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Survey Art Hist I

by: Oliver Nicolas

Survey Art Hist I ARTH 251

Oliver Nicolas

GPA 3.59

Barbara Watkinson

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Barbara Watkinson
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Oliver Nicolas on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 251 at College of William and Mary taught by Barbara Watkinson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/231154/arth-251-college-of-william-and-mary in Art History at College of William and Mary.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
II ARTH 251 Prehistoric Art Fall 2009 The Paleolithic Age ca 30000 7 ca 10000 BCE Before Common Era A Geographic Dispersion 1 Dordogne region France and northeast Spain7 Neanderthal and CroMagnon live a 09 d sidebyside Roc de Marsal Les Eyzies France 7 Neanderthal infant intentionally buried ca 35000 BCE La Ferrassie Les Eyzies France male burial ca 35000 BCE CroMagnon Shelter Les Eyzies France ca 35000 BCE 1 worked stone tools 2 containers of stone plant material or wood 2 Central Europe 7 earliest examples of sculptural 3D images B Cave Paintings in France and Spain 1 Supremacy of the Bison or Bulls Aurochs a b c d 2 0th a Altamira Spain ca 12500 BCE Le Tuc d Audoubert France ca 13000 BCE Hall of the Bulls LascauX France ca 15000 BCE MammothBone houses Ukraine ca 16000 10000 BCE er Animals of the Hunt Chauvet Cave Adreche Gorge France Horses Rhinos Aurochs 30000 BCE b PechMerle Dordogne region France Spotted Horses ca 25000 BCE C Paleolithic Figures 1 Anthropomorphic gures a b LascauX BirdHeaded Man with Bison ca 15000 BCE 1 Abstraction 7 anthropomorphic figure7versus Realism 7 bison 2 Vision or some sort of reality Germany LionHuman ca 30000 BCE 2 Female gures Neolithic 1 A Habitat 1 2 3 B Human 1 a Woman from Brassempouy France ca 30000 BCE b The Venus or Woman of Willendorf Germany ca 24000 BCE c Woman from Czech Republic ca 24000 BCE 10008000 7 1500 BCE 7 Permanent Settlements ions Skara Brae Orkney Islands Scotland ca 3000 7 2600 BCE a plan corbelled walls and vault New Grange Ireland ca 3000 7 2600 BCE 7 corbelling artifacts 7 ceramic vessels appear halfway through the period forms become more naturalistic Animal hunt Lerida Spain ca 40002000 BCE 2 C Ritual l 2 Woman and Man from Romania ca 3500 BCE Centers menhirs vertical markers and dolmens earth covered burial tombs Stonehenge and Durrington Walls Wiltshire England ca 27501500 BCE a b megaliths of Stonehenge dragged 150 miles from Wales solar calendar Stonehenge 7 summer solstice Durrington Walls 7 winter solstice ritual processional elements and hostels for pilgrims ARTH 251 An of me Arrerem Near East ug amp 2 Sept 2009 Neohthm PenodeThe Fust Cmes A WestBanktemtory ea 7000BCE 1 Jencho mty walls 2 Human F1gureAm Ghazal ea 7000 BCE Plaster B Chatal Huyuk Turkey ea 6000 BCE 1 adobe structures 111 wall pamtmgs 2 female fxgunnes 11 Mesopotamxa presentrda A Mass otamxa The Dady Showpxllagmg and Lhe of artifacts 1 ka Head ea 3000 BCE Sumenan pe 10d Warka Uruk Va 3000 13c B Sumer 3300723 3713mm A 1 cm a anon as we understand wmmg e cunexform pxcton a1 n e ge and begmmng ofostory 1t b arrahon commumues orgmxzed around monumental publxcsacred structures advaneed tradmg re1aa n5 7 cylmder seals cture e o are meearrg ofs thte Te 01 2 Archxte a aered and profane mp1e Umk ea 3000 BCE D b Ziggurat at Ur ca 2100 BCE c Votive Figures Tell Asmar ca 2900 BCE 1 votive figure 7 permanent standin for an actual person or diety 2 hieratic 7 size or scale used as a determinant of power or pres ge Relief on a lyre sound box Ur ca ca 2500 BCE shell and tar perhaps earliest representation of Gilgamesh b animal musicians presented as foreshortened gures Invasion and Occu an 1 p on kkadian ca 23002200 BCE 7Absolutism Head of a Ruler Ninevah Iraq copper alloy b Stele ofNaramSin ca 2200 BCE 1 hieratic convention 2 massacre of enemy Gudea from Lagash ca 2100 BCE 7return to Sumerian conventions gt 2 3 Babylon ca 18001750 BCE 7 Stele with Code ofHammurabi a Hammurabi and Shamash the god of Justice and the Sun b combination of Sumerian gure style With some Akkadian absolutism 4 Hittite ca 1400 BCE 7beginning ofIron Age a citadel Hattusha in Turkey b Lion Gate and heavy forti cations c a few gure reliefs Citadels and Palaces 1 Assyrian began ca 1400 BCE hegemony 900600 BCE a Palace of Argon II Khorsabad Iraq ca 720 1 Plan 2 Lamassu 7 Winged humanheaded bull b Hunting Scenes wnh ng Assumasxrpal H 850 BCE 1 Kmmg Lens 2 Dymg onnessquot Lmns rrnotresponsxbleforthxs As 139 al Hxs sen m the Gardenca SSUBCE NeorBabylomaniThe Ishtar Gate ca 575 BCE Persia ca 550 7 50 BcErPalace of Danus and Xerxes atPersepohs a Plan b Apadana Audience Hall 1 Pro sxon 2 GuardAan Beasts Lamassu 3 Danus andXerxes receiving Tnbute II III ARTH 251 Egyptian Architecture General Points of Egyptian Culture focus on the Afterlife and the role of the Ka A B fusion of diVine with the pharaoh PreDynastic and Old Kingdom Periods 2700 7 2150 BCE mastaba with serdab 7 funerary structure of extremely welltodo A B Saqqar 1 2 3 a The Funerary Precinct of Djoser Zoser ca 2600 BCE Imhotep prime minister and architect Step Pyramid precinct designed to perpetuate the rituals associated with pharaonic rule a the sed festival b monumental enclosure and restricted walkway to interior courtyard 1 precursor of hypostyle hall c storefront sham structures that symbolize Djoser s unification of Upper and Lower qupt 1 North Palace 7 papyrus of Lower Egypt 2 South Palace 7 lotus of Upper Egypt Giza The Great Pyramids 25752450 BCE 1 2 3 41h Dynasty Khufu Kafre Menkure father son grandson Architecture of Mass Funerary Precinct plan a valley temple b processional walkway c mortuary temple d pyramid Pyramid of Kafre a Sphinx as guardian of valley temple b processional walkway EVidence of towns and domestic architecture 7 begin in Middle Kingdom 20001600 BCE A Kahun ca 1900 BCE M Kingdom7 areas for the pharaoh officials and workers 1 model of a house and garden NY Met Museum Deir elMedina at the Valley of the Kings 7 workers town of New Kingdom period New Kingdom 1600 7 1100 BCE 7temple complexes Temple of Amun Kamak Luxor ca 15801100 BCE A 1 2 pylon temple plan 6 ma I m a 3 hypostyle hall with clerestory 4 sanctuary With statue of Amun B Temple of Hatsepshut Valley of the Kings 1450 BCE 1 Female KingPharaoh httpwww nnr u 39 storvstorvphpst0rvld11478188 2 fusion with deities 7 Hathor 3 plan of temple 4 hypostyle hall C Temple of Ramses II Abu Simbel 1250 BCE 1 rockcut and reserve columns 2 axial plan 3 hieratic colossi with more diminutive Wife and children lll ARTH 251 Egyptian Sculpture and Painting Introduction 7 development of pictorial representation and writing in hieroglyphs Early Dynastic Period 7 Uni cation of Lower and Upper Egypt A Djoser ca 2600 BCE See Architecture B Narrner Menes Palette ofNarmer