLeipzig Universny laboratory The laboratory 1 ctrquot my c ofthe mind 2 When psychology became scientific Wundt founded the school of psychology known as Structuralism Structuralism stressed the elements of the mind Wundt introduced the technique o introspection to analyze the structures of the mind 2 When psychology became scientific Introspection s biggest advocate was an American psychologist named Edward Bradford T nchner Titchner studied under Wundt and brought the introspection method to Cornell University in New York Introspection is a selfre ective technique in which the subject turns inwar and reports immediate sensations feelings images thoughts etc 2 When psychology became scientific 1 I 1 the 39 zquot Wundt s structuralism provided the foundation for modern day cognitive science Nevertheless when Titchner died so did the structuralism movement in the Un ned States T nchner s cr uics argued that introspection was too 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 so 31 static and could not accountfor the dynamics ofthe mind 2 When psychology became scientific IV I ti 7 the 7 39 zquot Wundt s structuralism provided the foundation for modern day cognitive science Nevertheless when Titchner died i the structuralism movement in the United States Tuchner s cmics argued that introspection could taccoun for the dynamics of the mind Along these lines introspection was unreliable required a highly intelligent and verbal subject and was susceptible to memory error 2 When psychology became scientific I Others argued that the structuralism view of the Willirm thefunctionalism view L I Jullbtiun Too James the conscious mind allowed us to adapt survive and ourish Unlike structuralism James did not employ rigorous experimental methods Rather he was more of a pragmatist That is he tested the truth of his notions by t eir practical consequences Wu mu static 2 When psychology became scientific James L quot his time I urpose o1 James was interested in how the conscious mind adapted to various environments As such historians consider a es ti quot m I J Let s take early functionalists whose 7 2 When psychology became scientific I In 1920 Francis Cecil Sumner became thef 4f 1 PhD in Clark University in Massachusetts Su er was a student of G Stanley Hall Hall a former student of Wundt established the rst psychological laboratory atJohns Hopkins University in 1883 Sumner s contributions were numerous Let s take a look atsome of them 2 When psychology became scientific I Psychological a stracts e by in me em Sumner himself contributed nearly 2000 abstracts to this document Without modern day computer technology S umner s contributions to this document are amazing Second Sumner J I J Howard Univers wy This program went on to develop a number of African American psychologists I First Sumner developed an us 2 When psychology became scientific I Born in German Hugo Munsterberg was a man of many talents He was nained as a physician and psychologist Interestingly M unsterberg was tmin ed by Wundt and earned his PhD atLeipzig University in 1885 In 1891 he was promoted to assistant professorship and attended the First International Congress of Psychology atParis where he met William James 2 When psychology became scientific 39 Jameswas I 1 quot39 1 39 39 James eventually Nb 1 quot39 supervise pleased with 1 a 1 1 I J I declined However two years later quot39 1 1 from James over the next year As a result 18 2 ames was so Harvard but he I mmmmm r Am ri air 2 When psychology became scientific I Even though nained in structuralism Munsterberg was truly a functionalist Desp ne his lack of recognition he has 1 J in the Munsterberg established the foundation for h as forensic educ J 7 un terber s cm eel because ofhis loyahy toward Germany during World War I As a resuh much of the supporthe received from his American colleagues waned and he died before World WarI ended 2 When psychology became scientific James 1 w 11 1 1 L r 1 regardless of race or gender In 1890 he admitted Mary Whiton Calkins to one of his graduate seminars over the objections of the Harvard administration Desp ne her scholarly achievements Harvard refused to 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 4o award her a PhD degree and instead offered her one from Radcliffe College 2 When psychology became scientific I Caulkins refused the Radche degree and went on to have distinguished career in psychology She became a prominent researcher in the area of memory In 1905 she became the rst female president of the American Psychological Association Interestingly nearly a century later psychology faculty and students at gmntr39 7quot L Ph n deurep 2 When psychology became scientific I Caulkins was not the only female psychologist to face discrimination In spite ofher scholarly contributions such as The Animal Mind Margaret F loy Washburn was not given equal recogn uion compared to her male peers in the eld According to Myers Wilhelm Wundt published her work despite Titchner rejecting her membership into an organization of experimentalpsychologists 2 When psychology became scientific I Washburn began her raduate work atColumbia University under the supervision of James McKeen Cattell A G Stanley Hall s former student Like Caulkins hse was denied a PhD degree As a resuh Wash burn transferred to Corn ell University where she completed her doctoral program In 1921 she became the second woman to be namedpresident ofthe American PsychologicalAssociation 2 When psychology became scientific I Historians