Intro Psy as a Natural Science
Intro Psy as a Natural Science PSYC 201
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Duane Runolfsson on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 201 at College of William and Mary taught by Constance Pilkington in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/231177/psyc-201-college-of-william-and-mary in Psychlogy at College of William and Mary.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Drugs 1132009 75900 PM B Methamphetamine 9quot p Pquot Fquot o 1 A few medical uses o 2 Users o 3 Administration o 4 How does it work 0 A blocks reuptake of dopamine o B high dopamine release o 5 Short term effects increased wakefulness decreases appetite increases respiration rate gives a general sense of well being o 6 Longterm effects 0 addiction addiction psychosis paranoia delusion rage homicidal thoughts leads to weight loss stroke 0 toxic effect on neurons 50 of those neurons can be destroyed after prolonged exposure at relatively low doses MDMA ectasy o Stimulant and a hallucinogen o Chemically similar to mescelin and methamphetamine o 2 Schedule 1 drug no proven good use for it o 14 of americans having used X at some point in their life Many users of X now use other drugs like o 99 use alcohol and pot o 94 use meth o 85 use tobacco o 61 use cocaine o Administered orally effects start within an hour last 36 hours Works on 3 neurotransmitters o a elevates serotonin release o b inhibits the release of dopamine o likely the cause of increased blood pressure metabolism o repeated drug use can Short term effects mentally stimulated emotional warmth empathy towards others general sense of well being decreased anxiety enhanced sensory perception 7 Postuse effects lack appetite anxiety irritability sad more impulsive more aggress reduced pleasure in sexual activity 8 Longterm effects X is a neurotoxin damages and ultimately kills serotonin neurons Severe effect on memory D Cannabis 1 Users 0 40 of all American age 12 and over have tried it at least once in 2004 16 of 8th graders reported using pot35 of 10th graders have tried it and 46 of 12th graders have tried it 2Administration O inhale water pipes blunts tea mixed with food brownies 3 Shortterm effects 0 0 2050 beats higher than normal per minutes so increase heart rate blood vessels in eyes expand making them look red dry mouth MUNCHIES colors and sounds are more intense time passes slower pleasant sensations and a euphoria 4 Bad side effects 0 anxiety distrust panic THC binds with cannabinoid receptor 0 O O O O O O O P cerebellum which affects movement hippocampus important for learning and memory cerebral cortex nucleus acumbens reward center of the brain Receptor sites are abundant in these areas of the brain E hypothalamus hunger for Fs food FUCK F amygdala area of fear G spinal cord pain perception feeling no pain H Brain stem sleep and arousal temp regulation pow 5 Long term o 5070 more carcinogens than tobacco does o b reduces male fertility Not too much evidence E Heroin o 1 Highly addictive opiate and the most abused opiate processed from morphine o 2 4 million Americans have used heroin at some point in their life 0 O O 0 most users are 18 and older most users male delivered via intravenous injection 78 seconds a feeling of euphoria and intense high another form is stabbing yourself in a muscle 58 minutes till high smoking or sniffing takes about 810 minutes Heroin works because its converted into morphine Attaches to our opiate receptors where endorphins should be Affects the limbic system involved in motion and increased feelings of pleasure 5 Shortterm effects high lasts a couple of hours euphoria dry mouth flushing of skin heaviness in ones extremities on the nod alteration between drowsy and wakeful state mental functioning becomes clouded prime long term effect is addiction chronic users can develop collapsed veins infection of heartlining and valves liver disease abcysses on skin pulmonary consequences like pneumonia arthritis risk of infectious diseases 1132009 75900 PM Altered states 1027 10272009 70100 PM III Sleep o A Circadian rhythm o 1 Wake sleep cycle that tends to have 25 hr period 2 Produces rhythmic variations in our blood pressure body Temperature hormonal secretions etc 3 Jet Lag 4 East vs West travels easier to adjust if you travel west explains why I m so tired when I first arrive at school 5 Rotating shifts keep changing schedule according to Circadian rhythm B Stages of sleep 1 Awake a Beta waves small and fast b Presleep waves slow down and get larger transform to alpha waves 1 Alpha waves body temperature drops body slows down 2 hypnagogic sleep Sensitivity to external stimuli decreases Thoughts become more fanciful less reality bound 3 Myoclonia when the body suddenlyjerks and you wake up 2 Stage 1 sleep light sleep brain waves slow down even more a Theta waves low amplitude irregular breathing slows down further muscles relax even more 3Stage 2 Sleep still have theta waves a spindles rapid short period of bundled waves together that have a greater amp