ca 2800 BCE a hieroglyph horizontal sh nar vertical chisel mer b commemorates rst uni cation of the two Egypts 1 hieratic and absolute a twisted persp 2 symbolic representation rather than narrative Old Kingdom 7 Great Pyramids of Giza A Sculpture of the Pharoahs 1 Khafre son of Khufu Seated Figure gneiss ca 2500 BCE from Giza b Sphinx 2 Menkaure and one of his wives Khameremebty 2480 BCE son of Khafre probably from one of Giza pyramids B Sculpture of Minor Of cials Seated Scribe wood plaster and paint from his mastaba at Saqqara ca 2400 BCE C Relief Sculpture 7 Hippopotamus hunt of Ti Saqqara ca 2400 BCE 1 Canon of Proportions 2 hieratic formalism versus dynamic naturalism Middle Kingdom ca 2000 7 1650 BCE A weakening of central authority rise of peripheral strongrnen and the threat of foreign invaders the Hyksos B Senusret 111 ca 1800 BCE 1 Head quartzite some softening of features 2 pectoral 7 prayer for gods protection of the pharaoh The New Kingdom 1500 71100 BCE A Akhenaten and the Amarna Period ca 1350 BCE new capital dedicated to the sungod Aten a n theism b opposition by traditional priests 2 Akhenaten a Colossal statue Paris Louvre b relief with pro le c Worshipping the Sun 3 emergence of naturalism and emotion a biracial character of Egyptian people 1 Portrait of Queen Tiy bonood ebony glass silver ca 1350 BCE 7 Akhenaten s mother from Upper Egypt b emphasis on family 1 Nefertiti a Berlin painted limestone bust b relief 2 Akhenaten and His Family Berlin B Tutankhamun Tutakhaten orig name 7 Living Image of Aten ca 1330 BCE l resurgence of traditional cults and the overthrow of Aten 2 lingering in uence of Amarna style a Painted Chest Cairo Egyptian Museum 1 Tut as hunter and conqueror 2 fomshadow ofAssyrian hunt seenes c Paintingr 1 dry fresco a1 seeeo a Ne amun Hunting Tomb Thebes presentday Luxor 00 13c ca 14 1 Kingdom conventions wmn foreshadow of may intimacy ofAkhmaton 2 naturalistic plants and animals 3 Harpist Queen Nefertaxi making an offering to Isis Tomb Valley of me Queens e 1250 BCE 1 wife ofRamesesH 2 papyrus textsiThc Book omne Dead penod ofRamesesH 1280 BCE comparison scele ofAmenemhat L ca 1900 BCE and Nefeartari painting F D Ramesesu12so12oo BCE colossal temple builderiAbu Simbel ARTH 251 An ome Aegean Neomme to Bronze Age eme Cyclades Islands ca 2500 BCE A Female Figures B Harp Player TheMnoms ca 19007145 A A and LmearB only one to be deciphered UBCE wmmg h gtyp 5 er B The P as at Knossos New Palace Penod 1700 71 1 are 2 3 v mmmm 7 NanhenMimxmn z Nu henmnce a Yhmne nnm mmmmmm esvzn my v M ammmnlanm A Suuvhlmmncu vn wvaawuxum 9mmquot 5 Eusxenmnce u CvmdurnHMPmcIssmn 5 hmsummnmbm 5 mu m y mmwnae m 5 mm DouhleAes Wm m at the me mmmmn cumcam m WuHi mus mum mmmemem anl mm two orperhaps three stones wnh stauways D a Knossos columns smaller diameter at base and saucerlike capitals b individual suites With forecourt and lightwell lustral basin and hearth room c rooms decorated With frescoes buon fresco 1 Bull Leaping 7 jigsaw pieces with lots of modern speculation ca 1500 BCE 2 Dolphins Akrotiri Thera 7 eruption ca 1650 1625 BCE Frescoes before eruption l 2 3 Girl gathering crocuses a pro le poses b painterly or impressionistic application of paint c study of nature Landscape 7 Spring Flotilla fresco Vessels 9 The Harvester Vase rhyton ca 1500 BCE a community b joyful c musculature Octopus Flask ca 1500 BCE The Vaphio Cups found near Sparta Greece ca 1500 BCE a Egyptian gold b Mycenaean site c Minoan activity and f1 gures d technique 7 repousse There will be 5 lDDiscussions where you will have to identify the work provide the artist or architect the period and a date range Then there are llin the blank questions for the work There will be 2 Comparison and Contrasts like on the first hour test Two Discussions These are not comparisons but rather are a longer analysis of a work or for Disc 2 two works They are miniessays for which you may use bullets or modi ed outline format There will be 12 or 13 works on the test You should be reviewing the study guides and trying to deduce what will be asked GREEK ART Basic Principles balance and beauty very selfaware extremely selfcon dent developed concept of human supremacy and responsibility tried to capture the essence of humanity show a stylistic and technical progression towards depicting the visual world as one sees it humans are the apex of nature stress the rationality of man the irrationality of animals highly organized Architecture treat each building as an independent element meant to be integrated with natural features every structure was a unique entity meant to be encountered separately within its own environment re ection of human beings Geometric 900 600 BCE geometric rectilinear figures shapes not naturalistic Archaic 600 480 BCE Classical Period 480 323 BCE weightshift Hellenistic Period 323 30 BCE Early Greek Art I The Greek Dark Ages A Collapse of many eastern Mediterranean civilizations Hittite and Mycenaean etc Was there an invasion of peoples Dorians and Sea Peoples C Environmental 7 ecological reason D Situation 1 abandonment of Linear B writing 2 abandonment of citadels and adoption of nomadicpastoral economy 11 The Reawakening of the Aegean A Iron Age replaces Bronze B new alphabet alphabeta gamma based on Phoenician writing C Societal formation 1 The Olympic Games ca 800 BCE 2 development of sanctuaries as sites of public ritual 3 foundation of the poll39s 7 Greek citystate III The Geometric Period ca 900 7 600 BCE A Elaboration of clay as an artistic medium 1 common vase shapes a krater mixing wine b amphora storage c kyliX wine bowl d lekythos oil jar 2 potter s wheel B Funerary practices using ceramic objects 1 Figurines 7 Centaur ca 9501000 BCE a hardly any naturalistic details b at torso geometric form 2 The Dipylon Krater Dipylon Cemetery Athens ca 750700 BCE 3 The Diplyon Amphora Dipylon Cemetery Athens ca 750700 BCE 3 if ii l fl C Bronze statuettes g 7 7 V 1 Man and Centaur ca 750 BCE 2 Mantiklos Apollo really a statuette of a youth given by Mantiklos to Apollo ca 700 BCE muscular shows objective representation Greek Architecture 21 and 23 September 1 Other types of structures Circular Temples 7 tholos 7 Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia Delphi ca 380 BCE B Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi 600500 BCE a Rectangular b Community drawing together to reaffirm its Greek Identity B Theater at Epidauros 4 h century 400300 BCE 11 Basics of Greek Temple Design and Organization A Was the Mycenaean megaron the insipiration 1 tripartite division porch pronaos antechamber and throne room with hearth 2 located on top of hill as pinnacle of the forti ed citadel 3 function throne room and audience hall B Temple P 1 lan rectangular nction location of cult statue of a diety or could have a combined profane and sacred use The Siphnian Treasury Delphi ca 530525 BCE 2 parts