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by: Mrs. Kiara Medhurst

GeneralChemistry1 CHM121

Mrs. Kiara Medhurst
GPA 3.71


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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Kiara Medhurst on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM121 at Wright State University taught by DavidGrossie in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/231124/chm121-wright-state-university in Chemistry at Wright State University.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
Geometry linear trigonal planar tetrahedral trigonal bipyramidal octahedral VSEPR Theory Bond Lengths and Angles Shape linear trigonal planar bent 120 linear tetrahedral trigonal pyramidal bent 109 linear trigonal bipyramidal seesaw Tshaped linear octahedral square pyramidal square planar Formula AX2 AX3 AX2E AXE2 AX4 AX3E AX2E2 AXE3 AX5 AX4E AX3E2 AX2E3 AXE AX5E AX4E2 Bond Lengths same same same same same same same same axial different than equitorial axial different than equitorial axial different than equitorial same same same same ldealBond Angles 180 120 lt120 1095 lt1095 ltlt1095 axeq 90 eqeq 120 axeq lt90 eqeq lt120 axeq lt90 eqeq lt120 axax 180 90 axeq lt90 eqeq 90 90 The Study of Chemistry El Chemistry A Study of Matter and its Changes Chemistry Matter and Measurement Heieiugeneuus M mums The SCIentific Method Common Metals Eement SymBo Eement Smbol Aluminum Al ercury Hg 1 39 Ba Nickel NI Cadmium Cd Platinum Pt Calcium Ca Potassium K Chromium Cr Silver Ag Cobalt Co Sodium Na 1 Copper Cu Strontium Sr Gold Au Tin Sn Iron Fe Titanium Ti Lead Pb Tungsten W Lithium Li Uranium U Magnesium Mg Zinc Zn Manganese Mn Common NonMetals Periodic Table E t s b I E t s b I El Early elements Sb C Cu Au Fe Pb emen ym o emen ym 0 Hydrogen H Krypton Kr Hg A9 SI and Sn H939 quot 9 Xenor39 Xe El Lavoisier s chemically simple Nitrogen N Bromine Br Oxygen 0 Carbon C SUbStances Fluorine F Phosphorus P eon Ne Sulfur S Chlorine Cl Iodine l Argon Ar Dobereiner s Triads El Li Na K El Ca Sr Ba El Cl Br I Mendeleev El Periodic Law Chemical and physical properties of the elements are periodic functions of atomic number El Emphasize similarities between elements El Leave spaces for undiscovered elements Mendelev s Periodic Table Modern Periodic Table Group Properties ElPatterns are observed in the chemical properties of the elements Alkali metals Alkaline Earth metals 5 mixinricsi In a ir lvf lnfln w nu p i l s TIZIU z I c lnflrfl cquot m39l cflzi quot v an ni In I 13 I m l mfl rl l nquotI ci lquot urT uquotZ nZ l J39IZ39I uquot Regions of the Periodic Table by Physical Properties El Metals El Non meta El Metaloids Regions of the Periodic Table by General Behavior El Main group El Transition series El Inner transition series Quantitative Measurements El Antoine Lavoisier l Father of modern chemistry Quantitative vs Qualitative Measurements El ualitative Q Quantitative l observations I I exampes numeric expression 39 color examples I comparitive absorbence at 500 rim Pb ll 3 gcm3vSAl 2 7 Crn3 The Metric System Derived Units Quantity Unit Abbreviation Energy joule J Pressure pascal Pa Electric coulomb C charge Ba se u n its Physical Unit Abbreviation Quantity Mass kilogram kg Length meter m Time second s Temperature kelvin K Amount of mole mol substance Electric current ampere Luminous candela ccl intensity No nSI U n its Quantity Unit Symbol Conversion Length ngstrom A 1039m m Temperature Celsius C C 27315 K Energy calorie calorie 4184 J Precision Accuracy and Significant Figures ElPrecision lthe agreement between repeated measuremen s ElAccuracy lthe agreement between a measured value and the accepted value ElSignificant figures lDefinition the precision of a measurement is denoted by the number of igllifiLaIIL figulc Rules for Assigning the Number of Significant Figures El A