have considered James classic text Principles of Psychology as a de ning moment in American psychology Myers describes the painstaking efforts to complete this volume Interestingly James began the text in 1878 and completed it 12 years later The Principles exceeded expectations covering 1400 pages James students called the abbreviated version Jimmy 2 When psychology became scientific I If one were to look atthe history ofpsychology many ofthe eld s contributors were not trained as psychologists As noted by Myers Freud was a p ysiologist and psych iatrist Ivan Pavlov a Russian physiologist is best known for his contributions in classical conditioning lastly Jean Piaget a pioneer in cognitive development was trained as a philosopher and biologist 2 When psychology became scientific As a scientific enterprise American psychology became ofage between the 1920 s and the 1950 s Structuralism failed because of its methods F unctionalism may have been too softa science Some psychologists such as John Watson believed that the emphasis on mental life could not distinguish L quoti n H J J objective science byfocusing on observable r behavior N When psychology became scienti c Some historians believe that Watson s Behaviorism redefined American psychology as a rigorous science by focusing on observable behavior Watson is best known for his applications of classical cond uioning to human emotion quot J L 1 res onses These events were called cond uioned stimuli The cartoon to the right humorously captures Watson s stimulusresponse psychology 2 When psychology became scientific 1 r Watson I in their mechanistic That is organisms were like machines or buttons to be pushed The quote below captures Watson s view ofhuman nature Give me a dozen healthy infants wellinformed and my own special world to bring them up in andI ll guarantee to take any one In and train him to become any type of specialistI might selecta doctor lawyer artist merchantchief and yes even beggarman and thief regardless of his talents penchants tendencies abilities vocations and race of his ancestors 2 When psychology became scientific I Like Watson BF Skinner advocated that organisms were shaped by their external world According to Skinner persons were con 7 J b t believed that fr J 1 rpm ee will was only an illusion This view was controversial because it contradicted American society s ideal of freedom 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 2 When psychology became scientific I Skinner is best known for his work in the area ofoperant conditioning Operant cond u39ioning is aform o learning in which an organism s behavior is shaped by its consequences Skinner s work had a profound e ect how we educate parent and even govern our world Skinner elevated Behaviorism to such a degree that it became an integral part of the American landscape 2 When psychology became scientific 2 When psychology became scientific I To the ri ht V J L 991 1 I JlgureA in the history of psychology Resuhs indicated thatB F Skinner was the most influean gure in psychology in the 20th Century Interestingly ranks 2 through 4 were not trained as psychologists 2 When psychology became scientific 3 Contemporary developments in psychology Any I psychology is I 7 recurring issues that in uence the field In the text Myers teases us w dh a short list of issues such as stability versus change and rational dy versus irmtiona my These a we in ow we I I decision making For example let s take a look at stability versus change will one of these aggressive lmle boys above become 7 3 Contemporary developments in psychology This issue s mu me For erumple is Reese wanerspan s L ueguuy plume 3 Contemporary developments in psychology I The nature versus nurture issue continues to genemte research questions in psychology Throughout the quarter w quotl b 39r r o that place this issue center stage For example do we have an inborn mechanism that in uences the speed of which lan uage is acquired To the right Noam Chomsky advocated the Nativist or inborn view of language development That is he believed that grammars rules employed to genemte coherent sentences were the products of neurological or biological structures in the brain 3 Contemporary developments in psychology I Not only does psychological science depend on issues to establish research questions it also requires or diverse 139 Below psychology s current perspectives are listed e 1 3 Contemporary developments in psychology In your on anger m The topic is euplain w these ch dmn are laughing 3 Contemporary development in psychology 3 Contemporary developments in psychology 1 They were nervous 2 They were excited about their good rtlule 3 They were selfmnsvims 4 They m39edto lwt mL 5 They were seuually mused a They were showing the typical teenage response 7 Theyfe thattheywman awkward situa nl ll They enpeneneeaa vuyew39s gum 9 They enpeneneeaa v39mla nl af their expecm nsnfhlw teachers are supposed ta look or at 52 3 Contemporary developments in psychology Neumseieuee as in ght lgh 2 lhey were excited abaut tlwh39 goad mule Behavimll as in r ant 3 lhey were selfmllsvims Psyehatlyuaau39e as in egafuum39ms 1 They were nervous Behavilmlur t Behavimll as in con rming or eialeultuml as in the dynamics afthe peer gmup 53 3 Contemporary developments in psychology 5 lhey were sexually mused Nemseieuee as in hypo circuits that regulate seuual responses at the ty al teenage uespause SocialCultural as haw teenagers react ta sexual sitlul nls 7 lheyfelt that they were an awkward