of a Greek temple a cella or naos central interior space of a temple usually housing the cult statue b pronaos enclosed entrance hall in front of cella marked by coloumns c adyton unlit inner chamber d opithodoms back entrance room porch e portico covered entrance porches 3 columns on a base a base multilevel platform divided into stereobate and stylobate uppermost level b freestanding columns on stylobate peristyle C Vertical Organization of a Greek Temple 7 Architectural Orders 1 Doric Order a platform with stereobate steps layered foundation and stylobate b column shaft sits directly on stylobate oor of the temple c wider sharper uting of coloumns d capital section necking echinus and abacus capital echinus soup bowl abacus square to e entablature section architrave frieze triglyphs and metopes cornice comice at horizontal bar above frieze rectangular panel with carvings paintings f roof pediment g Example The Parthenon Athens 480444 BCE h principle of entasis 2 Ionic Order a standard platform b column uted rises from a base that sits on platform c utes on column are deeper and closer together separated by at surfaces called llets c capital volute scrolled and abacus thinner d entablature section architrave with horizontal courses decorative moldings continuous frieze cornice at horizontal band above the frieze e roof pediment and raking cornice f NO triglyphs Example Erectheion Athens 421406 BCE 3 Corinthian Order a standard platform b column uted rises from a base that sits on platform c capital acanthus leaves with volutes astragal and boss astragal convex ban boss decorative knob like elements d entablature section architrave with horizontal courses dentils e Also NO triglyphs f Example Temple of Olympian Zeus Athens Cossutius architect of Doric temple begun 175 BCE completed 132 BCE III Evolution of the Doric Order A Paestum southern Italy 7 entasis exaggerated 1 Temple of Hera 1 ca 550 BCE peristyle Surrounding row of columns walls for the cella naos entasis bulging of columns to show them holding weight energy upward lift capitals appear more spongycushioned Doric Order Temple uted shaft cushion like echinus thick square abacus may have been dedicated to two patron deities 2 Temple of Hera 11 ca 470 BCE more elegant entasis is not emphasized as much capitals are more rigid Doric Order Temple uted shaft cushion like echinus thick square abacus C The Temple of Athena Parthenos Athens begun 447 7 432 BCE a Built on sacred hill Acropolis b In uence of Aristotle and Pythagoras i Perfect proportions c Age of Pericles and victory over the Persians at the Battle of Marathon 490 BCE i Triumph of enlightened Greek civilization ii The success of Athens iii Battle of Lapis victory of humans over centaurs supremacy of humans d Kallikrates and Iktinos architects e Same view of the temple from any side f Re nements 7 combination of optical corrections and the concept of the dynamics of a structure i Spacing of colunms decreases slightly at the comers i39 Columns tilted inward at the comers ii39 Stylobate is not at appears to arch as does the entablature Swelling colunms l Knew primary viewing angle would be from below in the valley 2 Did not want temple to appear to sag when looking from a distance Also shows support of weight iv Adds a subtle kind of movement subtle dynamism 1 Similar to how a human stands still supporting weight 2 The tradition of being human pervades everything even architecture DlDl g In antis i Columns framed by extended walls ending in pillars h Slender elegant columns i Subtle swelling i Doric i No colunm bases ii Pronaos like Temples of Hera iii Triglyphs and metapeswhich have sculptural decoration j Four columns supporting roof of Dalien league are Ionic order k The relief running along the upper part of inner wall IV The Ionic Order The Erchetheion Acropolis Athens ca 415 BCE A East Side 7 standard Ionic Order a Volutes b Divided architrave c Used to have a sculpted frieze B The Porch of the Maidens south 7Phidian a woman acting as columns caryatids b principal of weight shift 1 bent legs c very rational d carefully sculpted anatomically revealing 1 similar to uting on columns e symmetrical l closure 2 rhythm f Doric capitals ionic entablature C Plan 7 irregular D Ionic a colunm base b volutes c columns are more slender d thinner abacus Dedicated to several deities Housed rock from battle between Athena and Poseidon Greek Sculpturea Vase Painting and Mosiacs 25 28 and 30 September 2009 I The Archaic Style Geometric Style Man and Centaur and Mantiklos Apollo ca 750 BCE Mantiklos Apollo B Architectural Sculpture 1 Battle between Gods and Giants Treasury of the Siphnians Delphi ca 525 BCE 7 relief a does not break out into the third dimension 1 all gures are the same height 2 all gures are on the same groundline b some 3D elements more natural representation 1 overlapping of gures Temple of Aphaia Aegina ca 500490 BCE a pedimental decoration with freestanding sculpture b East Pedimenti Athena overseeing Herakles battling Trojans l Herakles in Olympic pose a dynamism b pose taken from Olympic event c high anatomical accuracy d shows Greeks scienti c observation of human body e study of how man epitomizes nature f indicating how body moves how muscles work g the audacity to present gure in stop action 2 Dying Fallen Warrior a ts into pediment b articulation of muscle groups in his arm c lower part of his body legs twist creates a sense of movement 7 d not perfect top half does not t with the bottom half e typical of archaic style f shows Greek understanding that human body is never at rest g moving towards complete naturalism 3 Horrors 7 polychromy paint C Freestanding Sculpture Kouros Youth Figures 7 probably votive or commemorative in function a Mantiklos Apollo ca 750 BCE b Metropolitan Kouros Standing youth ca 600 BCE i rigidly upright ii somewhat athletic quality iii one foot forward but no weight shift iv archaic smile v rigid anatomical features geometric patterns vi long ringlet hairstyle vii not closed form c Kroisos young man killed in battle of Anavysos ca 530 BCE 7 nerary increased interest in more lifelike rendering of human gure rounded cheeks i39 Archaic smile iii Greater anatomical accuracy in limbs iv Not closed form v Long ringlet hairstyle v39 Still atfooted vi39 Fleshlike quality of thorax DlDl 2 d Menkaure and Wife ca 2500 BCE 2 Kore Maiden Figures 7 probably votive attendants a Berlin Kore found at Keratea cemetery Athens ca 570 BCE i erect immobile pose fullbodied gure b Peplos Kore found at Acropolis Athens ca 530 BCE i encaustic painting c Kore with elaborate drapery found at Acropolis Athens ca 530 BCE 7 was it made by a sculptor on an island near Turkey d Tell Asmar Votive Figures ca 2600 BCE D Vase Painting 1 Black Figure a The Amasis Painter known artist 7 Dionysos and Meanads ca 540 BCE l technique ring alternating oxidation and reduction