INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 1315
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STUDY AID EXAM 2 FALL 2008 CHAPTER 8 Encoding process by which information gets into memory storage Levels of processing the idea that encoding occurs on a continuum from shallow to deep with deeper processing producing better memory 1 Shallow the sensory or physical features of stimuli are analyzed 2 Intermediate the stimulus is recognized and giving a label 3 Deepes information is processed semantically in terms of its meaning Make associations The more association we make the deeper Storage retention of information over time and the representation of information in memory Sensory mem ry information from the world that is held in its original form only for an instant not much longer than the brieftime it is exposed to the visual auditory and other senses Sensory memory is very rich and detailed but quickly lost 1 Iconic name giving to visual sensory memory which is retained only for about one fourth of a second 2 Echoic name giving to auditory sensory memory which is retained for up to several seconds 3 We also have touch and smell but it get little attention in research studies Not Important Shortterm memory limited capacity memory system in which information is usually retained for 30 seconds Store longer time compare to sensory memory 1 Rehearsal amp chunking Chunking involves grouping or packing information that exceeds the 7 2memroy span into higher order units that can be remembered as single units Rehearsal conscious repetition of information Working memory 3 parts system that temporarily holds information as people perform cognitive tasks Working memory is a kind of mental workbench on which information is manipulated and assembled to help individuals perform other cognitive tasks Longterm memory relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time Explicit or declarative memory conscious recollection of information such as specific facts or events and at least in humans information that can be verbally communicated Ex recounting the events in a movie you have seen and describe it 1 Episodic retention of information about the whereI whenI and what of life s happenings Where were you when your brother was born 2 Semantic person s knowledge about the world Include your area of expertise general knowledge learned from school The main important is that it appears to be independent of an individual s personal identity with the past Implicit memory memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience Example skill of playing tennis driving car typing on a computer gt Procedural memory memory for skills when you type you are not conscious of where the keys are gt Memoryrelated brain structures gt H39ppocampus involved in explicit memory gt Amygdala important role in emotional memories Cerebellum involved in implicit memory require performing skills Seria position effect the tendency for items at the beginning and at the end of a list to be recalled more readily than those in the middle 1 Primacy effect better recall items at the beginning 2 Recency effect better recall items at the E V Repressed memories refer to a defense mechanism by which a person is so traumatized by an event that he or she forgets it and then forgets the act of forgetting 1 Traumatic event can be forgotten and recovered Eyewitness testimony sorts of memories may contains errors In criminal matters it can be very serious consequences Forgetting 1 Ebbinghaus first person to conduct scientific research on forgetting 2 Nonsense syllable meaningless combination of letters that are unlikely to have been learned already 3 Decay with time lnterference theory stating that people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember 1 Proactive occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned Pro 9 forward in time 2 Retroactive occurs when material learned W disrupt the retrieval of information learned earlier retro 9 means backward Decay theory stating that when something new is learned a neurochemical memory trace is formed but over time this trance tends to disintegrate HM in HM surgery the part of his brain that was responsible for laying down new memories was damaged beyond repair Results in amnesia lost of memories Anterograde amnesia memory disorder that affects the retention of new information and events Retrograde amnesia involves memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events More common than anterograde amnesia Forgetting old memories does not affect the ability of new memory Mnemonics specific visual andor verbal memory aids Improve memory performance ED LECTURE MATERIAL RELAT I Engram the unit of information to be stored simple or complex Encoding process involved in memory gettingthe memoryin Storage process involved in memory storing the memory Retrieval process involved in memory retrieving the memory Automatic memory Recall for number of instances of particular familiar faces on page familiar and new faces is same with or without instructions to remember number of same faces 1 Time location freguency 2 Automatic memory does not require conscious effort Statedependent memory also called state dependent memory mooddependent recall 1 Internal cues physiological events caused by hormones drugs and other internal changes Ritalin experiment where kids are given Ritalin the kids with the same internal cues have the best recall Drugs amp Hormones Same results can be obtained using Ritalin or hormones that are elevated during stress HM had hippocampus removed had retrieval amp storage problems 1 Consolidation deficit False memories Loftus demonstrated that false memories can be implanted by telling children false facts about past events Loftus demonstrated that memories can be altered by verbal manipulations Repressed memories some recovery of repressed memories may be due to unintentional prompting of reinforcement in therapy some recovered repressed memories offered in court cases have proven to be false Amygdala and negative memories 1 Propranolol 2 Posttraumatic stress disorder memory recall of negative material can be blocked by betablockers without impairing recall of positive or emotionally neutral material state dependent learning or 2 3 CHAPTER 9 Thinking and Language page 323338 347353 Concepts are mental categories that are used to group obiects events and characteristics 0 Prototypes model emphasizing that when people evaluate whether a giving item reflects a certain concept they compare the item with the most typical items in that category and look for a quotfamily resemblancequot 0 Formal Problem solving an attempt to find an appropriate way of attaining a goal when the goal is not readily available 0 Algorithms strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem Different forms of algorithms such as formulas instructions recipe driving direction 0 Heuristics shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest but do not guarantee a solution to a problem In real world we use heuristics more than algorithms because it helps us arrowing down the possible solutions to find the one that works Reasoning mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusion 1 Inductive reasoning form the specific to the general or from the bottomup 2 Deductive general to specific Functional fixedness a type of fixation in which individual fail to solve a problem because they are fixated on a thing39s usual functions Mental set Availability heuristic a prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events Skinner vs Chomsky o Noam Chomsky s theory which is believed people have a basic pattern of learning language inside of their brain since they were born 0 B F Skinner s theory which is believed people have to be taught how to speak by someone for language acquisition Grammar o Phonologyphonemes language s sound system 0 Morghologymorghemes language s rule for word formation 0 Syntax a language39s rule for the way words are combined to form acceptable phrase and sentence 0 Semantics meaning of words and sentences in a particular language Language development 1 Babbling endlessly repeating sounds and syllables such as bababa or dadada begins at the age of 36 months and is determined by biological readiness not by amount of reinforcement or the ability to hear 2 Telegraphic sgeech short and precise exclude unnecessary words LECTURERELATED MATERIAL Concepts 1 Public rule is understood and shared by the community 2 Private rule is not shared or understood 3 Narrow includes few items 4 Wide includes many items Animal language Donald and Gua chimp could not learn to speak english Washoe chimp could learn ASL the gardners report in their studies that Washoe signed waterbird when shown a swan in water Terrace claimed swan was in water so Washoe signed water and bird not waterbird Nim chimp ASL may be cued Terrace not real language but a robotic production of signsunintentional cues Kanzi Member of ape group called Bonobos learned sign language from mother no cueing called zebra quotwhite tigerquot Alex the grey parrot Framing People prefer to hear treatment has 50 success rate rather than treatment has 50 failure rate or meat is 95 fat free rather than meat is 5 fat CHAPTER 4 1 lNature vs nurture 1 Nature an organism39s biological inheritance Nurture an organism39s environmental experiences 2 Early experience Some psychologists believe that unless infants experience warm nurturing caregiving in the first year or so of life they will not develop to their full potential This early experience doctrine suggests that after a period of early development we become relatively fixed and permanent in our makeup 3 Piaget39s stages of cognitive development 1 Sensorimotor The first Piagetian stage birth to about 2 years of age in which infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences such as seeing and hearing with motor physical actions object permanence 2 Preoperational The second stage approx 27 years of age in which thought becomes more symbolic than in the sensorimotor stage but the child cannot yet perform operations egocentrism 3 Concrete operational The third stage approx 711 years of age in which thought becomes operational and intuitive reasoning is replaced by logical reasoning in concrete situations conservation 4 Formal operations The fourth and final stage emerging from about 1115 years of age in which thinking becomes more abstract idealistic and logical Attachment the close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver Temperament an individual39s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding Kohlberg39s theory 1 Preconventional based primarily on punishments stage 1 or rewards stage 2 