non zero digits are significant El Zeros between non zero digits are significant El Zeros to the left of a measurement are not significant Rules for Assigning the Number of Significant Figures El Zeros to the right of a number after a decimal point are significant El Zeros to the right of a non zero digit before the decimal point may or may not be significant Certainty may be accomplished by using scientific exponential notation Rules for Assigning the Number of Significant Figures El In multiplying and dividing measurements an answer cannot have more significant digits than the measurement with the least number of significant digits used to arrive at that El The result of an addition or subtraction should be reported to the same number of decimal places as that of the term with the least number of decimal places Rules for Assigning the Number of Significant Figures ElCertain values such as those that arise from the definition of terms are exact i e they have an infinite degree of precision Examples Number sig fig 00056 2 5974 4 4120 4 100 3 1000 normally 1 occasionally 4 Significant Figures in Calculations 5974 4 5120 4 11094 5 Rounding Numbers El Last digit 6 or greater round up El Last digit 4 or less round down El Last digit 5 and there are more nonzero digits following round up El Last digit 5 with nothing following round up if preceding digit is odd and down if the preceding digit is even Example El 45627 gt 4563 El 45622 gt 4562 El 45635 gt 4564 El 45627 gt 456 Scientific Notation ElThe representation of a number as a product of two numbers N x 10quot IN is a number between 1 and 10 10 is some integer power of 10 Properties of Matter El Physical properties I determined without changing the chemical makeup of the sample color mass melting point Properties of Matter El Chemical Properties I changes in the chemical makeup of the sample rusting combustion Properties of Matter El Intensive properties I properties that are independent of the mount of sample present I temperature I melting point Properties of Matter El Extensive properties I properties that are dependent on the mount of sample present I mass l volume Electronic Structure of the Atom From Chapter 2 Atoms consist of protons neutrons and electrons Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus with the electrons arranged around the nucleus Atoms are mostly empty space Elements are ordered into the periodic table on the basis of their atomic number and chemical properties Ionization energy The energy necessary to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion X energy gt X e Ionization enerqy First Eremoves outermost electron Second Eremoves next outermost electron Ordering of ionization energies 1lt2lt2ltI4 Trends in Ionization Energy Element lP 255 H 3 E 155 He 237 g L1 5 52 15 Be 555 g B 555 2 l c 155 m N 145 o 131 F 155 Ne 255 Na 555 Trends in Successive Ionization Energies lumzaliun Enemies 2 3 5 Eiemem 1 5 7 5 5 H 1 31 He 2 37 5 25 u 5 52 7 35 11 51 Be 555 175 1555 21 1 5 5 55 2 52 3 55 25 52 32 c 155 235 552 522 3753 57 N 155 255 555 755 555 5327 55 o 131 335 535 757 1555 1333 7133 55 r 155 337 555 551 1152 1515 1757 5255 15553 NE 255 355 512 537 1215 1525 2555 2357 11535 Na 555 555 551 55 1335 1551 2511 2555 2553 M5 575 155 773 1555 1352 1755 2175 2555 31 Al 5 55 152 2 75 1155 15 53 15 35 23 35 27 55 3155 51 5 75 155 3 23 35 15 55 15 75 23 75 25 25 33 57 P 155 155 251 55 27 2127 25 55 2555 3557 s 155 225 335 555 7 555 2711 3157 3555 ci 125 235 3 52 515 55 535 1152 3355 35 55 A7 152 257 353 577 725 575 1155 1355 5575 13153 5515 Shell Structure Electromagnetic Radiation mm A 4 i I l i m m m Him WWquot mama Definition of terms Interrelation of Terms Speed of light in a vacuum Wavelength frequency velocity C 300X10 or A v C frequency v cycles per unit time 1 Hz 1 cycle persecon wavelength A Distance fr another d