to give the black areas which are then incised with a needle and white purple or red paint highlights them 2 balance between gures foliate designs and shape of vessel 3 strong shapes and patterns II 4 emphasis on ne details b Exekias ca 540 BCE captures both form and emotion has a sense of balance 1 Achilles and Ajax playing a board game compare to Battle btw Gods and Girants Treasury of the Siphnians i tightly curled hairstyle elaborate beards ii in pro le iii not naturalistic proportions 2 The Suicide of Ajax i some sense of impending action ii upright elements frame the scene iii man is at the pinnacle of nature because of his physical and rational superiority 2 RedFigure a technique requires the artist to apply different slips without being able to see any noticeable application everything is the same color the nergrain of the slip for the areas that will become read reabsorbs oxygen to change from black to red More freedom exibility in painting details on gures b Euphronios ca 515 520 BCE 7 Death of Sarpedon 1 compare with Dying Warrior Aegina 2 calyx krater 3 early use of personi cation Hypnos and Thanatos carrying 4 balance of horizontals and vertica s 5 foreshortening of limbs more realistic 6 a lot of ne detail The Classical Style 7 human gure stands according to the principle of weightshift Humanism rationalism idealism seek an ideal based on human forms general ideal Sought to create perfection seek the inner signi cance of forms reproduce only essential forms based art off of close observation of nature defeat of Persians gave Greeks selfconfidence and spurred creativity triumph of civilization and rationalism serene little emotion preference for smooth surfaces re ecting light evenly composure and stability world of relative cultural unity and social homogeneity Early Classical High Classical balanced restraint Late Classical gures in the round First Glimmers ca 480460 BCE 1 Temple of Zeus Olympia Battle between the Lapiths and Centaurs ca 470 BCE 9 a Apollo much like a kouros gure i Symbolizes the power of the gods ii metaphorical for the victory of Greece and Athens over Persia iii represents the triumph of reason over passion and civilization over barbarianism iv heroic and muscular V regal serene b Rape scene emotional with contorted gures c risingfalling scene ts into triangular pediment 2 The Kritian Boy found Acropolis Athens dates ca 480 BCE a standing with principle of weightshift contrapposto b compare Pan Painter Artemis Slaying Actaeon red g ca 470 BCE c rst work that stands according to the principal of weight shift i knees bent weight rests on left leg ii pelvis left hip is slightly higher than right iii head and shoulders adjust figure organized according to a spiral implicit sense of sculpture in the round naturalism empirical observation of human form figure standing at rest juxtaposition of rigid and exed parts spirals in space curve of the spine subtle dynamism sculpture in the round mastery of the human face ewerum rm 9 3 Charioteer of Delphi bronze ca 470 BCE 7 clutching toes Miron a votive figure b bronze tightfitting hairstyle c toes clinche d upper body shifted e more sophisticated understanding of weight shift f no emotion g long elegant owing robe h very detailed realistic feet 4 Myron Diskobolos copy of bronze ca 450 BCE a spiral con guration b arc that connects the diagonals c confided into a block of stone no reaching out into space d full of pent up muscular energy e elegant composition f head tucked in B Polykleitos and his Canon ca 450 BCE 1 system of ratios head to length of body 18 a Pythagoras ca 520490 BCE and system of ratios b Greek emphasis on harmony and balance c Aristotle used Polykleitos and the word sculptor interchangeably 10 2 Doryphoros The Spear Bearer 7 marble copy of bronze original a weight if the body supported on the rigid right leg b left foot is poised on the ball of the foot suggesting movement c reversed pattern of tension and relaxation right arm relaxed left is holding a spear i dynamically balanced d more pronounced tilted hipline to accommodate rising left foot e presents ideal human form f does not reach out into space g best seen form the front 2D form h impassive face tight curly hairstyle Sculpture 1 The Riace Warriors bronze ca 450 BCE a balance between idealized anatomical forms and naturalistic details 2 Phidias and the Parthenon ca 430 BCE a Athena Parthenos a not very graceful b meant to shock and awe viewers c every 4years a procession to put a new dress on her 1 Dionysos Herakles 7 twist i weight shift and twisted body 2 The Three Goddesses i eye follows the spiral con guration of clothes c Metopes Doric Frieze 7Battle btw Lapiths and Centaurs d Ionic Frieze around walls of naoscella and Treasury 7Panathenaic Procession 1 very lifelike rendering of horsemen 2 contrast between the muscularity emotion and intensity of the horses and the passive riders 3 Greeks don t show emotion they are rational beings 4 shows continuity connection with the past 5 commemorates a civic event e complete integration of architectural and sculptural designs 3 PraXiteles ca 350 BCE late classical a Hermes and Infant Dionysos copy new proportions i a less athletic torso ii more elongated iii thighs are less muscular iv soft edges ability to represent palpable esh v sensual play on light vi less austere more humanized b Aphrodite of Knidos copy 7 female nude standing with principle of weightshift Does not project out into space but is in the round 4 Lysippos ca 330 BCE a Apoxymenos The Scraper 7 reaches into space sculpture in the round 11 i rst sculpture to embrace and reach out into space ii longer more elegant proportions than Polykleitos iii breaks out into the 3D is more intense and closer to viewer iv Typical classical subject unusual action V more even distribution of weight between his legs vi stance of the legs counterbalances outstretched arms b Alexander the Great copy i heroic pose deep set eyes heavily lined forehead ii contemplative expression idealized representation III The Hellenistic Style 7 Begins with death of Alexander the Great 323 7 30 BCE Augustus s defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra focus on the individual and speci c moved from heroic to everyday moved from gods to mortals melodramatic theatrical from serenity to emotion attempts to evoke empathy extreme expressions of pain stress anger fear and despair preference for dramatic contrasts of light and shade playing over high relief deeply cut forms appealed to the senses expression of a varied and multicultural world turned from idealism towards realism A Legend of Alexander 1 Lysippos and the lost portrait of Alexander 2 Alexander meets Darius III at the Battle of Issos mosaic Roman copy of a wall painting original dates to ca 300 BCE a original painted by Helen of Egypt b popular work that was transmitted through copybooks and