Prin. of Earth Sciences (C)
Prin. of Earth Sciences (C) GEOL 1312
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Date Created: 10/29/15
GEOL 1312 Principles of Earth Science ll Study Guide Midterm Exam 1 The midterm exam will be comprehensive and multiplechoice This review sheet is a guideline only there may be a few questions on the exam not specifically addressed here but covered in class the assigned reading or the homework Things to help you study Class notes Homework assignments Assigned reading Animations posted on the web This Study Guide Atoms Elements and Minerals General definitions Components of an atom neutrons protons electrons Ions compounds Major elements in the crust Physical properties ofminerals hardness cleavage streak etc Crystals definition shapes Mineral classes silicates carbonates VVVVVVV The Rock Cycle gt General definition gt Processes that relate different rock types Igneous Rocks gt General definitions vocabulary gt Sources of igneous rocks gt Intrusive vs extrusive igneous rocks properties Metamorphic Rocks gt General definitions vocabulary gt Ways that rocks transform into a metamorphic state gt Types of metamorphism compact burial regional dynamothermal hydrothermal Sedimentary Rocks gt General definitions vocabulary gt Types and compositions clastic organic chemical bioclastic rocks V Clastic sedimentary rock formation process weathering transport sedimentation lithification Shape and sort what they tell us about sedimentary rocks Lithification processes Types ofclastic rocks conglomerate sandstone shale how we classify them size VVV Sedimentary Structures gt General definitions vocabulary gt Types ripple marks bedding crossrbedding mud cracks Fossils gt General definitions vocabulary gt Types of fossils gt What we use fossils for Weathering amp Erosion gt General definitions vocabulary gt Mechanical weathering frost wedging pressurerrelease fracturing thermal expansion amp fracturing abrasion organic activity gt Chemical weathering dissolution oxidation hydrolysis gt Primary agents of erosion wind water gravity ice Determining Geologic Ages gt Relative ages Principles of Original Horizontality Superposition Crossr cutting Relationships Faunal Succession gt Types of unconformities gt Correlation gt Absolute ages radioactive dating methods what a halfrlife is how to calculate the age of a sample given its halfrlife and the amount of decay Mass Extinctions amp Geologic Time gt What they are gt What causes them gt When the major ones were gt Geologic time be familiar with major divisions and the important things that occurred during them Precambrian Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic Equot 993 5 Equot Equot gt 9 90699 GEOL 1312 Midterm Practice Exam Oil is not a true mineral because it is not a solid it does not have crystalline structure it has no de nite chemical composition all of the above The eight most common elements in crustal rocks are oxygen silicon calcium potassium and aluminum iron magnesium and sodium aluminum nickel lead and manganese nickel iron lead and sodium iron magnesium carbon hydrogen True or False It is not necessary for a substance to be a solid to be a mineral True or False Only atoms with a positive charge are called ions True or False A substance in which atoms are arranged without a regular periodically repeated pattern is called a crystal The basic building blocks of elements are called atoms silica tetrahedra minerals eons True or False The tendency of some minerals to break along at surfaces is hardness True or False Luster is the color of a ne powder of a mineral 90689 p t 993 p t N 999 1 Granite consists of the same minerals as The Mohs scale measures luster color speci c gravity hardness True or False The most abundant group of minerals in the Earth s crust are carbonates Granite is an example of an extrusive rock a plutonic rock a volcanic rock a rock that solidi ed rapidly on the Earth39s surface except that granite is an intrusive rock and solidi es slowly within the Earth rhyolite andesite basalt diorite True or False The crystals in granite cannot be seen with the naked eye Igneous rocks with a high content of magnesium and iron are called sialic mafic porphyritic intermediate True or False The rst rocks formed on Earth were metamorphic Sedimentary bedding forms as sediment metamorphoses sedimentary rocks are eroded sediment is deposited tectonic forces deform sedimentary rocks 17 993 18 Which sedimentary rock is made of clay minerals Conglomerate Evaporites Limestone Shale The principle of original horizontality is based on the fact that a sediment usually accumulates in horizontal layers b sedimentary rocks generally become younger from bottom to top c sedimentary rocks must be older than an intruding dike d rocks can be dated by studying radioactive decay of the elements 19 993 The half life of carbon 14 is 6000 years If a rock that formed 18000 years ago originally contained 100 grams of carbon 14 about how much carbon 14 would be left in that rock today 125 grams 25 grams 33 grams 50 grams True or False Carbon 14 dating is used to determine the age of materials older than 1 million years Fish amphibians and reptiles all evolved during the Cenozoic era Mesozoic era Paleozoic era Proterozoic Eon In the weathering process of pressure release fracturing salts crystallize in cracks enlarging fractures bedrock minerals decompose to clay bedrock expands and fractures when the overlying rock erodes away bedrock dissolves and ground water carries the dissolved ions away The process