om one crest to mm Atomic line spectra Balmer Seri Experiment Place a sample of an element in a ame and look at the light em ilted H 2 i Hydrogen in the Visible Region 1AR1211ln lS Rydberg unstant l BB is an integer n 3 4 5 B 2 WhereR 7gtltlE7rniandn Lyman Series Hydrogen in the Ultraviolet Re inn 17 R112 1an here R SthE Rydberg unstant 1 D97 X1E7 m1and n 5 an Megan n 2 3 4 5 Example e wave eng an requency 0 me rst line oflhe Lyman series Calculate the wavelength Example and frequency oflhe rst Quantized Energy line of 39 39 Blackbody Radiation Blackbody Radiation As an objed is heated the shorter wavelength ummay T l5k Where h S P anck s uns iant a EZBX mm s e SthE speed uf h m and k S Euhzman s eenstanm sen gtlt mmK Example Planck39s Explanation A piece of metal is heated to a temperature of 5000 K What is the wavelength ofthe light it emits Light exists in packets quanta the energy of which is proportional to their frequency E hv where h is Planck39s constant Photoelectric Effect Photoelectric effect llyuu Shine light ula pamculavwavelenglh an an active metal eleclvuns ill be emitted The mene intense the lien mene eleclvuns are emitted lune Wavelength was lengenlnen electronswuuld nut be ennmee even nine metal was illuminated luv a lungevtime m With higher intensity Einstein39s Explanation Planck39s Relationship It takes a certain amount ofenergy to cause the emission of an electron All ofthe energymust arrive at the same Ime ie in a single packet A where AE is the energy difference between the ground state and the excited state Wave Properties of Matter For light E hv hcA FormatterE va so mv1 hcA gt A hlmv Example Calculate the Debroglie wavelength of an electron traveling at 200 A ofthe speed of light Calculate the Debroglie Example wavelength of an electron The Bohr Atom 39 the SPeed OfIith Electron in orbital around nucleus Attraction is balanced by momentum 2 e m v2 r2 r The Bohr Atom Electron Transitions Energy of each orbit is then given by Equot21BX1048 Jan AE Ez E1hv21 V21 E2 EOh Electron Transitions for any transition to the first energy level vm En39 Eih V 77218x1045Jiilj 7 6626X10393 Js n2 12 7 213x1045J K1 1 Vquot 6626x10393 Js 12 n2 vm 329 x 10155quot1127ni2j Electron Transitions 1 1 vm 329 x 10155quot177 72 since v cl then n 1 329x10 55quotl i 300x105ms 12 n2 4i 1097 x10 mquot1lzi n2 1 Ionization Energy since ionization energy can be though of as the transition E1 to En then we can calculate the ionization energy from this difference Example Calculate the ionization potential for a hydrogen atom El E 39 E1 Schroedinger Wave Equation 520 52 5239 5x2 6y2 522 h2 81ZmE WW 0 Orbital Quantum Numbers Four quantum numbers which describe the orbit of an electron Principal Quantum Number n Radial Electron Density Plots most probable distance of the electron from T i T the nucleus e We Mod the number of spherical nodes n l 1 n 1i2i3i4i39quot D lMO mm D 1040quot s a xlDfmm B Seconda antum Number 1 ry Qu Orbital Names shape of orbital n Name number of nodal planes 1 0 1s l0n1 2 0 2s 1 Shape 2 1 2p 1 sphere 3 0 3s 2 dumbell 3 1 3p 3 cloverleaf 3 2 3d Magnetic Quantum Number ml spatial orientation ofthe orbital in a magnetic field number of orbitals of a given shape for a 2 1 possible integer values for m m l0l p Orbitals Nodal A plane Nodal 17X Vi l1 d and f Orbitals Spin quantum number m5 direction of spin ofthe electron on its axis 12 or 2 value e D L I h t h w h Multielectron Systems With more that one electron the energy of an orbital is dependent on n an I Pauli Exclusion Principle 0 two electrons in a given atom may have exactlythe same set of quantum numbers n I m m Fur a given urbital fl l and mi re he sarhe therefure rhs must be different and since rhs eah have EIan ehe uftvvu values V2 and 712 then a urbital eah huld EIan WEI Electruns Hund s Rule of Maximum Multiplicity Within a