transformed into mosaic c sense of violent action drama and excitement d radical foreshortening e elicits emotional response f large amounts of detail in eyes individual locks of hair g modeling use of shade and light 3 Pella capital of Phillip of Macedon and Alexander 7 Stag Hunt mosaic 300 BCE a use of modeling b accurate detailed c made with an assortment of natural pebbles B Pergamon on west coast of Turkey 1 Altar I Sanctuary of Athena ca 220 BCE sculpture in bronze a Commemorate the Defeat of the Gauls 230 BCE b Attalos I 241197 BCE king of Pergamon c Gallic Chieftain killing his Wife and Himself i evokes admiration and pity ii expressionism attempt to elicit speci c emotional response 12 d Dying Gallic Trumpeter iEpigonos sculptor Pliny the Elder 39 dmm 39 a1 1 atic emotion 2 Altar 11 175150 BCE Battle between the Gods and Giants Athena and Zeus b dmma of the first order c very high relief 1 gives a greater sense of the third dimension light enhances the dynamism iii gures break out into space d dynamism e dmmatic compositions similar to Phideas i intersecting diagonals with verticals ii linked with billowing dmpery f Giant Alkyoneos i individual hairs ii furrowed brow open mouth shows agony iii strained muscles convey a sense of struggle or AMFF FR GOITEE GEGEN D E G GitNTLM D The Nike of Samothmce Sanctuary of the Great Gods ca 180 BCE a Drapery reveals human form b Dynamism graceful and gentle decent 99 rqorbsv Understanding of human anatom Forward momentum of body balanced by powerful backwards thrust of enormous win s Large open movement Strong contrast of light and dark on the deeply sculpted forms Contrasting textures of feathers fabric and skin Stretches out assertively into space demands emotional response Old Woman Roman copy lst cen BCE original a snap Anticlassical subject matter Sagging jaw Stretches out assertively into space Demands emotional response Mastery of rendering of forms and textures II ARTH 251 Etruscan Art and Architecture 700509 BCE Italy of the Etruscans A Origins are unknown ca 1000 7 Villanovan culture 1 cremation with urns canopic and hut 2 pastoralagricultural economy 3 great metalsmiths 7 bronze B Etruscans 1 Rome a major center as well as Arno Valley 2 contact with Greeks in Magna Graeca southern Italy and Sicily a Euphronios The Death of Sarpedon krater ca 520 BCE 7 looted from and Etruscan tomb near Rome Archaic style red gure Etruscan Architecture temples stand on a podium temples had a single ight of stairs leading to a front porch mud brick walls Tuscan Order smooth surfaced column with a base a plain architrave and an undecorated frieze temple roof acted as base for statues daZZling paintings and terracot ta statues III A Shift to burial and the creation of tumulus tombs I dug out of rock7volcanic tufa 2 comparison to Mycenaean tholos 3 everyday objects for the deceased 7 comparison to Egyptian B Tomb of the Triclinium Dining Room Tarquinia ca 480 BCE l funerary banquet arrayed around the door to the Underworld 2 jovial attitude 7 comparison to Minoan C Tomb of Reliefs ca 280 BCE l recreation of domestic interior a beds tools c tufa and stucco plaster D Porta Augusta Perugia ca 200 BCE barrel arch with voussoirs and keystone 2 possibility to span large distances without intemal supports E Temple of Apollo Veii ca 500 BCE 1 plan womparison to Greek peripteral temple 2 placement of sculpture Etruscan Figure Art A Apollo Temple at Veii ca 500 BCE l full gure 2 Kroisos from Anavysos Greek Archaic i archaic smile same as Greeks ii purposeful energy forward stride Different from Greeks iii partially concealed body different from Greeks B Husband and Wife sarcophagus Cerveteri ca 520 BCE i Jovial inviting smiles outstretched arms ii Not naturalistic C Bronze works 1 Brutus Bronze head ca 250 BCE i high level of technical sophistication ii attention to lifelike details iii sensitivity in the treatment of the face eyes covered with paste iv Detailed accurate treatment of mouth and heard v skilled portrayal of psychological characteristics of subject 2 Aulus Metellus 80 BCE IV Spread of Rome beginning in 439h century BCE A SheWolf ca mid539h century and Remus and Romulus 1639h century ARTH 251 Roman Architecture ROMAN S saw themselves in heroic terms emphasize power and authorit like to depict specific historical events wish to memorialize specific people have future generations venerate great men ef ciency and practical genius for organization Art served the state and empire Architecture round arches and vaults and concrete during the empire concrete opus concretum sense of harmony and uniformity in the presentation of large spaces I Republican Period 150 7 27 BCE A Etruscan arches 7Porta Augusta Perugia ca 200 BCE See Etruscan study guide B The Roman Temple 7 Etruscan Body 7 Greek Decor 1 Temple to Portunus or Fortuna Virilis Forum Boarium ca 100 BCE a lan b Ionic Order c pseudoperipteral temple engagedset into the wall columns d single ight of steps Etruscan e rectangular cella with a porch at one end Greek 2 The Maison Caree Nimes Frandce Ca 20 BCE a Corinthian Order b Richmond State House c pseudoperipteral temple engaged columns C The Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia Palestrina Italy ca 100 BCE opus concretum opus incertum barrel arches arcades series of arches colonnades rows of columns exedraae semicircular niches axial arrangement directing people mw7wwe II Public Spaces oman Forum Rome Republican through Imperial periods 1 combination of religious civ1c and mercantile spaces 2 basilica 7 allpurpose structure designed to hold large numbers of people and have plenty of daylight Large rectangular structure with apse at either end a nave large central area b aisles c clerestory rows of windows openings letting light in d apse rounded extension 3 large unobstructed central space with higher ceiling than the rest of the structure B Pompeii forum begun ca 150 BCE 1 plan grid of two main intersecting streets 2 Streets wellmade with stepping stones 3 houses 7 introspective with open interior spaces I House of the Vettii i introspective solid exterior ii designed to be selfsufficient iii peristyle colonnade C Forum of Trajan Rome ca 110113 CE 1 2 3 Apollodorus of Damascus architect and artillery designer Dei cation of Trajan ruled 98117 one of Five Good Emperors combination of practical and ritual structureshouses everyday secular activities a basilica 7 freeing of slaves l apse plan and elevation 2 at wooden ceiling 3 columnar hall markets to the west Greek and Latin libraries Column of Trajan 7 Wars against the Dacians e Temple of the Dei ed Trajan 99 4 market for everyday use even common people could make use of the Basilica III Architecture Symbolizing the Greatness of Rome Imperial Period 27 BCE 7 330 CE A Infrastructure 7 Aqueducts The Font du Gard ca 20 BCE a Bridge of arches b Balance proportions rhythmic harmony B