sitluml39nl Behavimll as in allawetl them ta avoid consequences 54 3 Contemporary developments in psychology 55 56 tlwh39 expecta nls afhuw teaehers are supposed ta look or 1111 eaguaive as in a cognitive sehema r teacher fa 3 Contemporary developments in psychology 39 39 39 39 39 rtwnlrthr and 111w lnnl sripmlz Rmhpy 39 m provide euplaaamusfau haw we think feel and behave detllll 3 Contemporary developments in psychology I The tasks performed by psychologists are qa ne diverse To simplify we can divide psychologists and their sabfields into two major categories First psychologists are research scientists They focus on conducting 57 58 59 60 basic research pure science that aims to increase scienti c knowledge in psychology The slide to the right isplays a developmental psychologist employing a naturalistic observation of preschool children 3 Contemporary developments in psychology I The slide below describes a number of sub elds in psychology Each sub eld performs basic research 3 Contemporary developments in psychology wan 39 39 11m 139 39 psychilngy The mm below describes each speciality 3 Contemporary developments in psychology Psychian39ists II Jquot 39 3 Contemporary development in psychology 145 REV HF umrw 2 The genetic metaphor It only takes the v slightest variations in quotl genetic segments to 39 account for the vast IF v 39 1quot f 1 individual differences quot r 393 we observe in human beings When the slightest variations do occur the differences can be major For example one person quotThanks for almuat everylhing Dad might have the genetic code for The cartoon above illustrates cancer and the other that wanting variations in does not the genetic code are not always possible We HEW marker MILunion 1995 ann39y39 Shim ah an from allaunban kut um All rights EEEWFIi 2 Nuzleus Chrnmnsomr uh mm mm m a All mm mmmm mum mn l hnuu s mmmmmm md Imuslv m um mummy gum Etna r m mumm of mm unmanan UH Ludc 1mmrmarmnlwnduvmwms um mum mmwm upw nnmann I ram an mm 2 The genetic metaphor I The slide above reviews all ofnalure s components Alyers states that C ontained in the nucleus ofthe each ofthe trillions of cells in your body are chromosomes Each In 39 a 1 1 1 ontains quot quot quot Gena are DNA segmenm that form templates of the production of proteins By directing the manufacture of proteins the genes determine our individual biological developmmt Let s now tum our attmtion to a how nature s components are applied wm iiifm quot ll I TH Iquot PM T tVoLuTIaNARY QPSYn CLOGY a LevE O7 7 17 2 Sexuality and mating preferences The cartoon above illusth Parmtal Investment T hemy My feren ces mg pre E 393 a 3 N 0 i How do males and females differ in their perceptions of a longterm commitment Males would prefer a long term commitment to a female if she is healthy and fertile youthful and physically attractive Below Buss cross cultural studies con rmed that males prefer physical attraction more so than females Hle hm Zambia Mum111i I cuminx 1quot11 I L ILIL lal i Mulle I If Um mtlngx nu nnpurhtnu L39 H nuiispfnmhlig H 11r nn nlu lrmnu 2 Sexuality and mating preferences In contrast Jemales preferred a mate who w ambitious intelligent and who obtained higher social status A male with these characteristics was more likely to possess the resources to raise her of pring Again Buss cross cultural studies validated that females prefer a mate with finan cial resourca39 Umm lmn Luuhm MW HugW hum u l m n u s 1 u 1 1n 1 s M unngununluummv u wuth 0 c ununpnnm Behavior geneticists rely on Elma Frat mal twin studies to determine mm mm genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences The slide to the right shows the origins of two types of twins identical and fraternal Identical twins develop from the same fertilized egg In contrast fraternal twins develop from separate eggs Identical twins are the same sex only 3 S Z S i H i Same Same or sex only opposite sex The origins of identical and fraternal twins Investigators have employed a number of correlation studies to determine the contributions of genes and environment Time and again investigators conclude that identical twins are more similar on a number of psychological characteristics than fraternal twins The slide below illustrates the correlations of identical and fraternal twins in intelligence The next slide illustrates these relative contributions These identical twins will be more similar than a pair of fraternal twins Genes make a difference E n E 6 E i h i Il f39r 39ll fdll an iMiIrHH i Hrwmm Genem wmup inhuman mer Wm ma memunwmmum my gas mkmatmm venved mgn39hm m smungsmmdwmmv 5w smmy wanVi mu m mm unnmummnmxemer 39 39 5 mmWmmmww 345 wwwmmnmuamum m Mapuvesmungwm mum 2 Twin studies New Yorker magazine directs humor toward the work of gt L behavior I f mi geneticists One can only conjecture that the New Yorker humorist had Springer and Turner in mind when developing this cartoon Separated at birth the Jones twins meet for the rst time 3 Adoption studies Behavior geneticists employ another strategy to determine genetic and environmental contributions This is an adoption study An adoption study allows the investigator to compare two sets of relatives i e adoptive and genetic parents Overall adoptive studies indicate that adoptive children do not resemble their adopted parents on certain g psychological traits such as 39 personality and intelligence Adoption studies suggest that even adoptive parents could not have prevent the antisocial ways of Charles Manson E 3 3 g a E a K S I The slide below displays