b Kcomplex low freq but amp high stimulation can come from external sources 4 Stage 3 sleep has Delta waves 5 Stage 4 sleep still has the delta waves happens about a 30 minutes of sleep 6 REM sleep rapid eye movement 90 minutes after first falling asleep Brain waves are very similar to stage 1 7 NREM vs REM a free movement relatively in non REM Rem sleep is rather immobile skeletal muscles become limp low steady blood pressure in NREM B high BP irregular in REM similar phenomena happens with heart rate and breathing e NREM easier to wake usually e2 If you do wake up from REM quickly alert whereas NREM you are slow to wake and confused much like I usually am3 D39 gt m 8 Cycle thru stages multiple times 9 Dream not as rich in NREM stage 10 Early versus late in night first REM period last a few minutes but progressively gets longer peak around 4060 minutes in length late in the night spend less time in stage 3 4 IV Dreams A Patterns of dreaming 1 never dream gt highly unlikely because of sleep labs tests and the results 2 Why don t we remember a statedependent amnesia b b remember dreams when we just barely wake upnot fully awake straddling the two states of consciousness dreams are meant to be forgotten hypothesis brains are giant eschesketch and at the end of the day brain eliminates unnecessary info B Contents Dreams of falling being chased try to do something repeatedly getting somewhere late sexual experiences 03 1 a b Dreams tend to be selfcentered Most dreams involve content about things going on in life Involve the residue of the days think of the example of the dune buggy and her stupid aliens invading her at night What do they mean 2 levels according to Freud manifest content latent content what the events symbolize the train and the tunnel I am the train 2 Activation Synthesis Hypothesis 1 activation of cells in the pons which controls sleep Argument is these neurons send neural impulses randomly up to the cortex Cortex merely tries to interpret these impulses as best as It can Randomness explains why dreams can be soo bizarre 10272009 701 00 PM Sensation amp Perception 1012009 70400 PM surveywmedumasstest gt do soon I Terms o A Sensation o 1stimuus any type of energy that acts sensory receptors u might be light waves chemicals etc a receiving info from the external world o taking that info and processing it in brain o B Perception involves memories of past experience 0 Organizes sensory into awareness of an event Think of nervous system brain interprets info II Psychophysics o A Absolute Threshold 0 1 Definition how much sensory you need before you feel it see it hear it sometimes situational hearing more sensitive under certain times 0 2 Testing 0 3 Magnitude in which a person can detect stimulus 50 of time problem is it doesn t tell us what s going on when the stimulus isn t there B Signal Detection Theory 0 actual stimulus either present or absent a record persons response on that try check pdf file posted for diagram d prime hitsFA a greater the ratio more sensitive the individual is o 3 Response Bias a Conservative say you detected the stimulus when you have b Liberal tend to say you detected the stimulus when it might be uncertain o 4 Functions of a motivation if very motivatedexpectinggt more liberal b expectations o C Difference Threshold 0 1Smallest amt of change in a stimulus intensity that s detected 0 2 Just Noticeable Differeance JND each sensory system has own JND n JND depends on intensity of original stimulus o 3Weber s law Change in Intensity original intensity k constant 0 4 Weight 130 if 1 lb need to add 130 lb o D Sensory Adaptation o Occurs when a stimulus is constantly present at an unchanging intensity Sensation reduced until no longer sense stimulus n Think fried fish 0 Why Sensory receptors get fatigued n Maybe designed to be most sensitive to changes o Rarely occurs in a complete sense III Vision o A Stimulus o 1 Electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves and X rays only some visible to naked eye 0 2 Amplitude of light wave determines brightness of situation low amp appears dim high appears bright o 3 Frequency or wv determines color usually not pure color combination of wave lengths B Ports of the Eye 0 1 Retina photosensitive part of eye where the receptors lie a rods b cones a brightness encoded by both types of receptor cells 0 2 Rods responsible for vision in dim lighting a located around periphery of retina amp responsible for peripheral vision 0 3Cones fewer cones than rods in retina a fovea b cone encode info about color c less sensitive in dim light 0 4 Night vision a color b acuity n clearest imagines are the ones furthest away from fovea c Responding to visual stimuli o 5 optic nerve where sensory neuron converge to carry info out of eye 0 6 Each eye has a blind spot diff parts of a imagine hit each blind spot a eyes move around a lot C Miniature Eye Movements o 1 Microsarcades o 2 Drifts o 3 Physiological mystagmus constant high frequency trimmer of eye o D Two other types of Adaptation 0 Light to dark squint Regaining vision in