Entertainment 7 The Flavian Amphitheater Colosseum ca 70 CE 1 2 compare to Theater of Epidauros Greece 7 Three Orders possible through combination of opus concretum arches and vaults a principle of barrel vault b entrance barrel vaults intersect with ring corridors to create groin vaults Tuscan order on the ground level Ionic on the second and Corinthian on c the third purely decorative tradition borrow from Etruscans also borrowed from Hellenistic architecture in the gradual placement of lighter orders opus concretum engaged columns C The Pantheon perhaps designed by Hadrian emperor 1171387Architecture of Space 1 2 H9W899W 0 plan octagon in a circle and elevation dome with coffering use of recessed panels to reduce weight of vaults i gives texture articulation ii Lightens the ceiling opus concretum with advanced utilization of barrel vaulting largest building without internal supports large pronaos one entrance leading to an enveloping spherical space 20 ft thick walls small spaces for Roman cult gods large oculos acting as light source walls steadily thin as they reach the top of the dome i all the weight is transferred to the foundations of the building spaces column screens i provide space 12 ii Feeling of a circle is completed by the columns no interruption Tabernacles i hold statues of minor deities ii form octagon gives internal bracing element The Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine Roman Forum ca 310 F M eP N groin vaulting 7 different de ection of weight to allow openings for light buttresses to de ect some weight nave uses a form of coffering clerestory groin vaulting central hall i de ects weight in diagonal manner allowing openings for light ii Fusion of space iii permits spanning of very large areas barrel vaulting of side aisles vaults acted as buttresses allowing for a larger clerestory does not have a columnar ha 25 1 Roman Sculpture 1 Etruscan Antecedents A Brutus ca 250 BCE B Aulus Metellus ca 80 BCE 7 orator s pose 1 reaches out into space shoWs Weightshi iii Speci c man iv Pose of authority and persuasiveness II Rise ofthe Julians and the Republican Style 250 BCE 7 27 BCE A Pompey the Great original 50 BCE known from copy of30 CE 7 some aspects of Verism7 meticulous realism Romans admired realistic portmits b Realism eshy face small eyes and Warts As Well as creasedbroW c Stoicism life ofpublic service and gaining Wisdom B Julius Ceasar ca 100 744 BCE verism versus the ideal I narius 44 BCE pro le image 1 realistic 2 portrait marble VaticanMuseum 1539 cen CE i more heroic 1H Augustan Period 63 BCE 714 CE reign 27 BCE 714 CE Roman form of idealism based off of everyday World imperial propaganda A The Principate primus interpams First among equals B Augustus of Primaporta ca 10 CE located at the Villa of Livia at Primaporta 1 Res Gerfae Augum39 7 record of building and art commissions a es and 539h century B CE Athens b Polykleitos The Doryphoros pose of ideal proportions c 39mage of benign ruler touched by the gods 2 Commemomtion of Military Victory 7 Return of Standards ca 15 BCE IV pro le D a cuirass chest armor b PaxAugustana 7 Augustus protected by gods 3 originally painted 7 more than once 4 principal of weight shift Ara PacisAugusti Altar of Augustan Peace 13 BCE and 9 BCE History Senate voted to erect an altar to commemorate the Paci cation of Gaul and Spain speci c event 0 Consecration ritual took place in 13 BCE with a temporary wooden structure 0 Dedication of the permanent marble structure took place in 9 BCE 2 Processions on the sides are of the participants of the 13 BCE consecration ritual i actual individuals not idealized processions 3 Symbolic Panels a Main face Aeneas or Pompilius Numa on right and Romulus left b Rear face Allegory of Peace Tellus Mater left and Rome right i continuously owing plants from every season 4 creation of 3D space in relief high relief including foreground middleground and background deep recession into background 5 finer sense of how to create 3D three rows feet of foreground gures project out in high relief background is in very low relief 6 propaganda emphasizing power of Augustus Gemma Augustea after 14 CE 7 Augustus as God Dei cation of Augustus i glori es Augustus Imperial Period and Its Symbolism 14 CE 7 330 CE A The Arch of Titus ca 80 CE Titus 3981 reign 7981 1 Victory in the Jewish Wars 6770 2 Triumphal Procession in Rome a Spoils from the Temple b Titus in Triumphal Chariot c both are boisterous and dramatic illusionistic space gateway between profane outside and the sacred city of Rome gradations in the height of reliefs serpentine movement of figures gures facing out alternating with gures in 9955 7 synonymous with imperial power The Column of Trajan ca 115 BCE Forum of Trajan 1 Apollodorus of Damascus 2 125 feet high perhaps equals the height of the hill leveled for the Forum 3 commemoration of Traj an s victories over the Dacians 2 wars 4 illusionistic devices a reduction in number of figures b each episode composed independently c low relief that was painted d Trajan always presented in the same pose 5 reliefs are placed in a spiral helical band 6 every scene has its own focal point 7 gures are much larger than buildings away from naturalism 8 re ned art of pictorial narrative Arch of Constantine Rome 312315 C 21 312 V 1 Commemoration of Constantine s victory over Maxentius at Mulvian Bridge 2 spolia 7reused works from other emperor s monuments a Tra39an Hadrian 3 Constantinian reliefs 7 abstraction chessmenlike gures movement from Naturalism i Stumpy proportions large heads and small bodies horizontal arrangement of gures Roman Portraiture JulianAugustan Idealism 7 Greek classical models B Flavian Portraiture 7 contemporary with Colosseum and Arch of Titus 1 Young Woman ca 90 CE 7 use of drill to create highlight and shade 2 Older Woman sometime in 1st cen CE 7verism C End of the Golden Age of the Imperium 1 The Aurelians a Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius 1217 180 reign 161 180 CE b Commodus son of Marcus Aurelius reign 180 192 CE as Hercules 2 Rise of Generals as Emperors a Philip the Arab ca 250 CE 1 weathered face no nonsense guy 2 close cut ha1r b The Tetrarchs Rule of the Four 7Diocletian 300 CE 1 empire divided into Greek and Latin halves 2 each with an Augustus emperor and a Caesar 3 symmetry and harmony 4 no naturalism or observation of nature 5 promotes sense of harmony and peace 6 Faces have no personality 7 symbolic representationemphasis on message or idea 8 reduction of human form into geometric shapes D Transition to a Christian Empire 7 Constantine ca 325 CE 1 colossus erected in Basilica of lVIaxentius and Constantine 1 planar face ii eyebrows and noes pronounced iii Neoplatism body is a prison for the soul Large eyes turned towards heaven iv no emotion or naturalism 2 Constantine left Rome to establish a new capital in east Constantinople 3 Neoplatonism