the Atkinson and Sht 39rin model of memory storage It contains sensory sh ort term and longterm memory processes 5mm mummy shaman memory lungIan memory My v Srmury ian Auwuhul M rwl The slide below illustrates characteristics of sensory memory According to Atkinson and Shimin sensory memory is the first stage in the storage process George Sperling investigated this first stage Key Processes in Sensory Memory Brief1ragile and Information is Visua 250 mil Rapid decay a temporary exrraetedfrom iseeondsaudi information echoicsroragei stimuluspresen toryzaboura tallon and trans seconds ferred to short Ierm memory presented 9 a 2 a E N 4 v1 Fixation Display Tons ngh puch Medium men B Low pm 5 Partial report 3 l 2 9 5 i no 5 z 2 5 uh a E 2 Whole report pe urmance level N I Delay mierval seconds Manny and rawquot um um Hgm Wu en 15 Mumm quotlarval 5mm mums bazkwam W m 5 1 g quot 5 gt 00 i Sllmulus mumme 2 mm m a 3 my man mc Ecmnd Peterson amp Peterson 1959 did a variation of our experiment Th eyfound that retention of nonsense syllables became more di ieult subjects performed an interference task with along interval de y before recall The slide above illustrates the Peterson protoco Q E E k 2 a i Dislraelicn inlelval mun ng backwnyd 39136 476473470quot 5826796785713 267264261258 255 u 941A938935932A929926quot 74774444173973 733730 Time sec In their studies Peterson and Peterson 1959 showed that the longer the delay between encoding and recall and more intense the distraction interval the poorer the recall of nonsense syllables After a 15 second delay recall was significantly affected N E E k 3 2 4 i 2 Shortterm memory Baddeley calls shortterm memory working memory He has identi ed three components of working memory These include a visualspatial sketchpad a phonological rehearsal loop an executive control system and episo 39 bu er A visual spatial Sketchpad is a mental manipulation of a visual image A phonological rehearsal loop is an active recitation of information such as trying to remember a phone number Working shunterm mummy Working Memory Working shun12ml memury Phunulnglzil Executive Rhiajsa muml any system VisuuspauaL skude 3 Longterm memory We experience long term memory because it is highly organized How do we organize words and concepts in LTM Research has proposed clustering and conceptual hierarchies Clustering is the tendency to remember similar or related terms in groups A conceptual hierarchy is a multilevel classi cation system based on common properties among items How would you recall the list of words to your right Giraffe Parsnip One is able to retain LTM s because of Conceptual hierarchies 39 39 4 Implicit versus explicit memory Types of longterm memnries Explicit Implidl declarative nnndanlalalive With conscious recall Withnul conscious recall Facxs PelsanalIy Skius i Classical and operam semantit memoryquot episodic memoryquot The slide above is a breakdown in memory systems This owchart was developed from years of memory research Evidence has been accumulated from clinical read Oliver Sack s observations of Jimmie on page 35 and experimental studies Over the years clinical researchers have observed two memory systems First there is the implicit system This system retains information how to learn independent of conscious recollection It is also called procedure memory 4 Implicit versus explicit memory Types of longterm memnries Explicit Implidl declarative nundanlalalive With conscious recall Wilhnul conscious recall 539 PF39smnquot Skills H Classlcaland operam semantit memoryquot quotEDiSOdiL mEmDryquot 7 i Second the explicit memory system involves experiences that one consciously knows and declares This has been called declarative memory The slide above illustrates two explicit systems These are semantic and episodic memory systems The episodic is our autobiographical account of our life Semantic memory is our jeopardy or trivial pursuit memory Th e following lm clip presents a man who has retrograde ast recall gone after an injury and anterograde future recall gone after injury amnesia 4 Implicit versus explicit memory Retrograde amnesia Anterograde amnesia 39 Anatomy of memory research comes from investigations of head injured persons and organic amnesia There are two types of amnesia First retrograde amnesia involves the loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia Second anterograde amnesia involves the loss of memories for events that occur after the onset of amnesia Amnesia studies have led to discoveries of other areas brain responsible for memory Speci cally researchers have identi ed the parahippocampal region 4 Implicit versus explicit memory 39 The cerebellum appears to be associated with procedural memories Rich ard Th ompson h as shown that speci c memories depend on localized neural circuits H e found speci c regions in the cerebellum contained a conditioned eye blink response After training a rabbit and then destroying the speci c area of its cerebellum that localized the eye blink memory the rabbit no longer sh owed th e classically conditioned The cerebellum appears To be linked to Procedure memory The Hippocampus is Linked to explicit Memory Psychology 105 Dr Gordon Module 10 Adulthood and Aging O V f 75 quot 5L I 3 J9 L 10 MA 239 1 312 F V mm m O o gammawar 2 14 9 r f m q H47 239 Q 1 39 a lmM 0 quot 0 r 39 p t39 OFT V W7 m 4 39 f O 4447 MM mg L I Introduction to aging At some point in our lives Holy 7 Where the Heck we begin to notice our aging bodies and minds It requires considerable effort to