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Human Anatomy

by: Mrs. Robert Hand

Human Anatomy BIOL 113

Mrs. Robert Hand
GPA 3.68

Gary Stevens

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Gary Stevens
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Robert Hand on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 113 at University of San Francisco taught by Gary Stevens in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/231230/biol-113-university-of-san-francisco in Biology at University of San Francisco.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
Human Anatomy Bone Tissue and Skeletal System Functions of the skeleton include support protection movement blood formation and storage of minerals and nutrients ll Tissues and Organs of the Skeletal System A Osseous tissue and connective tissue cartilage and ct proper B Bones include other tissues that define them as organs C Bones can be long flat short irregular or sesamoid lll What is a living bone made of Outer covering is the two layered periosteum 1outermost layer is dense irregular ct 2 innermost layer is the osteogenic layer made of osteoblasts boneforming cells and osteoclasts bonedestroying cells lnternal bone surfaces have an endosteum a thin ct with osteoblasts and osteoclasts Osseous or bony tissue is predominant but also present are blood marrow hyaline cartilage adipose nerves and fibrocartilage between some bones The matrix of osseous tissue is about 13 collagen and other organic material 23 are minerals calcium and phosphorus E Compact or lamellar bone histology 00m 1 The matrix is formed of osteons The osteon is a basic structural unit of concentric circles of cells fibers and calcium lamellae around a central or Haversian canal that contains blood vessels and nerves 2 Osteocytes each lie within a lacuna of each lamella 3 Canaliculi extend between lacunae of adjacent lamellae What is in a canaliculus 4 Perforating Volkmann39s canals enter the bone from the outside carrying nerves and blood vessels F Spongy or cancellous bone histology 1 Spongy bone consists of trabeculae narrow plates made of osteons 2 Bone marrow red occupies the spaces within the trabeculae G General features of bones long bone as an example 1 The shaft of a long bone is referred to as the diaphysis 2 A long bone has an outer layer of compact bone a middle medullary or marrow cavity containing red bone marrow and spongy bone at its expanded ends the epiphyses 3 Red bone marrow is hematopoietic tissue ie makes blood cells 3 The epiphyses are covered with articular cartilage hyaline cartilage 4 During growth an epiphyseal plate of hyaline cartilage will participate in the lengthening of the bone H The Cells of Osseous Tissue 1 Osteoblasts from the periosteum are the initial boneforming cells that build new bone matrix 2 Osteocytes are osteoblasts trapped in bone matrix They remain active in maintenance of bone 3 Osteoclasts are bonedissolving multinucleated cells that dissolve bone and release these minerals to the blood


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