given set of orbitals ofthe same energy one electron is placed in each orbital with the same spin before a second electron is placed in any one Electron Shells n shell 1 K 2 L 3 M 4 N Periods of the Periodic Table Question period n 2n2 No of elements Why do periods 3 and 4 have less than 2n2 elements 1 1 2 2 2 2 B B 3 3 1B 8 4 4 32 1B Subshells Subshell Populations tn shell No of subshells subshell No of electrons 1 K 1 s s 2 2 L sp 3 M 3 spd Z 160 4 N 4 spdf f 14 Orbital energy diagram Filling Orbitals Orbital assignments follow a sequence of increasing n l For two orbitals of the same n I electrons are assigned rst to orbitals of lower n Electron Configurations of Aufbau B CNandO Diagram new cmng 15 2 2p 2p 2p 15 25 2939 H H I c 15 25 29 H H I I N 15 25 29 H H I I I u 15125121 11 u u r r uantum Numbers for the Q Electronic Configurations Electrons ofO EIEEHDH nrhilzl n I m1 m1 element 2 1s 25 2 as 3r an as 1 1s 1 H n 017 21s1nnrm m 1a22a2snn 3 ulna K1922626 1 c 2n 2 2 s 2 s n 2 2 s 6 Zr 2 1 n m 7 Zr 2 1 21 cm 3 Zr 2 1 1 71a Anomalous Electronic p r element 2 1s 25 2 3s 3 3d as element 2 1s 2s 2 as 3 an 45 v 23 2 e 2 e a 2 Ni 23 z z s z s 3 Cr 24 2 2 e 2 e 5 1 Cu 29 z z s z 6 1n 1 Zn 3n 2 z s 2 1n 2 Periodic Properties by Shells Groups have same numherof electrons in outershell lArl electronmoutershell 1w Li Na K HA7Zelectronsmoutershell n52 Be Mg Ca VHAV 7 ele rons m outershell n52np5 F EL EN Periodic Properties by Shells A sipmrawhimrmle p ro Y 239luhlmlrclxulnnlmlmlmlm so n nonunion r u o w w u up pp um Electronic Configuration of Ions Groupl Lr 152251 gt e Lv 152 Groupll MgNe352gt25 Mg 2Ne Group m metals Al Ne3523p1gt Se Al 3Ne Electronic Configuration of Ions Group a o He2522p4 2e gt 02 He2522p5 Group 7 r 1522522115 er gt r 1522522115 PseudoNoble Gas Electron Configuration ndm Aglltr5514dm e Ag Kr4dm n1slndln Sn Kr15524om5p2 29 spa Kr15524om Trends in Atomic properties Atomic Radius 100 Ammir mums pm Ionic Radius Positive ions are smaller Negative ions are larger Na39O 98Asza 1 90A Fe126gt Fe 2 0 76 gt Fe4 0 64 Ci39gt Ci Atoms Molecules and Ions Law of Conservation of Mass 0 Mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction Law of Definite Proportions The Law ofConstant Composition 0 The relative amount of each element in a particular compound is always the same regardless of the source of the compound or how it was prepared 0 NaCl 0 393 Na amp 607 Cl 0 1009 NaCl 03939 Na amp 0607g Cl Dalton39s Atomic Theory 0 Elements consist of atoms 0 Each atom of the same element is identical 0 Atoms of different elements are different Dalton39s Atomic Theory 0 Molecules of compounds are formed by the combination of two or more different atoms in fixed whole number atom ratios 0 In a chemical reaction atoms are not created or destroyed but only rearranged into different combinations Law of Multiple Proportions o If two elements combine in different ways to form different substances the mass ratios are small whole numbered multiples of each other 0 H20 H2O2 0 C0 C02 Electrons o Cathode rays Julius Plucker r electrons are the Des not matter which metal was used to generate them I Electrons 0 Oil drop experiment R A Millikan 7 Charge otan electron e1 6022 X1049 c Jr J Thompson 7 chargeetoemass ratio for an electron e1 7588 X 108 39 Q Electrons The Nucleus 0 Mass of an electron om911gtlt10392Eg Rutherford39s Gold Foil Experiment 0 Beam of Alpha particles aimed at foil Gold Foil Radicacn ve Source Alpha Particles Lead Zinc Sul de Coated Screen Rutherford39s Gold Foil Experiment The Predicted Result Expected rm Marks on Screen Rutherford39s Gold Foil Experiment 0 Conclusions Nucleus at center of atom containing the majority of mass and p Sltlv charge to equal the negative charge of the electrons surrounding it Nucleus smaii compared to the size of the entire atom The Nucleus o Proton o Neutron A System