ARTH 251 Roman Illusionism Wall Painting A Antecedents Minoan Greek largely lost and Etruscan 1 buon fresco 2 wall paintings B Roman Realism 1 Still Life with Peaches Herculaneum before 79 CE 22 2 Young Woman Writing Pompeii before 79 CE a compare with Young Flavian Woman b somewhat idealized curly hair regular facial features Illusionism Garden Scene Villa of Livia Primaporta outside Rome ca 10 BCE a extension of peristyle garden of Roman house 7 attention turned inward b creation of 3D space through brushstroke and varying amount of detail c sense of expansion between painting and real plants d Roman understanding of viewing objects in the distance 2 Seascape and Coastal Towns Villa Famesina Rome ca 10 BCE a impressionistic spontaneous shows depth and atmospheric prospective 3 Pompeii and Surroundings 7 eruption of Vesuvius Oct 79 CE a Villa of the Mysteries ca 6050 BCE Republican Style 1 formerly called the Second Architectural Style 2 Initiation into the Cult of Bacchus Dionysus a fertility cult for women b sequential narration played out on a narrow ledge Greek influence gures in front of pilasters with no indication of much space beyon 3 no recession into the background b Cubiculum Bedroom Villa of Fannius SynisterBoscoreale ca 20 BCE Metropolitan Museum New York Cityscape 7 Roman perspective using a vertical axis with diagonals coming out from it E Sanctuaries within enclosures foreground middle ground and background formerly Second Architectural Style perspective from a balcony Roman desire for space intuitive perspective architectural details follow diagonal lines that the eye interprets as parallel lines receding into the distance Objects farther away seem to be smaller But there is no central focus in this work 4 Figurative Scenes become secondary to architectural frames 7 Third Architectural Style House of M Lucretius Fronto Pompeii ca 50 CE 9995 II Mosaic Decoration 7 much derived from Greek wall paintings B usually used as oor decoration Asuroton The Unswept Floor ca 100 CE signed by Herkleitos Greek name 1 original by Sosos of Pergamon ca 150 BCE 2 erudite conversation piece and whims Fountain Mosaic Pompeii before 70 CE 7 mosaic version of garden wall paintings in peristyle House of the Faun Pompeii before 79 CE Alexander the Great and Darius 111 Chapter ve 557 1 mosaic copy of painting by Helen of Egypt or Philoxenos of Eretria ca 300 BCE 2 erudite and costly 3 no recession into the background roman desire for greek art 23 ARTH 251 Early Christian and Jewish Art and Architecture I End of Imperial Presence in Rome A Constantine the Great 280 7 337 reign 312337 1 Battle of Mulvian Bridge 312 a defeat of Maxentius but coruled with Licinius until 323 b turned to his mother s god for assistance 7 Jesus 2 Edict of Milan 3 13 a letter sent by Constantine and Licinius to eastern magistrates instituting religious tolerance b Licinius reneged on the Edict in 320 7 outbreak of war 3 Established new capital 7 Nova Roma Constantinople 7 on Bosphoros a left Rome and it was never a permanent imperial residence b Milan and then Ravenna became imperial seats B Imperial Works Chapter Six 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Tetrarchs San Marco Venice ca 300 Arch of Constantine Rome 312313 Colossal Statue of Constantine Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine ca 325 Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine Rome ca 310 Imperial Audience Hall Trier Germany early 43911 century Fig 6 71 in uence of NeoPlatonism C The Christian Church headed by the Bishop of Rome Pope assumed authority of the Roman Empire in the Latin West II Third Century Developments A Jewish Representation 7 Synagogue at Dura Europos Syria ca 250 l 2 aniconic religion 7 prohibition against images na1rative of the history of a Chosen People 7 Moses and the Exodus a prophets wearing Roman togas b Torah Shrine compare to the Villa Torlonia Rome Fig 7 2 c composition and gure proportion reminiscent of Column of Trajan use of narrative pictorial depiction of history B Early Christian Figure Art 1 2 first 200 years 7 aniconic religion Christian Baptistry DuraEuropos Syria ca 250 a The Good Shepherd a Pagan symbol for charity and humanity b New Testament scenes that refer to water and rebirth c purification of original sin d high degree of drama in the bathing scene Catacombs Rome a plan 1 loculus for the poor 2 Cubiculum bedroom containing special container called a sarcophagus For the rich important b Cataco l 2 c d Sarcop a Sarcop l 2 3 4 111 Early Christian Architecture A l atrium nave a C mb of Sts Peter and Marcellinus ca 300 Good Shepherd with scenes from the story of Jonah and the Whale Jonah 14 and Orants Prayer Figuressymbol of baptism and resurrection a Universal symbol of protection individual images that can be generally combinedi syncretism using different elements of other traditions to create a synchronized image with a new meaning Good Shepherd 7 pagan Roman symbol of charity humanity l statue from Turkey ca 250 hagus from Sta Maria Antiqua ca 250 1 Good Shepherd Orans Jonah philospherteacher Abraham and Isaac no Christian symbols allowing Chrisitanity to appeal to other religions marble beautifully carved orance pose prayer pose common syncretism good shepherd woman being instructed by a holy person 5 43911 century acceptance of Christianity 7 Christ assumes imperial poses hagus of Junius Bassus 359 Roman official who converted to Christianity Peter and Paul Apostles to the Romans Christ enthroned and Christ triumphant on donkey Riding on a donkey imperial pose meant to invoke Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius Christ sitting on a throne with feet on the head of a Pagan deity the defeat of Paganism Christ has taken on the attributes of Roman emperors Cubiculum of Leonis Catacomb of Commodilla ca 375 Christ wearing Senatorial toga and anked by A and Q a alpha and omega refer to God the first and the last Old Saint Peter s Rome ca 325 atrium in 43911 century Plan Basilican structure with organization of Roman Forum nartheX aisles d e transept f apse 2 Elevation 7 basilica with wooden ceiling a Basilica Ulpia forum of Trajan 3 Differences not opus concretum no groin vaulting characteristics of Constantine s transept cross piece meant to enhance the procession of priests Santa Sabina Rome ca 430 1 Plan 7 no transept 2 Basilican elevation 3 Audience Hall Trier early 4th century Fig 6 71 4 spolz39a Mausoleum of Constantia became the Church of Sta Costanza ca 350 1 central plan common for imperial mausolea a Augustus 14 b Hadrian Castel San Angelo ca 140 2 Plan a nartheX b central area with dome c ambulatory d niches 3 made of opus concretum 4 Mosaics 7 on ceilings a Harvesting Grapes with portrait of Constantia ambulatory b Bacchan maenads and putti c Christ handing the tablets of the Law to Moses and Christ with Sts Peter and Paul Santa Maria