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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Robert Hand on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 310 at University of San Francisco taught by Jennifer Dever in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/231229/biol-310-university-of-san-francisco in Biology at University of San Francisco.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Inheritance of Gene Differences nonMendelian geneic interactions part 2 l Autosomes v Sex chromosomes A Morgan s experiments B Pattern of Sex linked inheritance ll Human Genetics amp Pedigrees ll Sex chromosomes v Autosomes Sex chromosomes house some keP genes responsible for determination 0 separate sexes A Heterogametic XY or ZW X amp Y differ in size but they do share a region of homology for proper pairing during cell division Genes located on the differential part of the X are called X linked genes B Homogametic XX or ZZ Ydiffer in size but they do share a region ofhomology for proper pairing during cell division Genes located on the differential part ofthe X are called X linked enes C Autosomes the remaining nonsex chromosomes Some Drosophia have irregular white eye color When a white eye female is crossed with a normal male the F generation consists of 12 normal 12 white The F2 generation also consists of 12 red eye and 12 white eye WHY v A Morgan s Drosophia experiments Thomas Hunt Morgan chromosome complements of male amp female Drosophia Jj39k JJ o k I X Female Male Through several crosses Morgan and his students determined that the genes for eye color were located on the X chromosome Sex linked genes members of the homogametic sex XX have M lwl 39 e x x v two alleles per gene members of th m mm heterogametic sex XY have only one allele ll WI ww m r awe Cross A P Red eye female X X x white eyed male XWY Wl l w WI f l F nllxpvlng F1 All red eyes mm m F2 females red eyes 2 males white eyes Vr mm 95 We El 1th 739 w w r Jams m Recxpmcalcmss i T39s Human karyotype males are heterogametlc ml w y w Mm l X J l x y l mIlar o rosohlla mm W l WWW llle A M m r l lw w Wm Wm 39mf m w M l m J WM WWW w em I I r J W Mum we nu m d r nlhpnng w ll Tnerefure famers pass alung me genes unmeer nrumusumetu melr daughters and they pass me v emu melr sunsl B Pattern of Sex linked inheritance Genes located on the sex chromosomes are not equally inherited by sons amp daughters Z X X eggs X X X Female to male ratio is 11 Sex limited amp sex influenced Autosomal genes responsible for the existence of contrasting phenotypes but the expression of these genes v is dependent upon the hormone constitution ofthe individual Sex limited expression is limited to one gender Sex in uenced phenotype expressed by a heterozygote is in uenced by gender Allele appears dominant in one gender and recessive in the other ll Human Genetics amp Pedigrees Geneticists are primarily interested in humans to establish the pattern of transmission of inherited traits specifically those associated with disease Mendelian ratios do not apply in individual human families because ofthe small size Controlled matings cannot be made as is possible in experimental genetics Pedigrees useful in terms of understanding the transmission pattern of specific traits D inh 1 To determi 313 information tenurem preparing a standard tr Pedigree H symbols 5 characters Used to t Determinl a was cause WWquot 3 b an asthma 3 n a m7 heart attack 4 n mm a ms is ms h 4973 u 1qu a 2mm 2 alimgles 4 s cm more males than females none of the offspring of an affected I II III IV 1 Autosomal recessive disorders Cysti FlthlS oculocutaneous albinism alkaptonuria Bartter39s syndrome cystic fibrosis Mum mm m mm mm maximal th Imam Gaucher39s disease glycogen storage disease phenylketonuria Wilson39s disease xeroderma pigmentosa Sicklecell anemia 2 Autosomal dominant disorders Huntington s disease Polydactyly amp Brachydactyly Piebald spotting 3 XIinked recessive disorders 290 disorders have been identi ed Redgreen color blindness W Hemophilia HypophosphatemK Duchenne muscular Xg blood group dystrophy I ichy hyosis Rett s syndrome fragile X linked mental retarda ion agammaglobulinaemia
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