abrupt changes a 1 Dark adaptation o rods and cones almost stop firing completely o a cones max out in 5 minutes o b rods max out in 30 min a 2 Light adaptation happens when suddenly exposed to intense light o 1 min 1012009 70400 PM 1012009 70400 PM Sleep 10292009 701 00 PM V Purpose of Sleep A Why do we sleep 0 1 Restorative effect Somewhat in the form of repair and restoration but not as much as we assume bc body still functions blood circulates etc Doesn t depend on how active you are during the day 2 Evolutionary idea 0 keep us out of suspicious situations at night B Sleep Deprivation o 1 Abruptly have less than 4 hours of sleep irritable mentally fatigued lapses in attention sometimes handtremors feel more depressed less sociable next nightfall asleep faster than normally do study at UofF gradual less sleep until the 4 hr mark a no detectable results in the short run some of the more dramatic studies show that people can go up to 265 hours without sleep without lasting damage sometimes hallucinations occur C REM Sleep 0 1 Depriving of 2 hrs of REM start to see bad side effects 0 2 REM rebound will experience more REM than normal 0 3 Gradual reduction in overall sleep leads to more and more REM packed into one night sleep D What does REM do 0 1 Helps us with learning in particular consolidate new information when depriving people of deep sleep and REM messes UP Ach is increased during REM Ach plays a role in storing memories VI Development Changes o A overall sleep 0 1 Newborns 18hrs of sleep daily 0 2 Adolescences need more sleep than prepubescent kids 0 3 Adults get between 79 hrs of sleep 0 Elderly sleep less than the 79 hours o B REM sleep 0 1 Fetuses experience REM according to some studies 2 Infants 3 By 1St birthday REM is about 30 of the night 4 Adulthood is 2025 of night in REM as you get older experience less deep sleep in a lighter sleep in general 0 O O O VII Sleep Disorders o A Night terrors wake up in a panic screaming fighting 0 Usually go back to sleep quickly and don t remember it in the morning 0 Happens during non REM sleep 0 Disorder most common in preschoolers o B Insomniadifficulty staying asleep or going to sleep 0 1Situational difficulty sleeping in reaction to some stressor in your life 0 2 Benign complain about lack of sleep but actually the person sleeps in the common range not actually insomnia restful sleep feels like wake cycle 0 3 Arrhythmic when you mess with the circadian rhythm psychoactive drug interacts with sleep a alcohol reduces amount of time we spend in REM and deeper sleep o C Sleep walking and talking o 1 Walking is common in children before puberty o 2 Sleep talking is more common often difficult ot understand what the talker is saying o D Sleep Apnea 0 Person stops breathing o 1 2 types a obstructive apnea central apnea o 2 Snores o 3 When During rem sleep and while lying on your back 0 4 Who most likely the people who snore o 5 Effect positive correlation with fatal car accidents suffering from poor sleep 0 6 Treatments weight loss helps surgery oral appliances CPAP 70 effective 0 o E Narcolepsy is an uncontrollable need to sleep fro brief periods during the day loss of muscle tone happens bt age of 2025 0 210 in every 10000 people 0 person goes through micro sleeps 515 seconds of sleeps 0 compared to population relatives of the narc are 60x more likely to develop it than others VIII Drugs o A Cocaine is a stimulant cocoa leaves have been ingested for 1000s of years mid 19th century was the extraction practice 0 Schedule II drug high potential for abuse 2 forms a a Hydrochloride salt powdered form n b Freebasecrack is smoked and high is experienced in less than 10 seconds a can create cardiovascular problems 0 3 Users 34 million Americans reported using coke sometime in life 6 used in the last yr 2700 new users every days 04 How does it work Nucleus accumbens part of brain that is associated with award feelings Bcoke blocks the reuptake of dopamine which causes continued stimulation for post synaptic nerves Increases heart rate and BP dilates pupils and makes you talkative Timing high last 1030 minutes more intense high if smoked but shorter lasting around 10 minutes Long term addiction paranoia restless B Methamphetamine o Structurally similar to amphetamine but has a more pronounced affect on CNS A few medical uses ADD obesity and narcolepsy 105 million have used it in the past year 5 million in the past month 10292009 701 00 PM 1015 notes 10152009 70200 PM 7 Sensory Adaptation VIII Audition o A timulus o A vibration of air particles pressure waves 1 Frequencygt determines pitch of the sound a measured in Hz cycles per second o higher frequency higher pitch 2 Amplitude how loud the sound is n loudness measured in decibels o low amp Means softer sounds but also depends on frequencies 0 have different thresholds on high vs low frequency o B Parts of the Ear o 1 Outer Ear a Pinna collects sounds from environment and directs them into auditory canal tympanic membraneeardrum u when soundwave strikes eardrum it begins to vibrate o 2 Middle Ear a eardrum