that come from the external world 2 Conventional the individual abides by standards such as those learned from parents stage 3 or society39s laws stage 4 3 Postconventional the individual recognizes alternative moral courses explores the options and then develops a personal moral code the code reflects the principles generally accepted by the community stage 5 or it reflects more abstract principles for all of humanity stage 6 Gender expectations for how females and males should think act and feel 1 Biolo androgens and estrogens X and Y chromosomes 2 Social experience children learn what girls and boys are supposed to be liked 1za N 3 Cognitive development during adulthood 1 Crystallized intelligence an individual39s accumulated information and verbal skills 2 Fluid intelligence an individual39s ability to reason abstractly Judith Rich Harris wrote The Nurture Assumption and argues that what parents do does not make a difference in their children39s behavior LECTURERELATED MATERIAL Longitudinal designs study of same individuals over long period of time ore sensitive Very expensive Failed to find child hood experiences to adult personality in the 20quotI century Power full influence of peer groups Cross sectional designs study different groups at different ages Temperament 4 months old u see the opposite at 2 years old 1 Inhibited 2 Uninhibited Brain development during adolescence We know that the frontal cortex is not matured until 2022 years old Accounts for impulstivity and Engages vurnurable in risk taking Risk perception of adolescents Infant studies 1 Heart rate deceleration novel stimuli evoke brief 8 beat slowing of heart rate present novel stimuli to infant and see if heart rate decelerates can use to measure perception and recall 2 Gaze time use visual gaze time and heart rate response to novel stimuli as tools to study infants gaze time to assess preferences for visual stimuli infant presented with 2 stimuli on a screen and measure time spent viewing each stimuli screen position is periodically switched can measure visual preferences and perceptual capability Bower s studies Box Collision Study at two weeks infants who have never experienced a collision with a large object show protective reflex to approaching box at 2 weeks infants show unlearned expectations about consequences of interacting with objects when viewing suspended object through special goggles they are surprised by unexpected outcome of reaching for object at 4 months infants focus on different properties of objects as compared to older children red train moves behind screen and reappears as blue bunny creates no startle response train enters at same speed and exits at another creates startle response 1 Reasoning 2 Perception Fels longitudinal study Samuel Fels established the Fels Institute in rural southwest Ohio Judith Harris childhood not influential in shaping you as an adult received George Miller Award article in Psychological Review 15 book The Nurture Assumption personality as adult is 50 genetics 50 social interactions with peers 1 Adolescent peer group Michael Lewis Lewis believes that the current social context is very influential in determining what we call personality characteristics Lewis was involved in Fels Longitudinal study and believed that early experience is not as influential as previously thought 1 Contextualism current social context along wgenetics accounts for personality characteristics at adulthood implies that changing context could change adult personality Social deprivation Romanian orphans experienced significant social deprivation during infancy and exhibited significant intellectual impairment as well as impaired social skills 2 Intelligence 3 Social skills impaired social skills 4 Close relationships displayed impaired ability to establish close friendships as they matured but did not have problems with group acceptance Self concept 1 Development 2 Facial rouge study 9 months ignores rouge on nose 12 months a few notice 24 months all notice rouge Sexual orientation Only done with males The further u are in birth order that s where u are homo or heterosexual 2 Birth order in male siblings Chapter 9 Intelligence pages 338347 Intelligence problemsolving skills and the ability to adapt to and learn from life39s everyday experiences Measurement 0 Reliability extent to which a test yields a consistent reproducible measure of performance 0 Validity the soundness of conclusion to be drawn from an experiment i if test suppose to measure intelligence it should measure intelligence not something else Mental age an individual39s level of mental development relative to that of others Chronological age age from birth Intelligence guotient IQ an individual s mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100MACAx100 Normal distribution bellshaped curve symmetrical bellshaped curve with a majority ofthe scores falling in the middle of the possible range and few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range Intelligence tests 0 Stanford Binet verbal reasoning quantitative reasoning abstractvisual reasoning and short term memory 0 Wechsler Include the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III to test children 4 to 612 years of age Primary Scale of Intelligence IV is 6 to 16 years of age and for adult too a Verbal scales based on six verbal subscale b Nonverbal scales performance based on five performance subscale 0 Raven test performance not dependent upon verbal ability language you speak or cultural experiences Genetics does not relate to intelligence 0 Genetics contributes about 50 ofthe total determination of intelligence test performance 0 The remaining 50 is related to non genetic environmental influence Sternberg 0 Three different types of intelligence 0 Current intelligence tests only measure 1 of 3 Practical apply use do street smarts Anal ic analyze compare evaluate book smart Creative create invent design Gardner Eight different types of intelligence and current tests only measure two ofthe eight LECTURERELATED MATERIAL Raven test and autism Raven progressive matrices developed by JC Raven not dependent on verbal or cultural experiences give person instructions in their language and people fill in piece of picture no social interaction with person taking test or administrator unlike Wechsler Fluid intelligence ability to come up with solution adapt to environment Cr tallized intelligence old people think quicker because they already been through Young have more fluid old have more crystallized During the process of growing fluid decrease crystallized increase Changes in IQ over time Mental age to deviation IQ Wechsler39s IQ measure whatever we measure with intelligence tests is not an unchanging enduring characteristic It is something dynamic that can change dramatically from early childhood to early adulthood CHAPTER 10 Drive reduction as a drive an aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need becomes stronger we are motivated to reduce i Homeostasis the body39s tendency to maintain an equilibrium or steady state Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation 1 lntrinsic motivation that is based on internal factors such as organismic needs autonomy competence and relatedness as well as curiosity challenge and effort 2 Extrinsic motivation that involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments Maslow s hierarchy of needs Maslow39s view that individuals39 main needs are satisfied in the following sequence physiological safety love and belongingness esteem and selfactualization Hunger 1 Ventromedial hypothalamic involved in reducing hunger and restricting eating 2 Lateral hypothalamus involved in stimulating eating 3 Leptin chemical substance involved in satiety a protein that is released by fat cells decreases food intake and increases energy expenditure 4 Cognitive and sociocultural factors time and place dieting eating disorders Sexual motivation 1 Estrogens the main class of female sex hormones produced principally by the ovaries 2 Androgens the class of sex hormones that predominate in males they are produced by the testes in males and by the adrenal glands in both males and females 3 Sexual orientation the direction ofthe person39s erotic interests whether heterosexual homosexual or bisexual Emotions 1 Arousal 2 JamesLange theory Theory stating that emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment 3 CannonBard theory Theory stating that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously 4 Twofactor theom Schachter and Singer39s theory that emotion is determined by two main factors physiological arousal and cognitive labelin 5 Facial feedback the idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them LECTURE RELATED MATERIAL Spinalinjuries and emotions some evidence indicating body posture changes can alter feelings subjects sitting upright in a chair reported differed mood than those slumped in a chair Facial feedback and emotion universal facial expression for happiness disgust fear surprise sadness anger and fear some research suggests different patterns of physical activity are associated with specific facial expressions and related emotional feelings 1 Pencil study if you inhibit facial expression of smiling by having subject hold a penpencil with their lips while viewing cartoon the cartoon is rated less than funny than by control subject Sexual motivation 1 Hormone dependence in males levels of sexual motivation are not strongly related to levels of sex hormones high medium and low male rates when given same dose of testosterone following castration still ranked high medium and low in general sexual behavior in males is less hormonedependent than in females more complexbrain species are less dependent upon sex hormones for display of sexual behavior Hunger and thirst Internal monitoring detection of physiological need Search behavior 1 2 3 Recognition of needed item 4 Ingestion Hypovolemic low volume thirst motivation caused by lowered blood volume giving blood subfornical organ that tells you when you need to drink 2 Osmotic higher concentration of electrolytes such as sodium in extracellular fluid surrounding cells lateral preoptic area ofthe hypothalamus Ghrelin hormone lining the stomach and cells of the pancreas that stimulates appetite increase before meals and decrease after meals counterpart of leptin Stimulates food intake NPY associated with a number of physiologic processes in the brain including the regulation of energy balance memory and learning and epilepsy main effect is increased food intake and decreased physical activity Achievement motivation characteristic a history of reward for success motivate individuals and seek opportunity for success