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by: Ms. Ansel Lakin


Ms. Ansel Lakin
GPA 3.78

Charles Savage

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Charles Savage
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Ansel Lakin on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1465 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Charles Savage in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see /class/231261/chem-1465-university-of-texas-at-arlington in Chemistry and Biochemistry at University of Texas at Arlington.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
Chemlsiry Fm Engineers Q 2070 AURAS REVEW MINE Dlsplaclns lunar means use Partial pressures Prom Water Px CONVERSsz Make a SOhg Tera o zi Glgalloil Megallo Kiioaosi Mlllillo Microao Nanoaoquot Plcoao39nl 18 C 273 301 K 760 mmHg 760 can 1 am If a question asks For molecules atoms are any type of particles use Avoudro s numper 012 x m3 Dc HOLD mam molecules are in 0083 moles Of carbon nonoxide 0033 males CO X 6011 x 10 molecules I 1 mole CO 50 x 10 moleCules of co Vapor Pressure SHIV F Full 1 e Solld s s u r e atm Trivia Point Temp Celsius rig e point where all phases exis in thermodynamic equilibrium Qritical Eoim where phase boundaries cease to exis Marceiia Arm Chemistry For Engineers 2010 AURAS REVIEW Limiting reaCtants I one reaCtant is in excess the Other is the limiting reaCtant Ex when asked how many grams can be prepared From a reaCtion with 16 grams OF MnOz and so grams OF HCI thz i 399 h 2 22H2 Z 16g MnOz X 1 mol MDOZ 87g 0 Mno2 O18 moles 0F Mno2 309 HCI X 4 moIHCI1458g OF HC 021 moles oF HCI The Mn02 has the least therefore the moletomole ratio is based OFF o the 018 moles 018 moles MnOZ X 1 mol Clz X 71 g Chi1 mol Mh02 X 1 mol Clz 128g 130 grams Deviations From the Ideal Gas Law are greater High Pressures Low pressure High Pressure At high temperatures At low temperatures the KE Kinetic the KE Kinetic Low Temperatures Energy is high EnergY is lower therefore the particles therefore the particles are moving at higher are moving at slower Ideal Conditions For Gases Ideal Conditions For Solids DiIUtion Formula Questions says diIUted with water use M1V1M2V2 Marcella Arzu Chemistry For Engineers 2010 AURAS REVIEW strong electrolytes COMPLETELY dissociate cation anion39 ie KOH Weak eleCtroIYtes partially dissociate CH3COOHama acid NoneleCtrolytes don t dissociate at all organic compounds ie glucose CeHqu Is0t0pe Abundance ls0t09e same atomic discerent 0F NEOTRQNS The Formula 91F all 96 are Known Average mass Abundance1 Mass 0 Is0t0pe Abundance2 Mass 0 Is0t0pe I one percentage is Known Average mass 100 Abundance1 Mass 0 Is0t0pe Abundance1 l29Mass 0F 1s0t0pe Sig Figs l AddingsubtraCting use the leaSt 06 decimal places For the answer Ex 0092 2g calculator spits 0Ut 20192 In sig Figs this should 0le haVe two decimal places because 0 201 Therefore the answer is 202 Multileingdividing use the Ieasc orgiven sig Figs For the answer Ex 3 x 10 X 613 calculator spits out 0009195 In sig Figs this should 0le have two sig Figs because 15 x 1039 Therelcore the answer is rounded to 00092 ZEYOGS Marcella Arzu Chemistry For Engineers 2010 AURAS REVIEW Zeroes in front of nonzero s are net significant Ex 0002 has two sig figs Zeroes after nonzero 5 AND the decimal point are significant Ex 130 has three sig figs Zeroes after nonzero s WITHOUT a decimal point are net significant Ex 760 hastwo sig figs BUT hasthree sig figs Percentage Yield oFRxn Questions says When 100 metric ton 1 x 103 Of trona decomposed 074 metric ton of Nazco3 is recovered What is the 96 yield Calculate the theoretical yield first through conVersions and mole to mole ratios 1 x 106grams 1 mole trona 5 moles N62CO3 10598 grams N62CO3 1 iltg 1 ton 332009 grams 2 moles trona 1 mole Na2C031000 grams 103 Kg 0798 tons OF N62C03 Aetual yield Theoretical yield 0740798 93 percent yield TriCKy FaCtor Problems 39F V nRT IF the pressure is tripled the temperature quadrupled how does the volume change PVnRT9 WEBER V n RHTV 3 V 43 l3 13 therefore the volume increased by a FaCtor of 43 Density mass gramsv volume Liters Molarity moles volume Liters Molar Mass grams moles Marcella Arzu Chemistry For Engineers 2010 AURAS REVIEW Physical Properties melting creezing boiling condensing sublimationsolid9gas Chemical Changes atoms are rearranged and there is an energy change ie neutraliZation decomposition combUStion redox lSa39OLUEJLI39TY GUIDELINES Usually Soluble Exceptions insoluble 0r moderately soluble Group 1 cations LP Na K Rbi Cs ammonium NH No common exceptions Nitrate NOS nitrites NOZ39 AgN02 Chlorides Cl bromides Br Any mix with mercury g lead iodides 139 amp 0r siIVer Ag Fluorides F Mng CaF27 SirF27 