stay active as we get older but our culture continues to poke humor at physical and cognitive aging as illustrated in this birthday card Even Beer commercials like amuse us with aging stereotypes Let s watch the next clip TS E a be Q vamp D N 3 a a v 9 i E N a E 393 The slide below illustrates how athletic prowess declines with age For example a baseball career as illustrated by batting average decreases with age For the most part the physical changes that occur in middle age are subtle for most However for a middle aged professional athlete the changes are less subtle Baseball players begin to notice their bat speed and reactions become blatant reminders that it is time to call it quits Willie Mays career on right 3131 Hi ling awn 5 TS E a be Q vamp D N 3 a a v 9 i E N a E 393 Please do not take my ability to digest McDonald French fries quotHappy Ifcrll eth I39ll lake the muscle lane in your upper arms the girlish timbre cf your voice your amazing tolerance for cuffnine and your ability to digem french fries The rest of you can slayquot Physical abilities such as muscular strength and reaction time peak in the young adult years However as we reach the middle aged years the signs of physical aging gradually become a reality The cartoon above illustrates this point Studies suggest that we can delay physical aging through exercise and a healthy diet but eventually we succumb to nature Changes in appearance from the young adult years to the middle adult years is clearly evident in Burt and Perrett s computer composite images Anyone checking out their high school yearbook Marilyn Monroe at 5 years gigggtzeg 1 f if she would have lived reunion would definitely notice 73 N 5 gm 50gt Q N in g N 9 2 a v D i TS E a be Q v D N 3 m gt1 v 9 i E m a E 393 Postmenopausal women do not experience emotional distress Women experience a milestone physical event in their middle aged years This event is called Menopause According to Myers menopause is an event marking end of menstruation The stereotypical response to menopause is one of emotional upheaval and the mourning of one s once youthful vigor Research has been well documented Neugarten 1963 that women most often are relieved that they are no longer menstruating 4 E E a E 5 N E 94 i adult years Men can enjoy secual satisfaction throughout their middle aged years 0n the other hand middle age men do not weperience signi cant changes in reproductive functionin g However there is a gradual reduction in sperm count testosterone levels and speed of erection and ejamlation As most know Testosterone replacement t erapy can improve a man s sexual responsiveness and physical strength as well as redua39ng states of depression k S S quote S E n A E 3 3 2 a v l4 quot139 life Jeanne Calment died in 1998 at the youthful age of122 Myers opens his discussion of physical changes in the elderly years with some common misconceptions about the older adult e g Life satisfaction peaks at 50 and declines after age 65 Jeanne Calment though the acception above reminds us that the life ewectancy across cultures continues to change This is especially true in developed countries J 539s k 2 s 393 3 3 8 Do 3 3 Q Q N 3 QJ N a Q 9 06 The slide to the right clearly demonstrates an emerging aging population in Australia by the year 2051 Interestingly life expectancy in other cultures is also increasing sirunture of he projected pupu atinn Auslrali a Se es II Mal35 isqe Females u v1 r y 1 3 4 Q l 39 l T A r vr 139 r L L k rV Am l c a 1 1 ilt l 1 l A v 1 r 1 I 5 t N vr39 L1 j Thousands N 53 39s E E 3 a Q 3 i 3 2 E v D M This is attributed Age swam DH VE pvaiened pnpu a nn AusuahHenes u m reduce infant Mayes Que Females mortality and mm Ms m 1 impruvedpublic 3quot i 39 a th 1 Nevertheless 5 w u g evolution 4 N n dictates our llfz expemmg as 3 43 one our quotmpring are m n g raisedandgene w Paul secured hasnn trther 39 2 reasons to keg us argunlt I39 71 w 50 as 43 r u w 153m 5 1 w hwsands hnusauds N 539s k 2 s 393 3 3 8 Do 3 3 Q U N 3 D N a Q 9 quotS The slide below illustrates changes in sensory abilities of older adults These changes are obviously not adaptive That is sharp declines in vision olfactory smell auditory perception are observed in the later years Some gerontologists argue that communities do not do enough to design environments that assist older persons declining senses For example older persons should not buy cars with tinted windows because they require more light to see adequately Ago m uxpar t A39 in vcara N 539s k 2 s 393 3 3 8 Do 3 3 Q U N 3 D N a Q 9 quotS What about the over health of the older adult If the slide to the right is any indication older adults are quite capable of managing a healthy lifestyle e g walking As the elderly adult continues to age the immune system declines making one more susceptible to life threatening illness such as cancer or heart disease Conversely the elderly are less vulnerable to short term illnesses because of their accumulation of antibodies The elderly seek low impact forms of exercise like walking N 539s k 2 s 393 3 3 8 Do 3 3 Q U N 3 D N a Q D 06 Fatal 1 accident rate m H Thefdtala uidel1l ld Tt jumps v1 mar Mtge 135 ww39mcidllv when mm A n11 mar miles C r i v 431quot Fatal accidenta per mm miliun miles a V Fatal accident peu 10000 thinness 5 5 39 303 34 35 3J5quot JD 4d 45 394 5393 34 55 it Evil 34 25 N FF TM T5 IJI IEI Cv39q39r r Age in years The average American over 65 years believes that someone at a comparable age has more health problems than oneself Nevertheless statistics show