of Atomic Masses 0 Scale masses to that which is assum o If H is 1 then from the analysis of HCI 275 H and 9724 CI CI can be assigned an atomic mass of 352 of hydrogen to be 1 System of Atomic Masses 0 Scale masses to 39atomic mass unitsquot amu arnu a one twelfth the mass of carbons 12 an isotope of carbon that ha 6 protons and 6 neutrons also the most abundant isotope otcarbo Isotopes o Atoms with the same 2 but different A Atomic num r the number of protons or electrons determines the micai properties Mass number A r the sum of the number ot protons and neutrons Symbols 7 28y 23592U 92 P ahd146 N 146 238 a 92 Atomic weight 0 The number that indicates the average mass of an m of an element relative to that of another ele ent Standard used of based on carbonr12 Average mass based on the naturallya occurring mixture of isotopes ota gi eiement The Mass Spectrometer othe path of a charged particle m Dving through a magnetic eld has a curvature directly proportional to its charge and inversely proportional to its m ass Relative abundance Atomic Weights A W the sum of the products of relative abundance and isotopic mass 09092 X 1999244 1818 00025 X 2099395 0054 00882 X 2199138 M 2000 Formulas for Chemical Compounds 0 Molecular Formula subscripts are actual numbers of atoms in the smallest physical entity molecule Benzene Isll5 Hvdrogen Peroxide H202 Ethvl alcohol CZHED Water H20 Formulas for Chemical ompounds 0 Structural Formula shows the relative arrangement of atoms Water H F a Benzene K o g H H w T Ethvl alcohol Hvdrogen Peroxide HH i HEM H H w Bonding o Covalent bonds 0 Ionic bonds Group Li 3e gt e39 Li 2e F 7e e39 gt Fr 8e Net reaction Li F gt Li F gt LiF Group II reaction Mgg 2Cg gt MgC2g Mg 12e7 gt 2e Mg2 10e39 CI He e gt CI 18er Group III metals reaction 2Alg 30g gt AIZO3g AI 13e39 a3e39 AI3 Me 0 8e 2e gt 0392 Ne Acids and bases Chemical Nomenclature Binary Compounds containing a Metal and Nonmetal ide suffix NaCI gt Sodium Chloride AI2O3 gt Aluminum oxide H2O gt Hydrogen oxide Binary Compounds containing two Nonmetals ide suffix and Greek numerical prefix CO gt Carbon monoxide C02 gt Carbon dioxide N203 gt Dinitrogen trioxide Transition metals ide suffix and Roman numeral following the name of the metal indicating the charge on the transition metal atom CopperII Oxide is CuO NiCl2 is NickelII chloride Polyatomic lons A group of atoms that stay together during chemical reactions CU3PO42 ChromiumIII nitrate Common Po lyato mic lons acetate CzHaOz39 carbonate COz392 chlorate Cl0339 chromate CrOi392 cyanide CN dichromate Cr207392 hydrogen carbonate HC03 hydrogen sulfate HSOt39 hydroxide OH39 hypochlorate CIO39 nitrate 0339 nitrite NOZ39 perchlorate ClOt39 permanganate MnOt39 phosphate POi393 sul ate S 2 sulfite 803392 thiosulfate 8203392 ammonium NHi mercuryl Hg 2 Laws of Chemistry Law of Conservation of Mass Mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction Law of Definite Proportions The Law of Constant Composition The relative amount of each element in a particular compound is always the same regardless of the source of the compound or how it was prepared Dalton39s Atomic Theory 1 Elements consist of atoms 2 Each atom ofthe same element is identical 3 Atoms of different elements are different 4 Molecules of compounds are formed by the combination of two or more different atoms in fixed wholenumber atom ratios 5 In a chemical reaction atoms are not created or destroyed but only rearranged into different combinations law of consenation of mass Law of Multiple Proportions If two elements combine in different ways to form different substances the mass ratios are small wholenumbered multiples of each other Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonds ulonic Bond The electrostatic attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together Valence electrons the electrons