Maggiore 432440 7 beginning of the cult of the Virgin Mary 1 nave mosaics Old Testament scenes from Exodus and Kings ie an illustrated Old Testament a Separation of Abraham and Lot b large tesseraae 7 marble cubes c composition elements similar to Column of Trajan ARTH 251 Byzantine Art and Architecture of the 5Lh and 63911 Century 1 Fifth Century Ravenna A Capital of the Western Empire 1 2 410 7 Visigoths sack Rome Honorius son of Theodosius regent or Caesar of the western empire B Mausoleum of Galla Placidia ca 425 l 2 halfsister of Honorius central plan a cruciform b central dome supported by pendentives iconography 7 Neoplatonic ordering of the cosmos a cross in starred heaven b Christ dressed as Emperor but acting as Good Shepherd l 2 3 4 c d the martyr St Lawrence and by inference the Evangelists the dead in sarcophagi C Baptistery of the Orthodox ca 450 connection between baptism death and salvation Baptism of Christ John the Baptist and the River Jordan The Apostles 7 imitators of Christ Jeweled Thrones and Books on lectures 7 Triumph and Power of the Word II The reign of Justinian 527565 A The Hagia Sophia The Church of Holy Wisdom 532537 Constantinople church constructed by Theodosius ca 380 was destroyed in 532 riots Anthemius of Tralles and Isidoros of Miletus architects geometricians and physicists l 2 3 4 5 B Ravenna Italy 2 C D E 1 plan 1 2 doubleshelled octagon open unsupported internal space with support lled outer spaces dome and pendentives relation to Pantheon Ravenna given to Theodoric King of Ostragoths 7 Arian Christian San Vitale begun 525 mosaic program 545547 Justinian s attempt to reassert Orthodox control a b plan 1 2 doubleshell octagon of Italian type Romantype dome on squinches iconography 7 Imperial presence to ensure Orthodox belief l 2 3 4 5 Lamb of Heaven Old Testament precursors of Christ a Abraham b Abel and Melchizedek c Moses d Jeremiah Apostles Justinian and his Advisors and Theodora and her Assistants The Second Coming of Christ with St Vitalis and Bishop Ecclesius San Apollinare in Classe ca 549 7the 6th century mosaics The Role of Martyrs 7 San Apollinarus Hesitation to use anthropomorphic images of Christ and Apostles The Trans guration Matt 17 19 Mark 9 18 Luke 9 2936 Ivory panel with the Archangel Michael 500 550 some persistence of classical naturalism Works Created in Remote Areas of the Eastern Empire Con icting Interpretations on the Nature of Christ The Rabbula Gospels 586 7 Syria 1 2 3 l l 2 a b region that emphasized the more human side of Christ long tunic to cover Christ on the Cross and to emphasize his triumph text interpretation I c increasing importance of Virgin Mary 3 Icon 7 Virgin and Child With Saints and Angels 550 a the essence of God and saint re ected in the image b con ict with Neoplatonism l Iconoclast Controversy beg 726843 2 The Monophysites 7 godhead indivisible ARTH 251 Late Byzantine Art and Architecture 5 November 2009 The Iconoclast Controversy 726 7 843 A Appearance and spread of Islam 1 Muhammad ca 570 632 2 aniconic religion The Iconoclasts 7 Emperor Leo III reigned 717741 7 forbade veneration of images of Christ and saints l believed that Christ was not divisible into divine and human natures 2 profound in uence of Neoplatonism The Iconodules 7 John of Damascus ca 675 7 749 III 1 adhered to Orthodox interpretation promulgated at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 Christ was simultaneously of divine nature and of human nature during the period of the Incarnation 30 7 33 years 2 role of images 7 icons incorporated a small measure of the essence of the depicted subject a they were a means to illuminate the soul of the devout D Reversal of the Restriction 7 the ood gates opened Church Architecture 7 Dome of Heaven A In uence of Hagia Sophia Constantinople B The Monastery of Hosios Loukas near Phocas Greece 7the Katholikon ca 1000 1 plan 7 Greek cross with central dome within a rectangle 2 enclosure between sanctuary and central space 7 iconostasis placement of icons 3 emphasis on the dome 7 Christ Pantocrator Christ the All Powerful Judge a Monastery at Daphni Greece ca 1000 1 Christ Pantocrator 2 Cruci xion g 743 C Other Examples 1 Cathedral of Santa Sophia Kiev ca 1040 2 San Marco Venice begun 1063 Victorious Images Harbaville Triptych ca 1050 1 visual stimulus for prayer and contemplation 2 Deesis Virgin and John the Baptist as the last intercessors with Christ B The Monastery of Christ in Chora Istanbul ca 1310 7 Parraclesion Funerary Chapel 1 Theodore Metochites renaissance man and Imperial Treasurer 2 Anastasis Decent into Limbo a redemption of Adam and Eve b illusionistic 7 trompe l oez39l C Images of the Virgin Virgin and Child with Saints and Angels ca 550 Monastery of St Catherine Sinai Egypt 7 preIconoclast Controversy 2 Virgin of Vladimir probably made in Constantinople ca 1000 7 1150 a iconic icon b model for 100s of Russian and Ukrainian icons D Persistence of Classicizing Style Ivory plaque of Archangel Michael ca 500 a compare with Archangel Michael ca 1000 7 gold symbolizing divine light 2 Paris Psalter Book of Psalms now in Paris ca 950 7 David Composing the Psalms a pastiche 7 assortment of wellknown poses and works Three Goddesses the Parthenon Melodie 3 I Introduction B l 2 3 4 5 C 2 Roman wall painting 3 River God Andrey Rublyov Abraham and the Three Angels The Old Testament Trinity ca 1400 a compare to same scene at San Vitale Ravenna ca 545 ARTH 251 Islamic Art Muhammad ca 570 7 632 Succession Difficulties 7 caliphs Abu Bakr 632 7 634 Umar ibn alKhattab 634 7 644 assassinated Uthman ibn alA an 644 7 656 7 compiled the Qur an and assassinated Ali ibn Abi Talib 656 7 661 cousin and soninlaw of Muhammad assassinated DiVision into Sunni and Shi a a followers of Ali 7 Shi a b Sunni 7 followed the rst three caliphs Kaaba Mecca 1 built by Abraham 2 destroyed all the idols that had accumulated around it 3 focus ofthe Hijj 4 origin of aniconic emphasis D Extent and Importance of Islamic Culture 1 India to Spain 2 Learning a preserved and translated Greek scienti c and philosophical works b advances in mathematics and science 1 transmission of Hindu zero and decimal system 2 astrolabe 7 measurement of the heavens ll Architecture A Dependence of Byzantine Models 1 Haram AlSharif The Dome of the Rock Jerusalem ca 700 a compare with San Vitale Ravenna 52 7 50 b Church ofthe Holy Sepulcher Jerusalem ca 380 2 Mosque of Sultan Selim Edime Turkey 1575 a compare to Hagia Sophia 532 B Hypostyle Hall Plan 1 characteristics a prayer hall lled with columns b longitudinal arrangement to focus of the mihrab on gibla walli see Fig 816 Qibla wall withMihrab and AIinbar at the Sultan Hasan Madrasa MausoleumMosque complet Cairo ca 1350 c dome in front of mihrab 2 The Great Mosque Kairouan Tunisia ca 875 3 The Great Mosque Cordoba Spain ca 800


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