that as older person approaches 75 years they become sign cantly prone to fatal car accidents N 539s k 2 s 393 3 3 8 Do 3 3 Q U N 3 D N a Q 9 quotS Exercise promotes a healthy brain As it relates to heath and the elderly a consistent nding cannot be underestimated That is studies clearly show that if older persons remain active physically sexually and mentally the loss of brain cells decreases at a slower rate Exercise also appears to stimulate neural growth in the elderly years Therefore researchers advocate Use it or lose it Let s watch a film on the ultimate older adult and healthy life style N 539s k 2 s 393 3 3 8 Do 3 3 Q 3 ha 3 D N a Q 9 NS Peirceniage Wm WWW ml Hiaknfdementiu IntrP EPSi lalEr years 5364 F Y SUB 90795 65 69 75 9 85 89 Age group Dementia increases with age A closer examination of the data reveals that without an active cognitive and physical lifestyle one is more at risk for dementia The slide to the left clearly illustrates that dementia mental erosion increases with age Alzheimer s disease is a form of dementia Myers indicates that as Alzheimer s disease runs its course a series of changes occur According to Myers over 5 to 20 year period those afflicted with Alzheimer s become emotionally at then disoriented then incontinent finally mentally vacant a sort of living death a mere body stripped of its humanity Research has identified brain abnormalities in acetylcholine rich neurons A deterioration of these neurons is evident in the damage of cell body and accumulation of plaques on dendritic branches Neuroscientists believe that a brain that displays diffuse brain activity i e brain that over exerts itsel during simple cognitive tasks might suggest Alzheimer s disease in one s future lzheimer s disease In later stages 3 539s k 2 s 393 3 3 8 Do 3 3 Q U N 3 D N a Q 9 NS f5 rII T Q LUZ 20 g Ii i 9 J U K 0 If r 5 I Lg73 E a E w 393 co 3 co Q N Perrenmgo IDH in If n ninth lmH Huge clHl l thf1luiirnH l r39li tiJHIIZ L IIlrhl any g rm 1 in quot1339 39 39 9H Jl1fu 39l 3113fE WI I39ISII II O Am I mm u IIILI39JULI mm 3910 5C 5 34 6393 3939 7C1 395 i Age grimy Crook and West found that younger subjects performed better on a name recall test than elderly subjects It would seem that our teenage and young adult years are our memory making years It becomes noticeable by the fourth decade of life that our memories are not as sharp Crook and West found that young adults clearly out perform their older counterparts on remembering persons names through a video presentation Results indicated that elderly subject improved when given three introductions 1 Aging and memory ofwmds 2 remembemd 20 umblzruh39umds magneiezhsnab e mlhage Numbarulumrds maven dEdes wnhage 20 30 40 50 60 70 Ageinyears Elderly subjectx do well an Recognition tasks but not an the recall ufmeaninglms info The slide to the left illustratm that elderly subjectx are prone to memmy information igence 39vE amp N 393 This gentleman is a member of an older 2 Aging an the same decade experience similar events cohort people born in Initially crosssectional studies comparing ages at one time revealed that younger adults consistently outperformed older adults on intelligence tests Of course this contributed to the stereotype that older adults were not capable of performing on highly complex tasks The problem with these studies is that they were susceptible to cohort effects That is compared to their younger counterparts a group of older subjects may have received less education R g mahod Crosssectional EBSDHWE 7 tauggesta ded39me abilitysmre w studies confused the icture o Cr nssseclional 35 f mammal intelligence and Langiiutlinal method 5 age Longitudinal Lunngutudmal Hue1 l Iml studies provided a 35 qu4393931 man lt39r1t1il Clearer picture but they too had problems e g subject 32 3 4E 53 Eat Liquot H M Aggin mortality etc igence d intell Longitudinal studies left revealed that intelligence increases through the middle adult years and does not decline until later life Furthermore with cohort effects and good health older adults can be quite productive intellectually during their elderly years e g most great leaders are in their elderly years co 3 co 1 i lgence d intell co 3 co 1 i J39Ii fhdp rm an 51 MIquot Wlth amt luu thMLE1U5 JCU 5019 100 95 Verbal 50195 90 Sr NUI IWJILIJII Miami J dethnevwwmnqe 39 Nunverbal srurea 30 4 55 59 gegruup Further sequential studies Combining crosssectional and longitudinal designs revealed that verbal IQ increased and stabilized in the elderly years Cattell and Horn called this Crystallized IQ In contrast nonverbal IQ speed tasks puzzle solving performing on abstract and novel tasks declines with age Cattell and Horn labeled this Fluid IQ Therefore a closer examination reveals that intelligence and aging is much more complex than early studies revealed Psychology 105 Dr Gordon Module 7 Prenatal Development amp The Newborn A Introduction to development 39 1 What is development 39 2 How do we conceptualize change I 1 What is development I Development is the sequence of age related changes that occur as development requires a living organism time change over time di erentiation and hierarchical integration In short development is movement from a st e o simplicity to one of complexity G Stanley Hall and greater higher order Thefaunder 0f coordination of its parts in order developmental to meet the demands of the psychalagy environment I I How do we conceptualize change I Adulthuud mam 1 Discanzinunus develnpment stages Adxmhund nfancy a Continuous