in the outermost electron shell the chemically active electrons Ionization Potential l The energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion in the gas phase I X energy gt X e Ionization Potential Outermost electron leaves first Electron with largest n lost first Within the nth shell the electron with the largest n l Ionization Potential lP decreases down a group 25 2 7 D5 u 1EM1621263136414651566166717EE1EE AtomicNumDer Ionization Potential lP generally increase across a period left to right u la Mazlmalmmmmmmmnmmm Atomicuher 39 Electron Af nity I Energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom I X era Xr energy Electron Af nity I E A decreases down a group I E A increases across a period am am Elaimn Amnny Element Solutions of Ionic Compounds I Most ionic compounds dissolve in water to yield solvated ions I Strong electrolyteshighly ionized in solution NaCI I Weak electrolyteminimally ionized in solution H920 I Nonelectrolytesdo not form ions in solutions but rather solvated molecules Selection Rules I The acids HCI HBr HI HN03 H2804 and HCIO4 are strong electrolytes Most other acids are weak electrolytes I The soluble hydroxides hydroxides ofthe Group and II metals except beryllium are strong electrolytes Most other bases and particularly ammonia are weak electrolytes Selection Rules Most soluble salts are strong electrolytes The halides and cyanides of metals with high atomic numbers are often weak electrolytes Most organic compounds are nonelectrolytes Notable exceptions are organic acids and bases which are usually weak electrolytes Water is a very weak electrolyte Degree ofDissociation I the extentto which an ionic compound dissociates I MX a M X I MXs H2OI MXaq Maq X39aq Energetics of Ion Formation I Ionization energyThe energy required to completely remove an electron from an atom in the gaseous state I atomg E a positive iong electron Energetics of Ion Formation Electron affinityThe energy released when a neutral atom accepts an electron in order to become a negative ion atomg electron negative iong EEA Ion pair Formation I Coulombs LaWThe energy of two ions Whose centers are separated by a distance d is determined by E 231 X1046 J pmZyZ2d u where Z1 and Z2 are the charges on the ions Example I Calculate the energy released by the formation of an ion pair by K and I39 if the separation is 349 pm Calculate the energy released by the rerrnaiiein ufan iein bair by o and l inbe sebaraiien is 349 pm Example Calculate the energy released by the rerrnaiiein er an inn bair by o and l inbe sebaraiien is 349 pm Example Calculatelhe ervEng Veleased by the immatmn m an inn Fair by x Example anurmhe sepavalmn isms pm in lathe enevgvvelease y amaler man mnpaiv yi f b E and Milne separatian is 369 pm Structure of Ionic Solids Formation of Ionic Solids I Phase change a Solid gtgas Orllquld gtgas u CasgtCag AHW179 kJrnole I Dissociation of molecules u 029 aZCKg E 244 kJrnole Formation of Ionic Solids lonize to form a cation Cag gt Ca 1g E 1730 kJmole El Ez Add electron to form anion 2Clg e39 gt Cl39g 2E9 696 kJmole Formation of Ionic Solids Form lattice ofions Ca 1g 2Cl39g gt CaC2s ELE 2256 kJmole Formation of Ionic Solids Sum all steps AH AHVap Ed E EEA ELE AH 179 244 1730 696 2256 AH 99 kJmole Net reaction Cas CI2g gt CaC2S Example ICalculate the energy released in the reaction ILis 12H2g a LiHs Igiven AHvap for Li 161 kJmole I Ed for H2 436 kJmole I ELE for LiH 917 kJmole Example Lis gt Lig AHvap V2 H2g Hg Ed2 Lig Lig El Hg e H19 E LNG H39g a LiH ELE m gt AHw AHvap Ed E EEA ELE AHw 161 218 520 72 917 AHM 90 kJmole Lewis Electron Dot Formulas I Use of the element39s symbol to represent the inner noblegaslike core of electrons and dots to represent the outer chemically active valence electrons H He Li B39e C 4 0 l2 Ne


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