best achievers seek out moderately challenging tasks with high chance of success reward for achievement leads to persisting motivation to achieve lack of reward for achievements leads to diminished striving for success Ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus participates in the regulation of body weight by regulating meal duration and hours when eating occurs CHAPTER 6 Sleep 213226 ONLY TEXT MATERIAL RESPONSIBLE Sleep deprivation Sleep stages Stages of sleep correspond to massive electrophysiological changes that occur in the brain and that can be assessed by an EEG Electroencephalograph EEG Stages of sleep Stage 1 Theta waves Stage 2 Spindles Stage 3 Delta waves slow wave Stage 4 Delta waves increase slow waves REM rapid eye movement 09059 Dreams 1 Theories the cognitive theory of dreaming attempts to explain dreaming in terms of the same cognitive concepts that are used in studying the waking mind dreams might be an arena for solving problems and thinking creatively 2 Activationsynthesis dreaming occurs when the cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals emanting from activity in the lower part of the brain the rising level of acetylcholine during REM sleep plays a role in neural activity in the reticular formation of the Iimbic system that the cerebral cortex tries to make sense of LECTURERELATED MATERIAL Sleep deprivation 1 Accidents higher ratings of sleepiness by truck drivers was associated with as high as 185 times higher risk of accident naps immediately before working a night shift can reduce auto accidents by 48 2 Memory consolidation recent studies indicate that consolidating of memory occurs during sleep REM sleep deprivation interferes with recall of learned material less sleep due to all night studying is counterproductive Sleep learning exposure to ChineseEnglish word pairs is not facilitated by exposure during sleep no evidence for significant learning during sleep Dreams Content REM sleep dreams are typically more emotional and vivid than dreams that occur during NREM sleep dream content when reflecting actual prior experiences typically reflects events of the day of the dream or of events that occurred 7 days earlier approximately 60 of dream content involves negative emotions usually anxiety CHAPTER 1 Psychology scientific study of behavior and mental process Science in psychology the use of systematic methods to observe describes predict and explain behavior Behavior everything we do that can be directly observed Mental behavior the thoughts feelings and motives that each of us experiences privately but that cannot be observed directly Wundt Founded the first psychology lab with his coworker in 1879 at Uni of Leipzig in Germany 1 2 D 3 Founder or Father of modern psychology 4 Proper way to study mental events was to conduct experiments Structuralism an early school of psychology that attempted to identify the structures of the human mind An early school psychology structuralists tried to understand the mind by breaking it down into basic parts much as a chemist might try to understand chemical compound Edward Titchner 18671927 Proposed that immediate experiences could be broken down into elementsprimary sensation and feelings He s also Wundt s student He believed it was the job ofthe psychologist to a Identify these elements and b Discover how they combine to produce meaningful wholes He created structuralism Structuralist created systematic introspection lntrospection a analysis of element of consciousness b an early technique used to study the mind systematic introspection required people to look inward and describe their own experiences Ex breakdown looking flowers into element color N 0015 c William James 1 known as functionalism 2 pragmatism essentially holds that to find out the meaning of an idea you must determine it39s consequences Charles Darwin Founder of natural selection 2 Believed that both physical and psychological characteristics were naturally selected for their adaptive value Approaches to Psychology 1 Behavioral a psychological perspective emphasizing the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants 2 Biological A psychological perspective that examines behavior and mental process through a focus on the body especially the brain and nervous system 3 Psychodynamic a psychological perspective emphasizing unconscious thought the conflict between biological instincts and society39s demands and early family experiences 4 Humanistic psychology a psychological perspective that emphasizes a person39s positive qualities capacity for positive growth and the freedom to choose any destiny 5 Cognitive a psychological perspective that focuses on the mental processes involved in knowing how we direct our attention perceive remember think and solve problems 6 Evolutionary a psychological perspective that uses evolutionary ideas such as adaptation reproduction and quotsurvival ofthe fittestquot as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors 7 Sociocultural a psychological perspective that examines the ways in which the social and cultural environments influence behavior Areas of Specialization Universal 0 Physiological psychology are interested in the physical processes that underlie mental process such as vision and memory use animal model Behavioral neuroscience focuses on biological processes especially the brain39s role in behavior Developmental concerned with how people become who they are form conception to death Focus on biological and environmental factors that contribute to human development Sensation and perception focus on the physical system and psychological processes that allow us to experience the world to smell to see to feel etc Cognitive examine attention consciousness information processing and memory Also interested in cognitive skills and abilities such as solving problem decision making expertise and intelligence Learning complex process by which behavior changes to adapt to changing circumstances been addressed from the behavioral and cognitive perspectives Motivation And Emotion 0 Motivation how individuals persist to attain a difficult goal and how rewards affect the experience of motivation Emotion physiological and bran processes that underlie emotional experience the role of emotional expression in health and the possibility that emotional are universal Personality focuses on the relatively enduring characteristics of individuals topics such as traits goals motives genetics personality development and well being Social deals with people39s social interactions relationships social perceptions social cognition and attitudes interested in influence of groups on individual39s thinking ndustrialorganizational centers of work place both on the workers and on the organizations that employ them Often divided into industrial psychology and organizational psychology Industrial psychology is personnel matters and human resource management Referred as personnel psychology 0 Organizational psychology examines the social and group influences ofthe organization ClinicalI Counseling most widely practiced specialization in psychology Diagnose and treat people with psychological problems Counseling deal with students is easier than clinical required doctoral degree Health multidimensional approach to health that emphasizes psychological factors lifestyle and the nature of the healthcare delivery system School and educational centrally concerns children39s learning and adjustment in school Forensic field of psychology that applies psychological concepts to the legal system Sport applies psychology39s principles to improving sport performance and enjoying sport participation Crosscultural study of culture39s role in understanding behavior thought and emotion Psychology of women studies psychological social and cultural influences on women39s development and behavior Lecture Related Material Psychiatrist physicians that treat mental problem Psychoanalyst Psychoanalysis is a body of knowledge developed by Sigmund Freud and his followers devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior It has three applications 1 a method of investigation of the mind 2 a systematized body of knowledge about human behavior and 3 a method oftreatment of psychological or emotional illness Sigmund Freud 18561939 founding father of the psychodynamic approach exclusively clinical research propose comprehensive theory to explain behavior 9 feeling and thoughts Temperament an individual39s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding important personality characteristic Four humours 1 Blood enthusiasm sanguine 2 Yellow bile anger choleric 3 Black bile depression melancholy 4 Phlegm apathy phlegmatic CHAPTER 2 Scientific method observation hypothesis testing by empirical research collecting and analyzing data conclusions evaluation of conclusions final step Scientific approach skeptical skeptical people question things that other people take for granted They wonder if the fact is true ob39ective conduct research study critical thought consists of thinking reflectively thinking productively and evaluating the evidence Variable anything that can change Hypothesis an idea that is arrived at logically from a theory It is a prediction that can be tested Population the entire group about which the investigator wants to draw conclusions Sample the subset ofthe population chosen bythe investigator for study Random sample a sample that gives every member of the population an equal chance of being selected Research settings laboratory a controlled setting with many of the complex factors of the real world removed naturalistic observation observation of behavior in realworld setting with no effort made no manipulate or control the situation Descriptive research serves the purpose of observing and recording behavior observation Observation of behavior in real world setting with no effort made to manipulate or control the situation Need to know what we observe for general idea of what we looking for surveys a standard set of questions is used to obtain people39s selfreported attitudes or beliefs about a particular topic require people to answer a series of written or oral questions or sometimes both case studies or case history is an indepth look at a single individual Performed mainly by psychologist when for either practical or ethical reason Provides information a person39s goals hopes fantasies fears traumatic experience family relationships health or anything that help the psychologist understand the person s mind and behavior Correlational research a research strategy that identifies the relationship between two or more variables in order to describe how these variables change together positive