development Myers de nes developmental psych ology as the branch of psych ology that studies physical cognitive and social changes throughout the life span The slide above illustrates how these changes are conceptualized These changes include continuous and discontinuous 39 r irst 39 1 r suggests that ch ange progresses gradually linear Continuous change is not about stages Instead continuous change stems from an accumulation of experiences I I How do we conceptualize change I Adulthuud mam i i 1 Discanzinunus develnpment stages Aduhhund nfanty a Continuous development 0 In contrast discontinuous development proposes that change moves through a series of stages Each stage is qualitatively i e the meaning di erent from the previous one Development is infers that change is more abrupt Movement from one stage to the next represents dramatic transitions and invariant sequences In other words development progresses in one direction with each stage being reorganized and building on the previous one Let s watch a classic film clip that embraces change B Prenatal Development 39 1 Conception 39 2 Prenatal stages and risks 39 3 The Newborn I 1 Conception I The sh39de above reveals one sperm penetrating the egg s surface 0 Development must begin some way Conception marks the onset of developmental processes Conception is bke the Boston marathon That is thousands of runners a male s sperm compete for only one prize fertib39zation of the female s egg Once the sperm penetrates the egg s surface fertih39zation occurs as it takes less than a halfa dayfor the nuclei of both to fuse 2 Prenatal development Prenatal development represents a period of time that occurs from conception to birth During a nine month period the unborn human undergoes significant and rapid physical and sensory change The prenatal period is delineated into three critical br 3 fetal stages The germinal stage begins at conception and ends when the zygote Zygme im muquotg implants on the wall ofthe on uternine wall term 2 Prenatal development I The germinal stage lasts about ten days to two weeks As the zygote attaches to the uterine wall the placenta is formed The placenta is a structure that allows for transport of nutrients and oxygen from the mother to the fetus The embryonic stage begins about the second week and ends around the eighth week of prenatal development It is during the embryonic stage that the embryo begins to develop and differentiate specialized organ systems As a result the embryonic stage is considered high risk more on this later 2 Prenatal development I Th e fetal stage is the third stage of prenatal development starting at 8 weeks and ending at birth Fetal stage is marked by continued steady growth of all organ systems All the developments of th e fetal stage prepare the organism for li e outside the womb Between 22 2 6 weeks th e fetus reaches an age of viability This age indicates that th e fetus can now survive outside the womb even it is premature must in mm mm mummy mm muum Fltnode m m Vmumnd andumy Budv m u WSW s addedzbmm Heznbeam mus iunmoml specmmmon man hu l hil eympen mamast nuns mmmem Iwmahun Caquot Sm dupequot 1mm A d waking u 7 1 ms 39 i r v at 3 2 39 1 13 run mm Wonk 3mm mnceuuon The slide above illustrates the gradual and rapid physical changes that occur during th e fetal period Psychologists do not underestimate the complexity of development that occurs during th e fetal stage For example studies have sh own th at fetuses are able to perceive and learn while in utero 2 Prenatal development I 2 Prenatal development I The embryonic and fetal stages are vulnerable times for the developing organism This is especially true during the embryonic stage During this stage as organ systems rapidly differentiate and specialize their development is most sensitive to outside environmental in uences such as drugs alcohol radiation lack of nutrition etc Myers discusses teratogens and other environmental factors that can negatively in uence prenatal development A teratogen is a harmful agent that exists outside the protective womb The placenta works to screen potential teratogens However it cannot screen for some tunmint nnnntn The graph above shows times when organ systems are most vulnerable to outside in uences As one can see the central nervous system is vulnerable from about the third to sixteenth week I 2 Prenatal development I I FAS at 3 years I Studies have shown that drug use during pregnancy can be extremely harmful to the developing embryo and fetus Alcohol use during pregnancy has been linked to a condition called fetal alcohol syndrome FAS This condition is a collection of congenital problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy According to Myers 4 in 10 alcoholic mothers who drink during pregnancy give birth to FAS infants I 2 Prenatal development I 0 Some of the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome include microcephaly small head heart de cits irritability hyperactivity and mental retardation Researchers are not sure how much alcohol will cause damage But some studies have concluded that even normal social drinking can have negative effects FAS at 14 years I 2 Prenatal development I In the 1950 s drugs such as thalidomide were used to control morning sickness appendages de le illustrated a thalidomide child at age seven One can observe the hand extending frnm fh 39 39 joint This The e ects ofthalidomidel child s quotlather W My given the drug during the critical period of limb growth 612 weeks xrwlf 1 h a K 4 v1 N HA 2 