Ball27 SulFates 804239 B6804 PbSO47 H9904 C6904 Sr904 2432904 Chlorates Clos39 perchlorates 00 No common exceptions Acetates CH3COO39 AgCHsoO Usually Insoluble Exceptions soluble Phosphates POf39 NH43POcl N63730 KSPO i Marcella Arzu Chemistry For Engineers 2010 AURAS REVIEW Carbonates C03 NH42C03 N32C03a K2C03 Hydroxides OH39 LiOH NaOH KOH BaOH CaOH2 SNOHiz SulFides 9239 NHmS N629 K29 M39 039 Cl39e S t39EALQ WaVelengths he 1 xv C E A quothighern2 h PlanCK s con3tant9 6626 x 1039 33 EBE KEhV C speed 0F light 9 300 x 108 ms 9 Wavelength v Frequency Doping DeFinition adding impurities Other elements tO a semiconductor materials that conduct eleCtriCitY tO Change condUCtivity TO prOdUCe negative n39type material add mOre elements with mOre ValenCe electrons then the one YOU are adding it to To produce positive pacype material add mOre elements With less valence electrons then the one YOU are adding it tO Marcella Arzu Chemistry For Engineers 2010 AURAS REVIEW Ex An ntype material results iF pure germanium Ge is doped with 111A IVA VA 6 Gallium Ga Ga has the B Q N 3 Carbon C least valence C icon electrons Alrsenic therefore can 5 P As has the make Ge p most valence e Tm Sn type materiak GE GE Ag electrons therefore can In SE make Ge n type material Atomic strUCture 3E 2 atomic DUMDe OF DYOtODS lh DUCleUS Aquot MBSSDUMDET Z N OF neutronsi Quantum Numbers and Orbitals morbital size shell For each can onlygo up Zorbital snape subshell tow1 mg orbital direCtion For cache Moan onlygo mdeleCtron spin be betweenli 0 f s orbital 0 p orbtab Z 1 d orbtab Z 2 Pomtalk Z 3 EleCtron con guration exceptions Cr Mo W Cu Ag 4 Au Aufbau principle eleCtrons are placed one at a time in the lower orbitals FlrSt how electrons are added to an atom Hund sBule eleCtrons are placed in individual orbitals bef ore they are paired Marcella Arzu Chemistry For Engineers 2010 AURAS REVIEW Pauli EXCIUSiOD Principle EleCtrons in an orbital must have opposite spins thereFore no two eleCtrons in the same atom can haVe the same Four quantum numbers Heisenberg uncertainty principle one cann0t simultaneously measure the momentum and position 0F any partiCIe gompton s phOtoeleCtric eFFeCt a ph0ton oF energy light collides with an eleCtron deBroglie wave nature oF matter particles have a wave nature based 07Cc oFBohr s Hydrogen atom model PlanCK s explanation oF blaCK body radiation atoms can absorbreemit energy at quantized levels Energy Iele Z 2 1 Bonding govalent Bond preFix 00 quotmeans together eleCtrons are shared This is a polar COValeht EX 0 o o o 0 Cl 0 0 Cl 0 bond because 039 is more P o 0 eleCtronegative than I C1 2 P covalent bonds one end is more positive than the Other end unequal sharing of eleCtrons thus producing a bent struCture Fthr e 39s the most eecrronega tve eecrronega tvty deereases as you go down and t0 the IEFt Ionic Bonds nonmetal and metal bond ie Na Cl39 Marcella Arzu Chemistry For Engineers 2010 AURAS REVIEW LattiCe energy as the ions get smaller and their charges get larger lattice energy increases becomes more negative Ex CBClz has a larger lattice energy than CsL CaBrz NaF NaCl refer to perOdC tabe Atomic Trends EleCtronegativity and Atomic Size decreases going ionization energy leFt and downward increases going right and upward EleCtronegativity tendency For atoms to attraCt eleCtrons Ionization Energy energy required to remOVe an eleCtron From an atom or ion The First Ionization energy is the energy needed For the removal oF one valence e39 There is a largejump in ionization energy From the start oF an sorbital to the end oF a porbital ie Silicon s 5 ionization energy is really big because it jumps From the 3s1 to 2p6 on the periodic table Molecular orbitals EXCEPTIONS B C N BaCON Instead oF being an upside down pyramid V The exceptions make a rightside up pyramid A Ex What is the bond order oF 0 ion Marcella Arzu Chemistry For Engineers 2010 AURAS REVIEW L ME Laws oF Thermodynamics Continued 2hd Law Entropy the disorder oF the uniVerse must inCrease For a spontaneous process Asumvgt 0 AG AH Tag Change in Gibb s Free energy change in enthalpy temp X change in entropy Qibb s free energyG conditions COhStaht temp r press energy Free to do all work except pressurevolume work phase changes ie boiling melting Freezing AG o Marcella Arzu Chemistry For Engineers 2010 AURAS REVIEW when AG is negative constant temperature and pressure the rxn in spontaneous AG o equilibrium but Do NOT CONFUSE with AG so when You calculate Kp AG equals 0 EnthaleH heat absorbed or produced under the condition oF constant press When aH lt 0 energy is released EXOTHERMIC When AH gt 0 energy is absorbed ENDOTHERMIC Marcella Arzu


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