correlations relationship in which two factors vary in the same direction negative correlations a relationship in which increase in one variable and decrease in other Corrleation and causation Correlation does not equal causation Correlation means only that two variables change together Being able to predict one event based on the occurrence of another event does not necessary tell us anything about the cause of either event third variable problem the situation where an extraneous variable that has not been measure accounts for the relationship between two others Experiment a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more variables believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other variables are held constan random assignment the assignment of participants to research group by chance independent and dependent variable independent manipulated experimental factor in an experiment dependent factor that can be changed in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable experimental and control groups experimental group in research study whose experience is manipulated control a comparison group that is as much like the experimental group as possible and is treated in every way like the experimental except for the manipulated factor experimenter bias the influence of the experimenter s own expectations on the outcome ofthe research research participant bias the influence of research participants expectations on their behavior within an experiment placebo effects the situation where participants39 expectation rather than the experiment treatment produce an experimental outcome doubleblind experiments neither the experimenter nor the participants arae aware of which participants are in the experiment group an which are in the control group until results are calculated Descriptive statistics mean a statistical measure of central tendency that is calculated by adding all the scores in a set and then dividing by the number of scores median a statistical measure of central tendency that falls exactly in the middle of distribution of score after they have been arranged or ranked from the highest to lowest mode a statistical measure of central tendency the score that occurs most often in a set of data standard deviationvariability a statistical measure of variabilitythat involves how much the scores vary on the average around the mean ofthe sampe Inferential statistics mathematical methods that are used to indicate whether data sufficiently support or confirm a research hypothesis Statistical significance the differences observed between two groups are so large that is highly unlikely that those differences are merely due to chance Research ethics balancing the rights of the participants with the rights of the scientist to ask important research questions informed consent all participants must know what their participation will involve and what risks might develo confidentiality researchers are responsible for keeping all ofthe data they gather on individuals completely confidential and when possible completely anonymous debriefing after study has been completed participants should be informed of its purpose and the methods that were used deception ethical issue telling the participants beforehand what the research study is about substantially alters the participants39 behavior and invalidates the researcher39s data Ethics of research with animals use animal for research provide better understanding of and solutions for many human problems Related Lecture Material Bellshaped curve Scientific method precision objective replication public reporting Pseudoscience body of knowledge methodology belief or practice that is claimed to be scientific or made to appear scientific but does not adhere to the scientific method234 lacks supporting evidence or plausibility5 or otherwise lacks scientific status CHAPTER 3 Plasticity the brain39s special capacity for modification and change Electrochemical transmission the brain and the nervous system function essentially as an information processing system powered by this Divisions of nervous system central brain spinal cord peripheral spinal and cranial nerves the network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the l somatic connects CNS to voluntary muscles division of the PNS consisting of sensory nerves whose function is to convey information to the CNS and motor nerves whose function is to transmit information to the muscles 2 autonomic connects CNS to involuntary muscles and glands division ofthe PNS that communicates with the body39s internal organs and monitor processes such as breathing heart rate and digestion It consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system parasympathetic the division of autonomic nervous system that calms the body calming readies body for restoration of energy sympathetic arousing readies body for activity use of energy Neurons nerve cells that are specialized for processing information Neurons are the basic units of the nervous system axons of neuron that carries information away from the cell body to other cells cell body part of the neuron that contains the nucleus which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance dendrite branches of a neuron that receive and orient information toward the cell body most neurons have numerous dendrites synapse tinyjunctions between two neurons generally where the axon of one neuron meets the dendrites or cell body of another neuron neurotransmitters chemical substances that carry information across the synaptic gap from one neuron to the next acetylcholine stimulates the firing of neurons and is involved in the action of muscles learning and memory Found through PNS and CNS GABA Gamma Aminobutyric acid is found throughout the CNS Neurotransmitter in as many as onethird ofthe brain39s synapses Important in brain because it keeps many neurons from firing The chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system It plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone norepinepherine inhibits the firing of neurons in the central nervous system but it excites the heart muscle intestines and urogenital tract dopamine help control voluntary movement and affects sleep mood attention and learnin serotonin involved in the regulation of sleep mood attention and learning endorphins natural opiates that mainly stimulate the firing of neurons Shield the body from pain and elevate feeling of pleasure Woman giving birth person is shock after car wreck all have elevated levels of endorphins ox ocin hormone and neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the experience of love and human bonding Research techniques Brain lesions disruption in the tissue of the brain resulting from injury or disease Electrical Recording EEG electroencephalograph record the electrical activity ofthe rain PET scan Positronemission tomography based on metabolic changes in the brain related to activity Measure the amount of glucose in various areas of the brain and then send to computer for analysis M involves creating a magnetic field around a person39s body and using radio waves to construct images of the person39s tissue and biochemical activities Levels of organization hindbrain located at the sku39s rear is the lowest portion of the brain 3 main parts are medulla cerebellum and pons adjacent to the top part ofthe spinal cord midbrain rises above the hindbrain located between the hindbrain and forebrain a region in which many nervefiber systems ascend and descend to connect the higher and lower portions ofthe brain forebrain uppermost region ofthe brain highest level of the brain Key structures in the forebrain are the limbic system thalamus basal ganglia hypothalamus cerebral cortex spinal cord limbic system loosely connected network of structures including the amygdala and hippocampus that play important roles in memory and emotion thalamus forebrain structure that functions as a relay station to sort information and send it to appropriate areas in the forebrain for further integration and interpretation hypothalamus small forebrain structure involve in regulating eating drinking and sex directing the endocrine system and monitoring emotion stress and reward cortex 0 cipital lobe the part of cerebral cortext at the back ofthe head that is involved in Vision frontal lobe part of the cerebral cortexjust behind the forehead that is involved in the control of voluntary muscles intelligence and personality parietal lobe area ofthe cerebral cortex at the top of the head that is involved in registering spatial location attention and motor control temporal lobe portion of the cerebral cortex just above the ears that is involved in hearing language processing and memor Cerebral hemispheres Corpus callosum the large bundle of axon that connects the brain s two hemispheres Wernicke39s area meaning of spoken and written language left hem if damaged causes problems in comprehending langua e Broca39s area speech production left hem play important role of speech if this area d maged can t talk Verbal processing left hem play important role of speech if this area damaged can t talk Nonverbal processing right hemisphere is more dominant in processing nonverbal information such as spatial perception visual recognition and emot39on Endocrine system set of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing their chemical products hormones into the bloodstream hormones chemical messengers manufactured by the endocrine glands pituitary gland an important endocrine gland at the base ofthe sku that controls growth and regulates other glands adrenal gland important endocrine glands that are instrumental in regulating moods energy level and the ability to cope with stress Brain tissue implants Lecture Related Material Mirror neurons Activated during the observation of a behavior or display of a behavior the ability to understand the feelings of others may also depend upon mirror neurons Splitting the brain Hemispheric lateralization Gender differences in brain early hormone effects prenatal androgens can masculinize genderrelated behavior in human females prenatal hormone influences determine gender differences in some brain structures and can be related to gender identity testosterone prenatal testosterone masculinizes the brain and behavior in rats and monkeys Glutamate Angular gyrus reading and writing Hippocampus short term memory ability to inhibit behavior stressedinduced depression manic phase of bipolar disorder Hypothalamus ventromedial nucleus involved in regulating food intake and body weight by regulating meal duration intracranial brain stimulaton reward Olds quot 39 pleasure amp reward systems in the hypothalamus that led