Prenatal development The newborn comes into the world with an assortment of different re exive patterns A reflex is an inborn motor pattern that responds to different stimuli To the right a newborn displays the rooting re ex As the newborn s cheek is stroked it turns toward the stimulation The newborn infant comes into the world better equipped than we once thought William James believed that the newborn was a blooming buzzing confusion New scientific methods have help us realize that the newborn is quite capable of much more Newborns prefer human faces 0 A newborn s amazing abilities are used to facilitate social responsiveness For example newborn s prefer human voices especially mom s Newborns prefer to the smell and taste of their mother s milk and human faces over other visual stimuli Infants also prefer novelty over familiar stimuli Our understanding of preference has been achieved through habituation studies If an infant habituates becomes bored to a stimulus it suggests it is no longer preferred 2 Prenatal development 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 Psychology I 05 Dr Gordon Trait Approach to Personality Module 42 A What is a personality trait 1 The world of Gordon Allport 2 De ning a trait 3 Our bodies and traits 4 Traits and types 1 The world of Gordon Allport 39 To the left f lmlm quotI lthough he was not an 39 39 master on 39 39 A advocate of Freud s depth psychology he agreed with Freud s view that personality psychology was misleading and too statistical 1 The world of Gordon Allport 39 f B 39 one in particular In other words some 139 39J 39 I 39 I 39 I 0fnw I 39 39 individual s way of responding to quot With I ways of I rewonding the core of personality Waits 1 The world of Gordon Allport 39 In your text AIyers desaibes a meeting with Allport and Frmd In this meeting Freud mim39ntetprets A I mu m I 39 I Hg conversation in II B he an 39 I 39 B I 39 39 quot I 39 39 39 39 Nevmheless Freud andAllport may have agreed on one thing Thatis both focused on the individual 1 The world of Gordon Allport F I 39 39 39 39 39 WasL 39 39 describing people s characth behaviors and conscious motives Re ecting on his meeting with Freud Allport noted that 39 39 all it 39 39 mmm do well to givequ m I J I a 3139 recognition to manifest motives before probing the unconscious 1 The world of Gordon Allport 39 39I 394 39 quot39 quotg with 39 um m Thatis Allportwasmoreinto desaibing rather than explaining personality traits Today personality theorists rely on the nomothetic or statistical apprth to personality Waits As we will see the Big Five apprth to personality Waits is very much nomothetical 1 The world of Gordon Allport quot 139 u v 539 39 39 mhia NAsaresult ithasledtowhat some psychologists refer to as the psychology of the sWanger 0n the conWary Allport advocated for the ideographic ItpprIIH39 39 39 39 39 I 39 I 39 Alleluia I I to one another 2 De ning a trait 39 I I S0 I I grimmiquot Imam WI may 4 J I 39 39 39 39 be ave in I rm 39 5 situations A Waitis constitutional neurological bipolar quantifiable and are often used to predictstates eg emotions moods values motives etc and observable behaviors 1O 2 De ning a trait 39 Overtheyearg r ImIm l l J mum I rare Wait 2 central core Wait everyone has one to varying degrees eg Cattell s 16 baa39c dimenm39ony and 3 secondary Waits situationally detemlined 11 2De ningatrait A B attitudes and behavior Cardinal Waits 39 39 39 A central Wait are rare One can o is a core Wait that everyone possemes to a degree 1 2 2 De ning a trait 39 Does DennisRodmanpomem a cardinal Wait Ifso whatisit 1 3 2 De ning a trait 39 What about secondary Waits 0n the 60 s television show Leave it to Beaver Eddie H a cell diwlayed secondary traits In one situation he would Mow Wally andBeaver s mothw a charming personality but around the Beaver he would diwlay a rude and bossy personality The idea of situations detemlining 39 quot 39 39 ait theorists We will address the issue of Waits 139 J and situations later 1 4 Eddie s mastery of the secondary trait 1 5 3 Our bodies and traits In the 1950 s 39 mumquot 39 39 39 Far vnnnll 39 In nnfmvf 39 hull my 1 shun stereotypes 1 6 4 Types andtraits J m taant ta 5 39 39 39 B 39 B 39 ypulugies 439 39 popularity of the MyersBriggs Type Indicator as an important test that detemlines person 39 types By de nition a personality type is a cluster of Waits The slide above illusWates four personality types based on two dimenmons stability and exWaveru39on 17 B A closer look at traits 1 Assessing traits 2 The Big 5 traits 1 8 1 Exploring an d assessing traits 39 39 39 39 quot 4 How Luu ofWaitsto 3 quot39 level without sacrificing the person s In doing so personality researchers have relied on a analysis Fawn 1 1 similar ueuuviws w I For exangp e 39 39 39 39 preference for silence preference for routine etc mightre ectthe ban39c Waitknown asintroversion 1 9 1 Exploring and assessing traits L 11 4 How Luu of Waits to 3 level without sacrificing the person s In doing so personality researchers have relied on a quot 39 J analJIsisFmiu quot quot 39 J simiiu ueuuviws w I 39 For exangp e 39 39 39 39 prefermce for silence preference for routine etc mightre ectthe ban39c Waitknown asintroversion 20 1 Exploring and assessing traits 1 39 39 39 uuuiju39s Different types of personality amessmmts exist For example a personality inventory thatutilizes only those items thathave been own to 39 39 39 g uups 4 I I 39 39 quot 4 I 39 39 quot 4 duiwu in The
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