connected to three tiny bones called ossicles which are n i malleushammer n ii Incus anvil n iii Stapes stirrup o 3 Inner Eargt cochlea bone structure that is hollow and filled with fluid a connects to the auditory neurons Middle ear what it does o Easier to move air than it is fluid 0 Increases pressure to the oval window of the cochlea so it is about 2530 times greater than the pressure that was acting on the eardrum o Eustachian tube equalizes the pressure from the outside with the middle ear 4Inside the cochlea is the Basilar membrane fluid inside here too lined with tiny fine hairs o as wave moves through hairs hair cells translate the physical stimulus into a neural impulse C Encoding the physical info 1 Loudness greater the amp Of sound wave more hair cells it stimulates 2 Place Theory as wave moves down membrane the size varies It s the point where the wave is at its largest that s meaningful largest bulge in the fluid that tells the brain what the freq is full 0 3 Frequency Theory hair cells fire in a rhythm that is synchronized with the frequency of the sound wave 0 most nerve cells cant fire more than 1000 times a sec implies we couldn t hear sounds above 1000 Hz even though we can in reality 4 Volley Theory argues that hair cells take turns firing 5 Pitch o a place theory works best with highfrequency sounds o b frequency theory works best with low freq sounds both work w intermediate freq D Auditory Localization A sound source closer to one of our ears than the other 0 1 w distance sound dissipates o 2 Head creates a shadowpartial sound barrier B use loudness and timing as a source of comparison 0 Can detect time dif Of 1100000 of a second When sounds in front or behind we must turn our head to locate it Have a change in the perception of the field IX Subliminal Perception o Conscious processing occurs quickly o Perceive something visual in as little as 15 of a second 0 A Semantic Priming Show one word followed by another and ask them to identify 2nd word as quickly as possible a Can identify word more quickly if 1St word relates to 2nd word 0 B Applications 1 Rosen amp Singh was carefully conducted a inserted one of 3 messages into print advertising o a sex o b naked woman w phallic symbols o c Death pictures of skulls o d no embedded messagecontrol a measured attitude how good of an ad what they thought of a person who uses this product Why the difference between lab and real world a i to get these conditions they have to have no distracting competing stimuli I N n ii Measurement of the effect has to be very sensitive n iii 1St and 2nd words have to be very close in time and space If we separate words for more than a second subliminal priming effect disappears 10152009 70200 PM October 68 1122009 90600 PM 10609 E Color Vision o 1 YoungHelmoltz Trichromatic theory 0 3 kinds of cones 0 each kind of cone is responsible for only one range of light waves 0 color perception depends on relative activation of the cones o 2 OpponentProcess Theory 0 a 3 opponent systems pair of color receptors 1 Redgreen 2 Yellowblue 3 Blackwhite n each pair the neurons are excited by wavelengths in the range of one color when you stare you exhaust the neurons so if you stare at red then you look away at a white screen you will see green afterimages occur because of sensory adaptation color blindness involves one of the system pairs redgreen yellowblue blackwhite less than 1 of females and 5 of males will develop color blindness o 3 So which theory is correct 0 both are at different levels 0 for cones trichromatic theory is correct 0 but beyond the cones opponentprocess theory is correct ob O 0 IV Gestalt psychologists introduced the phase o A the whole is greater than the sum of its parts 0 How people organize incoming information o if we draw 3 angles we see a triangle o B 5 basic principles of organization 0 1 Figureground differentiation a visual experience awhat we see in the center of our attention The Figure b the background of what we see and much less distinct The Ground a shows how sensation differs from perception n we are capable of taking the same incoming data and organize it in a different way 2 Similarity we tend to group elements like each other together 0 3 Proximity we tend to see things that are close together and say they belong to each other 0 4 Closure we favor the perception that creates a complete picture we know it should be there so we fill it in o 5 Continuation elements that appear close together tend to get grouped together there is an oval of x s and 3 other x sgt the 3 other x s don t belong elements that appear to follow in the same direction get grouped together 0 V Pattern Reorganization o Take sets of stimuli and organizecategorize them into meaningful categories o A Object categories 0 1 Features aspects of stimuli o Noticing the features that are there doesn t helpallow us to distinguish between similar objects 0 Features can have a range of values imagine the tree drawing with lines as needles on twigs o B BottomUp theory additive theories ignore the whole parts 0 