to the discovery of separate systems for wanting and liking Sexually dimorphic nucleus SDN Big Boy Small Girl the size ofthe nucleus could be changed in utero by manipulating the level of fetal exposure to testosterone during a critical period lNAH3 humans regardless of genetic sex low testosterone small female size SDN high testosterone large SDN the sex difference in SDN seen in lab animals are also seen in humans in INAHS However size differences that predict sexual orientation AND genderrelated behavior in lab animals are related to genderrelated behavior but NOT to sexual orientation in humans Prenatal influences on sexual orientation prenatal androgens have little influence on sexual orientation some prenatal influence can influence homosexual orientation in human males in relation to birth order Adrenal gland hypothalamus regulates adrenal hormones cortisol and adrenalin stress amp health outer layer of adrenal gland releases cortisol and can compromise immune system and health medulla adrenalin cortex cortisol Immune s tem high levels of cortisol and adrenalin and direct neural suppression of lymphocytes at lymph nodes can suppress the immune system Stress Health Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Sympathetic Nervous system Sympathetic Nervous system Adrenal Medulla adrenalin Lymph node Suppression of immune system Suppression of immune system Pruning cell loss a normal reduction in nerve cells and nerve cell connections that occurs during the postnatal development ofthe brain a maturational process of shedding unused neurons Amygdala fear and anxiety memory of fearrelated events facial expression of fear understanding facial cues indicating fear autism is often associated with abnormalities in the structure and functional properties ofthe amygdala psychopaths show unusual activity in amygdale located within the base of the temporal lobe Involved in the discrimination of objects that are necessary for the organism39s survival such as appropriate food mates and social rivals CHAPTER 6 pages 229237 Amphetamines commonly called quotpep pillsquot or quotuppersquot stimulant drugs that people use to boost energy stay awake or lose weight often prescribed in the form of diet pills increase the release of dopamine which enhances the user39s activity level and pleasureable feelings Cocaine an illegal drug that comes from the cocoa plant snorted or injected in the form of crystals or powder can trigger heart attack stroke or brain seizure produces rush of euphoric feelings that lasts for about 1530 min because the rush depletes the supply of the neurotransmitters dopamine serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain an agitated depressed mood usually follows as the drug39s effects decline EcstasyMDMA an illegal synthetic drug with both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties referred to as quotempathogenquot because under its influence users tend to feel warm bonds with others MDMA has adverse effects on memory and cognitive processing street names ecstasy X XTC hug beans love drug Heroin morphine narcotics or opiates consist of opium and its derivatives and depress the central nervous system39s activity most common opiate drugs that affect synapses in the brain and use endorphins as their neurotransmitter when these drugs leave the brain the affected synapses become understimulated for several hours after taking an opiate the person feels euphoric and painfree and has an increased appetite for food and sex opiates are highly addictive leading to craving and painful withdrawal when the drug becomes unavailable LSD lysergic acid diethylamide a hallucinogen that even in low doses produces striking perceptual changes objects change their shapes and glow time seems slow a bad LSD trip can trigger extreme anxiety paranoia and suicidal or homicidal impulses LSD39s effects on the body dizziness nausea tremors acts primarily on the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain though it can also affect dopamine emotional and cognitive effects may include rapid mood swings and impaired attention and memo Marijuana dried leavesflowers of Cannabis sativa active ingredient is THC does not affect a specific neurotransmitter disrupts the membranes of neurons and affects the functioning of a variety of neurotransmitters and hormones increases in pulse rate and blood pressure reddening of eyes coughing dryness of mouth mixture of excitatory depressive and mildly hallucinatory characteristics distorted perceptions of time and place increased sensitivity to sounds tastes smells and colors erratic verbal behavior impair attention and memory can also alter sperm count and change hormonal cycles birth defects etc Inhalants inhalant use has increased dramatically volatile substances that are intentionally breathed in to produce psychoactive effects quothuffingquot involves inhaling common household chemicals such as gasoline and paint thinner aerosol sprays such as hairspray and deodorant medical anesthetics such as ether or nitrates also called quotpoppersquot Barbiturates depressant drugs that decrease the activity of the central nervous system once prescribed as sleep aids heavy doses can lead to impaired memory and decision making when combined with alcohol barbiturates can be lethal most used in suicide attempts abrupt withdrawal can produce seizures Tranquilizers depressant drugs that reduce anxiety and induce relaxation usually prescribed to calm an anxious nervous individual can produce withdrawal symptoms when use is stopped Alcohol acts on body primarily as a depressant and slows down the brain39s activities areas of brain involved in inhibition and judgment slow down also related to violence and aggression CHAPTER 5 Transduction the process oftransforming physical energy into electrochemical energy produces an action potential that relays information about the stimulus through the nervous system to the brain Sensation the process of receiving stimulus energies from the external environment stimuli consist of physical energy light sound and heat Perception the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to give it meaning brain gives meaning to sensation through perception Bottomup processing that begins with sensory receptors registering environmental information and sending it to the brain for analysis and interpretation Topdown processing of perceptual information that starts out with cognitive processing at the higher levels ofthe brain Sensory receptors specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to sensory afferant nerves and the 39n Absolute threshold the minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect Difference threshold the smallest difference in stimulation required to discriminate one stimulus from another 50 percent of the time also called noticeable difference Weber39s law the principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage rather than a constant amount to be perceived as different Signal detection the theory about perception that focuses on decision making about stimuli in the presence of uncertainty detection depends on a variety of factors besides the physical intensity ofthe stimulus and the sensory abilities of the observer ie a radiologist is scanning an image ofthe brain by MRI to determine presence of tumor m tumor present and doctor sees it m tumor present and doctor does not see it false alarm tumor absent and doctor sees it correct re39ection tumor absent and doctor does not see it Selective attention focusing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others Sensory adaptation a change in the responsiveness of the sensory system based on the average level of surrounding stimulation Visual system retina the lightsensitive surface in the back of the eye that records what we see and converts it to neural impulses for processing in the brain m the receptors in the retina that are sensitive to light but are not very useful for color Vision cones the receptors in the retina that process information about color Visual cortex located in the occipital lobe of the brain and is the part ofthe cerebral cortex that functions in vision Feature detectors neurons in the brain39s visual system that respond to particular features of a stimu us Trichromatic theory theory stating that color perception is produced by three types of receptors cone cells in the retina that are particularly sensitive to different but overlapping ranges of wavelengths Opponent process theory theory stating that cells in the visual system respond to redgreen and blueyellow colors a given cell might be excited by red and inhibited by green whereas another might be excited by yellow and inhibited by blue Negative afterimage complementary colors pairing of colors has to do with the fact that color receptors in the eye are apparently sensitive as pairs when one color is turned off when you stop staring at the panel the other color in the receptor is briefly turned on the afterimage effect is especially noticeable with bright colors ie flag picture from lecture Gestalt psychology school of psychology emphasizing that people naturally organize their perceptions according to certain patterns proximity when we see objects that are near each other they tend to be seen as a unit closure when we see disconnected or incomplete figures we fill in the spaces and see them as complete figures Perceptual constancy recognition that objects are constant and unchanging even though sensory input about them is changing size constancy is the recognition that an object remains the same size even though the retinal image of the object chan es shape shape constancy is the recognition that an object retains the same shape even though its orientation to us changes Perceptual illusions a visual illusion occurs when there is a discrepancy between reality and the perceptual representation of it incorrect but not abnormal can provide insight into how our perceptual processes work MullerLyer illusion two lines with the same length but one looks longer than the other because of the direction of the arrows from class Auditory system Cochlea a spiral structure consisting of fluidfilled canals l basilar membrane lines the inner wall ofthe cochlea and runs its entire length it is narrow and rigid at the base of the cochlea but widens and becomes more flexible at the top the variation in width and flexibility allows different areas of the basilar membrane to vibrate more intensely when exposed to different sound frequencies hair cells line the basilar membrane sensory receptors of the ear Place theory the theory of hearing that states that each frequency produces vibrations at a particular spot on the basilar membrane