Intro Psy as a Natural Science
Intro Psy as a Natural Science PSYC 201
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Duane Runolfsson on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 201 at College of William and Mary taught by Constance Pilkington in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/231177/psyc-201-college-of-william-and-mary in Psychlogy at College of William and Mary.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
V The Role of Schemas in Memory A Schemas 1 Features 7 specific piece of information that represents a typical element of the person place or thing Basically typical attributes EX Person height weight age gender When we encounter a stimulus we pull up an appropriate schema and we assign values to those features Assign tall thin old female etc 2 Values 7 provides an organizational tool I know where to put it how to use it and what information to look for when stimulus is encountered 3 Default values 7 best guess at what the most likely value for a feature is EX Rode with a friend to Richmond Default value rode in a g Values we assign when the actual value for a feature has not been specifiedprovided B Big Role in Memory 1 Make it easier to store something in memory make an eventthing easier to understand and provide organization that is critical to memory 2 Help explain errors in memory 7 We might store incorrect default values Maybe she really did ride in a horse amp buggy Also tend not to encode info that is inconsistent with the schema unless glaringly inconsistent If you came to her office and saw a screwdriver on her desk you probably would not encode it 3 Intrusions 7 This is information that was not present but is falsely remembered as being present Tend to be schema consistent Might testify to there being a full bookcase in her office even though there is no bookcase 4 Reconstruction theory 7 The idea that we use our generic schemas to guide our recall of a specific event Sometimes we don t have specific details and we tend to use the generic schemas to reconstruct our memory of the entire event EX Your first class day on campus C Eyewitness Testimony 1 Our court system relies heavily on eyewitness testimony In reality generally quite poor 2 Intrusion 7 schema consistent 3 Forget schemainconsistent information 4 Arousal consumes cognitive resources interferes with proper encoding 5 Postevent information 7 info you get after the event occurs can introduce errors into your retrieval For instance how a question is asked can affect your memory a smashed vs hit b broken glass BE VERY CAREFULWARY OF YOUR MEMORY IF YOU WITNESS A CRIMINAL ACT VI Forgetting 7 defined as a loss in accessibility of previously stored information A Def 7 either it is completely gone from memory no memory eXists anymore or it s there and you just can t retrieve it B Ebbinghaus Research 7 How quickly do we forget l Served as his only subject 2 Method 7 First he developed hundreds of nonsense syllables that adhere to certain language rules with no meaning Vot frad Argued that he needed stimuli that he had not yet stored in memory while minimizing effect of prior knowledge ndtb n t t d hlmself at vanous rnteryals oftrme 3 Results eLose mueh a er an hour 29 so Lamquot a nu L100 4 Bahnckr arguedthatwhrle sometrmes there rs some rnrtral forgettlng some memones ean endure foryears andreaeh somethrng ealled a permastore39 b Why7 Depends on how well the rnformauon was leamedrn the rst plaee e Cnuerzed Ebblnghaus39 use of nonsense syllables Cannot be elaborated on nothrng rn memory to help store the lnformauon When materral rs relatable we39re more llkely to remember rt B Deeay Theory memory loss due to passage of me Engram memory traee physrologreal ehange when leamrng Thls traee then fades oyertrme unless rtrs reaeuyated eaeuyauon rlf you ree lthatmemory traee eyery onee rn awhrle you wrll not forget rt Otherwrse rt wrll rot and deeay 3 Sensory regrster and short term memory SM 4 Not so good forlong term memory LTM Iflt drd aeeountfor LTM andrt39s rnteryal shouldnotmake a dlfference Howeyerrt does asleep vs awake c Lnterferenee l Othermemorres getrn the way ofremevlng aparueular memory Espeerally hypothalamus 2 Proaetrye rnterferenee 7 Old mem ones rnterfere wrth remeval ofmemones that have been more reeently stored Ex Kyou move and you get anew phone