Perception begins at the very basic stimulation and goes up to the brain where perception is built O O O O 0 so it begins with rods and cones and stimuli in the environment perception is then built in the brain in abstract categories 1 Certain cells are feature detectors these specialized cells are sensitive to only one spot of stimuli ex Only fire when a horizontal line only fire when a vertical line etc the notion is that these feature detectors fire when they detect the feature 2 Theories supportive evidence looks at the kinds of errors people make a typically in common figures a People confused by EF more than EQ confused less C TopDown Theories Pattern recognition begins at critical level and works its way down to the actual stimulussensory receptors First pattern recognition requires active recognition of stimuli Previous experience plays a huge role in perception Our brain forms a hypothesis and directs a search of the object out there Allows us to skip unnecessary steps 1 Perceptual set it s a frame of mind that sets a person to believe that something in a particular way allows us to over see things that aren t supposed to be there 2 Context effects demonstrates the role of topdown general topic of convo and break it up into parts a new languagetoo fast and we can t break it up 3 Ambiguous and reversible figures 4Subjective Contours the contours of things there is giving you the perception of a contour D Integrative theories 0 You can t really argue that it s one or the other 0 Doesn t take much to start topdown in bottomup they work together VI Depth Perception We have to take cues from stimulus to perceive depth 2 03 o A Binocular usesjoint activity of both eyes 0 The closer we get to something the more crosseyed so it s parallel farther out 0 Our brain uses this info about depth muscles around our eyes Binocular Disparity o 3 apart irisgtiris o the visual fields for each eye are different so the retinal images will be slightly different this difference is binocular disparity Stereopsis to perceptually process the images in a way that contributes to depth 0 O Monocular cues o 1 Interposition if one object partially conceals other the fully exposed object is perceived to be nearer or in front of the other object o 2 Aerial perceptiveHaze the clarity of the image the retinal images that appear sharp or distinct appear to be closer than objects that are blurry o 3 Elevation in the field things that appear higher in the image appear farther away 0 4 Linear Perspective systematically decreasing the size of elements and decreasing their space in the image vanishing pt 0 5 2 similar objects different sizes The larger one appears to be closer to you 10809 VII The Skin senses 5 o A Receptors o Unevenly distributed different areas are more sensitive o B Pressure 0 1 Sensitivity on the body does vary lips and fingers are the most sensitive legs and arms are the least sensitive o 2 Sex difference lower absolute threshold for women for general sensitivity men and women are basically the same distribution 0 3 Point localization where exactly the pressure is being appHed o 4 2point discrimination threshold method how far do 2 points need to be away from each other on you to realize that there are 2 points pressing down on you instead of one o 5 Accuracy is related to cortical representation of that body part the less cortical representation the less sensitive that body part is o 6 Sensory Adaptation yes we experience this but it has to be at a constant level so we partially adapt a lot but we rarely completely adapt o C Temperature the temperature of an object when it touches your skin 0 1 Thermal sensitivity unequally distributed 0 lips and finger tips are the most sensitive o 2Two separate systems the receptors work separately from each other a hot receptors activated by warmth b cold receptors activated by cold 0 3Warm stimulation of warm is created by both preceptors o 4 Psychological zero narrow range of temperature neither hot or cold a 33 degrees Celsius b Why a The temperature of object and temperature of our skin temperature of our skin is usually 33 C range or 91495 F n Absolute threshold would be just below 325 C o 5 Sensory Adaptation we do adapt to temperature a the more extreme temperature the more time it takes you to adapt but we don t really adapt to extreme temperatures D Pain o 1 Stimulus damaging receptors 0 you can feel pain without tissue damage but sometimes you cant feel pain with tissue damage 0 we believe that nerveendings are involved 0 pain spots are more numerous than thermal and pressure spots and are widely distributed in the body o 2 Two neural pathways 0 a Afibers rapid neural pathway for pain transmit pain neural impulses quickly 0 b Cfibers slow neural pathway 3 MRI 0 acute pain 0 also the pain involves a motor and vocal response a quick shift of attention an emotional or affected change 0 a Thalamus 1St region to be activated o b SomatoSensory Cortex in opposite hemisphere more of the somatosensory cortex is activated than the small part of the given the shot 0 c