Frequency theory theory stating that perception of a sound39s frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve fires Pain the sensation that warns us that damage to our bodies is occurring Lecture related material Pain Tonic long lasting dull poorly localized pain Phasic brief sharp amp localized pin prick Receiver operating curve ROC Extrasensory perception mental telepathy success in the identification of one of four cards at a distant location must exceed 25 accuracy well controlled studies have yielded no supporting evidence CHAPTER 7 Learning a relatively permanent change in behavior thoughts amp feelings resulting from experience Associative learning learning in which a connection or an association is made between two events Observational learning learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates another39s behavior also called imitation or modeling Classical Conditioning learning by which a neutral stimulus become associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response Ivan Pavlov studied digestive physiology and recognized the significance of a common event salivation in anticipation of food unconditioned response salivation to food U08 0 Stimulus that produces a response without prior learning food was the U08 in Pavlov39s experiments 0 unconditioned stimulus food conditioned stimulus tone conditioned response salivation to tone Acquisition learning a new response Decrease probability of behavior 11 Stimulus generalization classical conditioning responding in a similar way to stimuli similar to the CS Extinction loss of an acquired response Classical conditioning in humans plays an important role in learning to display existing simple or complex reflex responses to new stimuli involves associating an existing reflex with a new stimulus the reflex can be simple an eyeblink or complex the physiological changes associated with a mental state Phobias an irrational fear classical conditioning provides an explanation of phobias and other fears Counterconditioning oing backward instead of being scare make it less scare a classical conditioning procedure for weakening a conditioned response by associating the fearprovoking stimulus with a new response that is incompatible with the fear Operant conditioning the learning of a new response behavior controlled by its consequences reward or unishment aw Of Effect Thorndike39s principle that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened whereas behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened 0 click 9 food no click 9 no food click many time no click Shaping rewarding approximations of a desired behavior training give candy to train Positive and negative reinforcement nothing to do with bad or good both increases probability of behavior Positive give something desirable Negative removes something undesirable Primary and secondary reinforcement Primary the use of reinforcers that are innately satisfying food water sexual satisfaction Secondary the use of reinforcers that are learned or conditioned amp acquires its position value through experience pat on the back praise eye contact Stimulus discrimination and generalization generalization operant conditioning the tendency to give the same response to similar stimuli generalization classical conditioning the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned res onse discrimination operant conditioning the tendency to respond to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced discrimination classical conditioning the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to others 1 Extinction weakening fails to bring about something desirable and decreases probability of behavior 2 Punishment brings about something undesirable and decreases probability of behavior Escape conditioning termination of aversive event Avoidance conditioning prevention of onset of aversive event due to link between fear induced by warning signal Schedules of reinforcement fixed ratio reward after fixed number of responses reward every time then partial reinforcement will produce high level of responding ie every 5 days FRS fixed interval reward available only after a fixed time has elapsed produces low level of responding called scalloping ie no reward for another minute variable ratio reward after variable number of response very powerful and influential reward available on average of every 20 responses uncertainty ie slots variable interval reward available after variable intervals with a particular mean value pellet available on average time minimize effort to maximize reward Observational learning deling Mirror neurons these neurons fire when repeating an action by observing from other individual MIRROR Learned helplessness No correlation between behavior and the occurrence of aversive events impair learning and leads to depression in animals and humans Therapy involves proving opportunities for control Shock them with no escape just sit there and depress Have to be significant event that can use for learned helplessness the phenomenon of learning through experience that outcomes are not controllable Related Lecture Material DRO schedule during the week if don t get red flag reward Reward giving if a specified interval of time passes without the display ofthe target behavior A way of eliminating undesirable behavior without using punishment Can use to eliminate selfinjurious behavior Mirror neurons in monkeys observation of a behavior results in neuron activity in the same cortical area that is active when the behavior is actually performed Found in premotor cortex and the inferior parietal cortex Observational Learning observational learning is an extremely important type of learning and among other things probably contributes to the emergence of genderrole behaviors can be learned to increase behavior that is rewarded and decreased in behavior that is punished Empathy viewing an emotional expression may trigger neurons involved in the same emotion as the observer Empathy is the capacity to recognize or understand another39s state of mind or emotion Magazine training Behavior modification The intelligent of operant learning techniques to change behavior in a positive direction Conditioned emotional response CER a learned emotional fear response that can be used to measure degree of fear suppress high responding by induced fear associated with an aversive stimulus E B Twitmeyer In 1905 before Pavlov he reported that a warning tone presented before tapping the knee gradually acquires the capacity to elicit a knee jerk before the tap B F Skinner became the most important figure in psychology related to operant learning he invented operant chamber STUDY AID EXAM 3 FALL 2008 Chapter 11 Personality Sigmund Freud39s theory Freud belied that we are strongly influenced by unconscious thoughts and feelings it s all about childhood and unconscious motivat39on 1 term referring to biologically compelling drives that yield pleasure when satisfied for Freud unconscious sexual and aggressive motives unconscious psychic energy 2 Egg term for the tactics and strategies we employ to mediate between the id and superego in order to satisfy mostly unconscious biological motives executive mediator outside awareness but accessible conscious mind 3 Superego Freud s term for mostly unconscious moral rules that influence behavior internalized ideals Defense mechanisms the ego s protective methods for reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Repression unconsciously pushing anxietyproducing information out of awareness A young girl was sexually abused by her uncle As an adult she can t remember an hing from the traumatic event 2 Rationalization substitution of an acceptable reason for behavior when the real motive was unaccepta e The student didn t get to medical school he says that if he had tried harder he could have gotten in 3 Displacement redirecting behavior or emotion to a less threatening object man can t express her anger to her boss but instead she expresses it to her husband 4 Pro39ection attributing our own often unacceptable attitudes and beliefs or feelings on others an want to have an affair accuses his wife of flirting with other man 5 Regression tendency to go back to an earlier stage for security of personality t developmen A woman comes back to her mother when she and her husband got into an argument 6 Reaction formation we react oppositely to which we feelthink woman fears to make a speech and now she is able to make her speech Consciousunconscious Fig 111 Iceberg Psychosexual stages 1 1 18 months the infant s pleasure centers on the mouth Chewing sucking and biting are chief courses of pleasure that reduce tension in the infant 2 M abide by rules moral judgments reasoning adjustscontrols body functions to fit societal norms 3 Phallic 35 emergence of gender identity via resolution of Oedipus complex or Electra complex child develops feeling for opposite sex parent but fear of retaliation by same sex parent leads to identity of same sex parent know boy and girl 4 Genital emergence of adult sexuality Trait theories stating that personality consists of broad enduring dispositions trait that tend to lead to characteristics response Big Five 1 Neuroticism negative emotionality anxious hostile 2 Extraversion positive emotionality sociable upbeat 3 Openness to experience curious creative 4 Agreeableness cooperative trusting modest 5 Conscientiousness constraint diligent wellorganized dependable Cross situational consistency 16 Personality Factor measure normal abnormal trait objective test 1 187 true false undecided questions MMPI good objective test Projective tests not very good test 1 Thematic Apperception Test lousyjob at measuring personality what is happening in picture Rorschach inkblot test not a good test does not predict anything what do you see in inkblot 3 Draw a person test Type A and B personalities 435436 1 Type A related to heart disease anxiety a cluster of characteristics excessively competitive harddriven impatient and hostile 2 Type B relaxed and easy going good health N LECTURE Psychosexual stages 1 1 18 months the infant s pleasure centers on the mouth Chewing sucking and biting are chief courses of pleasure that reduce tension in the infant 2 M abide by rules moral judgments reasoning adjustscontrols body functions to fit societal norms 3 Phallic 35 emergence of gender identity via resolution of Oedipus complex or Electra complex child develops feeling for opposite sex parent but fear of retaliation by same sex parent leads to identity of same sex parent within family 4 Genital emergence of adult sexuality outside of family Gender identity Oedipus Complex boys 2 Electra Complex girls 16 Personality Factors 