whereby granite fractures in large plates or shells like the layers of an onion is called GEOL 1312 Principles of Earth Science ll Study Guide Midterm Exam 2 The midterm exam will be comprehensive and multiplechoice This review sheet is a guideline only there may be a few questions on the exam not specifically addressed here but covered in class the assigned reading or the homework Things to help you study Class notes Homework assignments Assigned reading Animations posted on the web This Study Guide Practice Exam General Astronomy Topics gt Where are we in the universe gt Historical Astronomers Ptolemy Copernicus Galileo Kepler gt Electromagnetic waves light how do we use light to look at universe gt Optical vs radio telescopes Solar System gt Basics about the planets names size inner rocky vs outer gas planets gt Standard model 7 what is it gt How do the planets relate to one another What do they have in common Celestial Motions gt Seasons 7 what causes them Why does the northern hemisphere experience different seasons at different times ofthe year compared to the southern hemisphere gt Eclipses 7 solar lunar why are they infrequent The Moon gt Exploration important missions gt Lunar samples what can they tell us gt Rotation and orbit periods how are they linked gt Why do we see the same side of the Moon gt Geography 7 highlands maria near sidefar side differences gt Craters 7 formation characteristics how do we use them to establish relative ages of regions gt Formation and evolution of the Moon Mercury gt Exploration Mariner 10 Messenger gt Spinrorbit coupling of Mercury gt Magnetic field observations and possible origin of magnetic field gt Cratering on Mercury compared with the Moon Venus gt Exploration Magellan when types of data set radar topography etc gt Rotation orbit day vs year gt Atmosphere composition and surface conditions temperature pressure gt Earth and Venus r similarities and differences in basic properties processes gt Venus surface features volcanoes craters gt Craters implications for surface age Mars gt Exploration Pathfinder MERs gt General geography names of major features north vs south hemisphere differences gt Moons gt Olympus Mons Tharsis Valles Marineris 7 what are they gt Evidence for past water Jupiter gt Exploration Galileo Voyager etc gt Internal structure molecular vs metallic hydrogen gt Magnetic field source size gt Great Red Spot gt Atmospheric features clouds belts gt Rings Jovian Galilean Satellites gt Tidal heating what is it which moons are most impacted by it Magnetic field which ones Volcanism which one Major internal structure layers and density gt gt gt gt Possibility for life which one gt Surface ages which ones are 11old which are 11young gt Important characteristics of each gt Composition like which other planet gt Low density gt Rings 7 names overall composition characteristics gt Moons 7 are they all the same gt Titan 7 why are we interested in it what is special about it gt Cassini7Huygens Mission flybys surface probe Neptune Uranus Pluto Compositions density reason for color Discovery of each Rings how many characteristics Uranus s odd rotation Neptune s active atmosphere white spot clouds Magnetic fields Pluto pros amp cons for planet status Charon VVVVVVVV GEOL 1312 Midterm 2 Practice Exam 1 Venus is about from the Sun you shouldn t really need your notes for this one reason it out by thinking about the de nition of an AU and how close Venus is to the Earth and how far it is from the Sun a 10 AUs b 15 AUS 0 1AU d 34 AU e 15 AU 2 Which answer correctly matches the following astronomers with their noteworthy accomplishments 1 Ptolemy A Formulated the Geocentric model 2 Copernicus B Formulated the Heliocentric model 3 Kepler C Observed moons orbiting Jupiter 4 Galileo D Formulated mathematical laws describing all planetary motion a 1 A 2 C 3 D 4 B a 1 D 2 C 3 A 4 B b 1 A 2 B 3 D 4 C c 1 C 2 B 3 D 4 A d 1 C 2 B 3 A 4 D 3 Which planetary body from the list below has the highest surface pressure a Mars b Earth 0 Moon d Venus e Mercury 4 Which planetary body has the closest orbiting Moon a Mercury b Venus 0 Earth d Moon e Mars 5 Which planetary body from the list below has the largest magnetic eld Mars Earth Moon Venus Mercury DP90quot 6 Which is presently today the most volcanically active planetary body from the list below a Mars b Earth 0 Moon d Venus e Mercury 7 If you look into the nighttime sky at the end of this week lVIarch 21st you will observe which lunar phase Hint the last 1 quarter moon was on March 14 a I b 11 c 111 d IV e Not enough information 8 Which planet has the largest volcano Do you remember the name a Jupiter b Mercury 0 Venus d Mars e Earth 9 About how old is the Earth a 500 thousand years b 46 million years c 500 million years d 46 billion years e 46 hundred years 10 The dominant constituent of the Venus atmosphere is remember the other constituent that forms a haze in the atmosphere Oxygen Nitrogen Carbon dioxide Sulfur dioxide Water can you 99069 11 Which planets rotates around its axis in a retrograde direction a Pluto b Venus c Uranus d Neptune e a b and c 12 Mercury exhibits spinorbit coupling Which of the following statements is true Mercury rotates three times for every two orbits Mercury rotates twice for every three orbits Mercury s orbital period and rotation period are the same Mercury always has the same side facing the Sun Mercury is tidally locked to its moon 9999 13 How many geologists have landed on the moon 1 99069 2 4 6 8 14 Which planet is this a Mercury b Venus 0 Moon d Mars e Earth