cingulated cortex receives info from both the thalamus and somato sensory cortex wired to the limbic system 0 d cerebellum involves movement so there s some activation o 4 Sternbach identified 2 kinds of pain 0 a 1St pain clear and localized doesn t hurt that much doesn t hurt as much as we would expect 0 b an pain diffuse goes from a small of ginger to the whole hand duller and much longerlasting o 5 GateControl Theory 0 gate cells special neurons that moderate the neural transmission of pain 0 they block further neural transmission once they have been excited A fibers excite gate cells o 6 PAG periaqueductal gray o midbrain down to spinal cord 0 a neural impulse is sent down and when it reaches synapses at the spinal cord they inhibit more impulses from being sent UP 0 A lesion morphine wont work as well B electrically stimulate we can produce analgesic pain annulis pain 0 C Endorphins seem to stimulate PAG Placebo effects are explained Tried to be used to explain acupuncture Last 2 weeks of pregnancy o 7 Sensory Adaptation 0 There is evidence that we do adapt to pain 0 o Smaller amount of skin the sooner we adapt 0 Hard to adapt completely because your skin adapts and moves 1122009 90600 PM 10202009 Variations in Consciousness Definitions What is it Re ects a subjective awareness of both internal and external stimuli awareness of objects in the environment bodily sensations memories thoughts Some people think of it was a mental state others view it as a mental process Levels of Consciousness 4 kinds ofwaking mental states Conscious Mind 0 Very limited represents what your attention is currently focused on Preconscious mind 0 Information that you re currently not focused on but you can easily bring to mind when you want to EX Favorite pizza Color ofyour moms hair Bring it to mind immediately Freudian Unconscious 0 Thoughtsmemories that can t be brought in to the conscious mind easily 0 Traumatic memories inappropriate urges physic con ict Cognitive Unconsciousness 0 Thought processes that simply cannot be brought into consciousness no matter how hard you try 0 Give rise to thoughtsemotionbehavior but you are not aware of those processes 0 EX 7711 you can come up with a sum but the way you do it is understood Continuum 0 Full consciousness know and able to describe mental state 0 Minimal consciousness accepting and responding to stimuli at basic level Controlled vs Automatic Processing Controlled processes 0 Requires alert awareness o Absorbs your attention 0 Takes a good amount ofmental effort 0 Occur slowly due to the above 0 Occur at a conscious level require a lot of concentration 0 Because of that are easily interrupted o Interfere with other cognitive processes 0 Ex taking an exam driving a car Automatic processes 0 Little or no conscious awareness o Require minimal attention 0 Occur effortlessly 0 Rapid occurrence 0 Hard to interfere with them 0 Don t interfere with other activities 0 Ex once you ve learned to drive a car it becomes automatic The Stroop Effect 0 Requires the participant to do two things Number of color words printed in the correct color Blue Green Red Black Blue Green Blue Black How do processes become automatic 0 Some are that way from the beginning Ex breathing don t have to think about it 0 Come with practice control process becomes over learned Ex learning how to write When might we attend to them over learned behavior 0 1 when it becomes effortful ex breaking leg learning how to walk 0 2 when it becomes interrupted ex driving manual 0 3 when we are explicitly asked to ex asked to drive manual need to think about the process of driving tricks of driving manual transmission Attention Focusing attention 0 Speech shadowing Subject given headphones Two different messages delivered to different ears Asked to repeat back the message the message from the designated ear Accepted message message that is being directed to the ear I want you to shadow to repeat Rejected message ignore this message 0 Psychological events Ability to ignoreretain the message 0 Some stimulus qualities Meaningfulness of the information Things that have meaning to you will be attended to over things that do not have meaning to you Intensity More intense the stimulus is the more likely you are to notice it and thus more attention Novelty When something is new and unexpected it grabs your attention Attending to something new evolutionary point of View is probably wise 0 When do we filter out or get rid of competing stimulation EarlySelection Theories o Broadbent s Filter Theory Two part system ow of information to the brain 1st part is sensory 2nd part perceptual Sensory system Parallel transmission can hold multiple pieces of sensory information at once Perceptual system Serial transmission Can only process one piece of information at a time Filter makes its decision based on the person s current needs If the perceptual system didn t process something quickly it would be lost entirely Equates perception with conscious attention 0 Good support 0 Moray quotSwitchquot in accepted message nearly 100 switched