187 TF undecided questions normal and abnormal variations and traits good for clinical purposes Chapter 16 Health Psychology Behavioral medicine an interdisciplinary field that focuses on developing and integrating behavioral and biomedical knowledge to promote health and reduce illness Health psychology a field that emphasizes psychology39s role in establishing and maintaining health and in preventing and treating illness Biopsychosocial model a general model or approach that posits that biologicalI psychological which entails thoughts emotions and behaviors and social factors abbreviated quotBPSquot all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness Controlling stress General Adaptation Syndrome Hans Selye39s term for the common effects on the body when demands are placed on it The GAS consists of three stages alarm resistance and exhaustion Alarm sympathetic nervous system activated prepares for struggle mobilization of resources Resistance high resistance to stress possible depletion of body resources Exhaustion depletion of bodily resources possible illness and death Stress and immune system stress cause negative implication on immune system 0 Immune system is compromised We are not designed for long time stress and thus cause all kind of health problems Stress cardiovascular disease and cancer stress 9 adrenaline blood to clot more rapidly Stress lead to lack of exercise smoke lead to cancer 0 lfthe immune system is not compromised damaged cancer resistance slow down its progress 0 Stress and tumor growth In the laboratory growth of implanted tumors in rats was directly and positively related to level of stress and level of cortisol Three levels of stress positively related to levels of cortisol and rate of tumor growth SO Stress can possibly cause tumor growth Stressor a psychological demand physical or psychological that usually aversive and difficult to control cause stress Stress a constellation of physiological and psychological changes triggered by a stressor Aerobic exercise sustained exercise such as jogging swimming or cycling that stimulates heart and lung functioning Significant life events Bereaved Spouses 0 Lose of spouse results in compromised immune system and higher illness and death rate in the year following the loss Lecture Related Material Chapter 16 Type A and heart attacks people have coronary heart disease develop type A personality Immune suppression o Catecholamine is hormone produced from adrenal medulla adrenalin and noradrenalin Corticosteroids particularly cortisol Autonomic nervous system connections to lymph nodes Elevated levels ofthese hormones suppress the lymphocyte response of the immune system Time course of stressrelated hormone changes Frankenhauser s research Work place stress high stress machinepaced tasks produced greater after work adrenal hormones and was related to high rates of heart disease Gender differences Forty years ago females shoed less stress response to cognitive stressors than males OOO More recently the gender differences have disappeared Females in the past do not wor What appeared to be a biologically based gender difference probably was a reflection of different learning experiences for males and females forty years ago as compared to the present Bereavement is the period of grief and mourning after a death 0 When you grieve it39s part ofthe normal process of reacting to a loss You may experience grief as a mental physical social or emotional reaction Mental reactions can include anger guilt anxiety sadness and despair Physical reactions can include sleeping problems changes in appetite physical problems or illness Medivac pilots and crews Subjective appraisal Cortisol and tumor growth Social support 0 Monkeys who show more social affiliation with other monkeys cope with the stress of disruption of colony social organization much better than less socially connected monkeys 0 Social support helps 0 For human Family members friends professionals any of these maybe of help in coping with stressors Reduce stress Stress and immune system lymphocytes quot quot innervations of lymph nodes o Nerves ofthe sympathetic part ofthe autonomic nervous system go directly to lymph nodes to suppress lymphocyte activity Strong sympathetic responders 0 Some individuals have unusually strong sympathetic nervous system response to stressors which can make them particularly vulnerable to stressrelated suppression of the immune s tem Chapter 13 IndustrialIOrganizational Human factors ergonomics a field that combines engineering and psychology and that focuses on understanding and enhancing the safety and efficiency of humanmachine interaction 1 Fit people into their workplace Hawthorne effect the tendency of individuals to perform better simply because of being singled out and made to feel important Human relations approach a management approach emphasizing the psychological characteristics of workers and managers stressing the importance of such factors as morale attitudes valuesI and human treatment of workers Job anal is the process of generating a description of what a job involves including the knowledge and skills that are necessary to carry out the job s functions 1 Systematic procedure set up in advance 2 Breakdown 39ob into unit easier to understand and complete each aspect ofthe job 3 Construction of employee manual accurately characterizes the job Performance appraisal the evaluation of a person s success at his or her job 1 Halo effect rater gives the person the same rating on overall items even though there is actual variability Way to reduce detract from the overall accuracy of the rating Raters are not overly reactive to specific incidents 2 Distributional error a common error in performance rating it refers to rating that fail to use the entire rating scare Leniency errors rater goes easy on everyone Severity errors rater goes hard on everyone Central tendency errors rater see everyone as average Prevent making rating more specific and improving the training rater Leadership 1 Transactional an individual in a leadership capacity who emphasizes the exchange relationship between the worker and the leader and applies the principle that a good job should be rewarded Running thing but not changing thing 2 Transformational an individual in a leadership capacity who is concerned not with enforcing the rules but with changing them Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders Biological approach organic internal causes focus on brain genetic factor and neurotransmitter Psychological approach social cognitive trait and humanistic perspectives on personality Sociocultural approach larger social contexts in which person lives marriage fami y neighborhood socioeconomic status ethnicity gender and culture Biopsychosocial model combine of these three approaches above None are more important than others combine in a unique way that people react differently Labeling and stigma problem of classifying disorders the way to label can lead to stigma very sticky once a person has been given a label it is hard to remove it DSM IV classification system book multiaxial classifies individuals on the basis 017M dimensions 0 Ensure that individual is not assigned to psychological disorder but instead is characterized in term of number of clinical factors such as How to tell if the person is abnormal got to have statistic Symptoms Personality Medical condition Psychosocial environment Level of functioning F IFWNT Anxiety disorders psychological disorders that feature motor tension inability to relax hyperactivity racing heart and apprehensive expectation and thoughts Generalized anxiety disorde an anxiety disorder that consists of persistent anxiety for at least 6 months the individual with this disorder cannot specify the reason for anxiety 1 Worry too much about minor things 0 Panic disorder anxiety disorder marked by recurrent sudden onset of intense apprehension or terror 0 Phobic disorder phobic patient can pinpoint the cause of their nervous feeling opposite to generalized anxiety disorder 1 Fear of height fear of dog fear of stranger fear of GIRLFRIEND o Obsessivecompulsive disorde anxiety disorder in which the individual has anxiety provoking thoughts that will not go away obsession and urges to perform repetitive ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation compulsion checking cleaning etc o Posttraumatic stress disorder anxiety disorder that develop through exposure to a traumatic event such as war severely oppressive situations Depressive disorders are mood disorder in which the individual suffers from depression 1 Major depressive disorder Bipolar disorder depression and mania A mood disorder characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania an overexcited unrealistically optimistic state Neurotransmitter problems neurotransmitter also cause mood disorder Depression likely involves in regulating a number of neurotransmitters a Abnormalities in the monoamine neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine serotonin and dopamine have been implicated in mood disorders Cognitive problems depressed individual rarely think positive thoughts They think negative about their futures Learned helplessness examine the way of people cope when they are depressed Focus mainly on depression and they do not try to do anything about the feeling Dissociative disorders psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity 0 Dissociation refers to a range of psychological experiences in which athe person feels disconnected from immediate experience 1 Amnesia a dissociative disorder involving extensive memory loss caused by extensive psychological stress car accident 2 Fugue a dissociative disorder in which the individual not only develop amnesia but also unexpectedly travels away from home and assumes a new identity 3 Dissociative identity disorder DID formerly called multiple personality disorder this is the most dramatic but least common dissociative disorder individuals suffering from this disorder have two or more distinct personalities or selves 3 faces Schizophrenia does not mean split personality Positive symptoms 0 Hallucinations sensory experiences in the absence of real stimuli see things that theyren t there hear things that are not real o Delusions false sometime even preposterous beliefthat are not part of persons culture 1 thought that somebody watching every move thought that they re Jesus Christ e c 0 Thought disorder thoughts are disorganized and confused do not make sense when they talk and write 0 Disorders of movement patient is clumsy and show unusual mannerisms and facial expressions such as grimacing 0 Attention catcher something show up Negative symptoms 