PY 370 Chapter 1 Notes
PY 370 Chapter 1 Notes PY 370
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Tuesday January 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Sheila Black in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 200 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/20/15
PY 370 Chapter 1 Psychology and the Ancients 1 Early Greek Medicine a Dream Book 9 they talked about things that were embarrassing things that people dreamed about naked in public b Alcmaeon the first to dissect bodies of animals i Did not rely on the mysticism of the priests c Hippocrates rejected the notion that gods responsible for illnesses such as epilepsy emphasized sciencenature emphasized holistic approach to medicine did feel phenomena could be explained through science and supported nature i Identified various mental illnesses ii Formulated theory of thirst iii Formulated theory of temperament iv Brain lateralization left hemisphere controls right side of body d Galen lived 600 years after Hippocrates but he revived interest in Hippocrates work agreed with Hippocrates e He talked about curing disorders of the soul by describing the dynamics that currently take place in psychotherapy 2 Advances in Mathematics a Thales predicted a solar eclipse in 585 BC i Pythagoras and the Pythagorean theorem ii Today we have mathematical model which purport to explain the effects of familiarity on memory retention iii 11618 is the ratio used for the beautiful body b Materialism 9 the universe can be understood via the great materialism of the world 3 Atomism a Atomism was developed by Democritus He thought that the world was comprised of a collection of atoms b The human mine was a collection of atoms which could in uence the external world c The human mind is thought to be formed by experience d He thought there was no need for external all you need is explanation for how organisms were put together by physiological components e Objects would emit atoms and because of this we would perceive these objects a certain way i These atoms allow us to see a circle as a circle ii Put a lot of faith in the physical world 4 Zeno a 495435 BC Greeks questioned the reliability of the sensory system b Not interested in materialism sometimes senses can fool you c Zeno invented puzzles and paradoxes to point out the inadequacy of the sensory system d Motion is an illusion imposed by the mind e Zeno challenged the notion that the human mind can be studied via the material world Advances in Philosophy 1 Socrates a Socratic Method b Rationalist 9 truth lies within you c Deductive Reasoning 9 logically thinking way to be true d Put to death 9 trial trying to figure out if he corrupted youth upset religious norms and it was ruled that he did and put to death by poison 2 Plato a Did not trust senses or perceptions b Forms 9 believed in deductive reasoning we through our senses only see a shadow of what really exists c Rationalist who believed in measurement and deductive reasoning d Pythagoras had shown that some aspects of human skill could be measured e In Plato s utopian society people would be assigned roles based on their skills 3 Aristotle a More of a natural scientists than Plato or Socrates b More of an empiricist in that he did rely on observation c He believed that both deductive and inductive reasoning were important i Deductive reasoning was good but not the only way d He was able to uncover basic principles of human memory 4 Epicureans a Philosophy of life that should lead a person a life where they could be as great as they could b Should be happy do what makes you happy no matter what goal of life c Do not create sufferings in others 5 Stoics a Reasoning was more important than being happy b Did not like for people to express emotion in public c Learn to control emotions and take whatever comes to you and stride d People should focus on their duty 6 Epistemology a Try to determine the origin of knowledge b Branch of philosophy c Socrates Plato reasoning and Aristotle empiricismsenses Humanism video 1 313 century focus on church and religion 2 14th century power of church started to decline reason for humanism 3 Less interest in god and afterlife More interest in selves and the present world 4 Causes of decline bubonic plague in Europe and rise of market economy 5 Humanism study of human progress and nature Petrarch 9 father of humanism 6 Humanism radically changed the idea of human independence 7 Wealth was based on land ownership keeping manner system in tact 8 Feudalism began to shrink John Locke 1 Historical Context a Rationalism vs empiricism b John Locke disagrees with rationalism c Possible examples of innate knowledge i Whatsoever is is ii It is impossible for the same thing to be and not to be d Occam s Razor e Man is born as Tabula rasa born with blank slate f Locke believes in re ection to one s self 9 can observe within 2 Simple vs Complex ideas a Examples of knowledge not derived from senses i Concept of God and infinity ii Are we able to build these ideas from sensory input iii Must have simple ideas to come up with complex ideas of God b Can you invent a new simple idea i Impossible to come up with simple idea without other ideas ii How would you explain a color to a blind person c Primary vs secondary qualities i Primary exist in bodies itself extension figure motion number ii Secondary 9 truth is in power to produce sensations within us texture sound taste Bishop Barkley 1 Mental Dependency a Sensory objects houses mountains rivers etc are things to present us in sense experience b What is presented to us in sense experience consists solely of our ideas or sensations c Ideas exist solely in our minds d Therefore sensible objects exist solely in our minds Occam s Razor 2 The Cause of Ideas a Only the mind can cause ideas b Did our minds produce them i No because then the things would disappear when no one was looking at them c God s mind must have created them d We can have direct experience of the world without the intermediate step of physical matter e To be is to be perceivedquot Esse est percipi f They really exist just not as a substance 3 Connections to modern debates a Newton vs Einstein b Noam Chomsky c Geoffrey Sampson d Steven Pinker 4 Perceptions of mind a Impressions 9 the lovehatedesire we feel within us b Ideas 9 copies of our impressions thoughts or memories of impressions we have 5 Hume s Fork a Relations of ideas 9 geometry math etc discovered by thought but is not innate Plato s believed to be innate Use reason to discover them b Matters of fact 9 where contrary is always possible i Cold outside might be matter of fact or it could be hot outside 6 Cause and Effect a Entire idea of cause and effect comes entirely from experience i Cant tell whatever will suffocate just from looking at it b Cause leads to effect