0 Lack of emotional response 0 Lack of communication skills 0 Lack of social skills 0 Something going away Types of schizophrenia 1 Disorganized Silly incoherent bizarre hallucinations 2 Catatonic Stuporous 39 educed movement waxy flexibility do not response when poke them lack of physical responding Less commont pe ii Agitated uncontrollable motor and verbal behavior sometime dangerous 3 Undifferentiated Mixture of positive and negative symptoms 4 Paranoid most commont e 39 Delusion of persecution or grandeur does not make sense at all live in a cube planet Delusions can be simple or complex and organized or disorganized i Woman thought FBI follow her everyday because she thought that all FBI car plates have letter iv Paranoia is a disturbed thought process characterized by excessive anxiety or fear often to the point of irrationality and delusion Paranoid thinking typically includes persecutory beliefs concerning a perceived threat towards yourself Causes of schizophrenia 1 Brain abnormalities i Enlarged cerebral ventricles which suggest less brain volume ii Smaller prefrontal cortex thalamus and hippocampus 2 Genetics i High identical twin concordance ii If one identical twin displaces schizophrenic symptoms there is a much higher incidence of symptoms in other twin that in nonidentical twin pairs or other siblings iii Same genetic likely to have schizophrenic 50 genetic 50 something else iv While concordance rate is higher in identical twin pair than in nonidentical twins the rate is still no greater than 50 v Sine genetics are the same what accounts for schizophrenia in one ofthe twins The genetic disposition must interact with some nongenetic factor ofthe schizophrenia to appear 3 Neurotransmitter problems 39 ow level of activity of neurotransmitter glutamate due to few glutamate receptors ii Reduction of glutamate activity by blocking receptors with ketamine results in temporary schizophrenic symptom of schit In normal subjects Does not cure disorder reduce the symptom Lecture Related Material Chapter 14 Somatoform disorders psychological disorders that focus on the physical body 1 Somatization do not confuse with term somatoform one of the strategies of a somatoform disorder complains about imaginary ailments Conversion Hypochondriasis overinterpretation of minor physical problems 4 Personality factors Depression 1 Learned helplessness experience of lack of control of stressors can lead to depression relief from this type of depression can result from regaining sense of control 2 Stress and hippocampus cell loss associated with episodes of depression the time required for restoration of hippocampal cells may explain why antidepressants take weeks to have an effect cell count takes 46 weeks to go up 3 Cortisol 4 Endogenous depression endogenous triggered by neurochemical changes without environmental stimulus internal from within 5 Reactive depression Bipolar disorder episodes of mania and depression 1 G utamate elevated during mania lowered during depression 2 Lithium stabilizes glutamate lowers during mania and elevates during depression Schizophrenia 1 Attentional gating failure In some cases attentional gating deficit which impairs the ability to filter and prioritize stimuli Loss of ability to ignore sensory input 2 Disordered conceptual thinking Disturbed thinking particularly conceptual thinking signature of disorder In some cases hallucinations which are sensory experiences without stimulus input In some cases delusion which are inaccurate beliefs Delusion can be simple dramatic exotic etc 3 Adolescent cortical cell loss Recent study shows that onset in early adolescence is associated with progressive loss of cortical neurons Normal cell loss pruning may be excessive in early onset schizophrenia 4 Dopamine hypothesis Increase in dopamine and dopamine receptors in brains of schizophrenics Increase in dompamnergic activity in response to methamphetamine produces temporary schizophrenic symptoms in normal subject Neural transmitter Methamphetamine increase the amount of Dopamine 5 Glutamate Low level of activity of neurotransmitter glutamate due to few glutamate receptors Reduction of glutamate activity by blocking receptors with ketamine results in temporary schizophrenic symptom of schit In normal subjects does not cure disorder reduce the symptom Antisocial personality sociopath psychopath 1 The terms psychopath sociopath and antisocial personality disorder are used by many mental health professionals to refer to the same disorder That is individuals who engage in antisocial behavior Other mental health professionals such as Robert Hare reserve the term psychopath for a particular kind of individual who exhibits antisocial behavior 2 For Hare psychopaths not only display antisocial behavior but are also typically charming manipulative and experience little or no guilt or fear These individuals may also be aggressive andor impulsive Psychopath 1 Personality characteristic unsocialized incapable of loyalty selfish callous irresponsible impulsive unable to experience fear unable to experience guilt low frustration tolerance exploitive manipulative often extremely charming high empathy and low sympathy 2 Autonomic nervous system 3 Amygdalafear low fear is common to all psychopaths but impulsivity and aggressiveness can vary smaller amygdala less amygdala activity in response to fear 39muli Autism Spectrum Disorders 2 3 Pervasive Developmenal Disorders Autism 1 Emotionality 2 Amygdala Impaired fear processing Impaired facial expression interpretation and production Abnormal size and cellular organization 3 Mirror neurons Recent research has shown that in autistic individuals39 mirror neurons that respond to their own movements do not respond when the same movements are performed by another individual Mirror dysfunction could interfere with observational learning and may explain some of the problems seen in autism important indicator for utism 4 Therapeutic interventions Intensive behavioral therapy Use of reward to modify undesirable behaviors Some improvements in some behaviors In part probably compensates for lack of acquiring some behaviors by observation learning 5 Intelligence tests Chapter 15 Therapy Antidepressants If you don39t respond to antidepressant in one class you will probably respond to one in another class 1 Tricyclics such as Tofranil and Janimine norepinephrine and serotonin 2 SSRI Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors such as Zoloft Prozac and Paxil 3 MAO Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors such as Marplan Nardil and Parnate serotonin norepinephrine and dopamine Lithium Used as a treatment for Bipolar disorder Lithium stabilizes the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate within a narrow range lowers elevated glutamate during mania and elevates glutamate during depression Neuroleptics Electroconvulsive shock therapy ECT may work in some cases but mechanism unknown originally used to treat schizophrenia commonly called shock therapy a treatment used for severely depressed individuals that causes a seizure to occur in the brain Psychosurgery a biological therapy that involves removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve an individual39s adjustment 1 Prefrontal Iobotomy Psychotherapy the nonmedical process used by mental health professionals to help individuals recognize and overcome their problems 1 Psychoanalysis Freud39s therapeutic technique for analyzing an individual39s unconscious thoughts Freud believed that clients39 current problems could be traced to childhood experiences many of which involved conflicts about sexuality a Resistance the psychoanalytic term for the client39s unconscious defense strategies that prevent the analyst from understanding the person39s problems b Free association the psychoanalytic technique of having individuals say aloud whatever comes to min c Transference the psychoanalytic term for the client39s relating to the analyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the client39s life d Dreams the psychotherapeutic technique used to interpret a person39s dream psychoanalysts believe that dreams contain information about the individual39s unconscious thoughts and conflicts Clientcentered therapy Roger39s humanistic therapy in which the therapist provides a warm supportive atmosphere to improve the client39s selfconcept and encourage the client to gain insight about problems Empathy therapist puts himselfherself in the client39s shoes feeling the emotions the client is feeling 2 Unconditional positive regard creating a warm and caring environment and never disapproving of the client as a person to free a person from conditions of worth 3 Reflective speech a technique in which the therapist mirrors the client39s own feelings back to the client Behavior therapies therapies that use principles of learning to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior 1 Systematic desensitization a method of behavior therapy based on classical conditioning that treats anxiety by getting the person to associate deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxietyproducing situations 2 Muscle relaxation 3 Desensitization hierarchy Fig 155 Cognitive therapies therapies emphasizing that individuals39 cognitions or thoughts are the main source of abnormal behavior and psychological problems 1 Rationalemotive therapy a therapy based on Ellis39s assertion that individuals develop a psychological disorder because of their beliefs especially those that are irrational and selfdefeating the goal of REBT is to get clients to eliminate selfdefeating beliefs by rationally examining them 2 Beck s cognitive therapy psychological problems such as depression result when people think illogically about themselves the world they live in and the future Evaluation of psychotherapies Lecture Related Material CHAPTER 15 Sequential antidepressant and cognitive treatment of depression STARD study Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy EMDR Psychosurgery 1 Lobotomy inserting cutting device in brain to cut fibers that connect the frontal cortex to the rest of the brain introduced by Freeman over 50000 patients received the procedure from 1936 until the mid 1950 s the typical outcome was diminished motivation inability to plan occasional impulsivity and a more manageable patient 2 Cingulectomy 3 Amygdalectomy 4 Egas Moniz Developed frontal lobotomy in 1936 5 Walter Freeman American neurologist who had met Moniz at previous conferences became enthusiastic about Moniz s claims of dramatic results wthe lobotomy Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy 1 Increase in hippocampal cells
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