Principles Of Sociology
Principles Of Sociology SOCI 1313
University of Texas-Pan American (UTPA)
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Chapter 2 Culture Chapter Outline 0 ulture and Society in a Changing World Components of Culture Technology Cultural Change and Diversity A Global Popular Culture Sociological Analysis of Culture 0 Culture in the Future Questions for You 0 Think about your de nition of culture 0 How would you describe your culture to someone who is not familiar with your culture 0 What values traditions beliefs holidays celebrations and materi objects are important in your culture What have you learned based on your culture 0 Culture The knowledge language values customs and material objects that are passed fromperson to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society 0 C lture is essential for survival and communication with other people 0 Culture is learned through interaction observation and imitation 0 Culture is fundamental for the survival of societies 0 Culture is the essence of human social interaction 0 Material culture 0 P ysical or tangible creations such as clothing shelter and art that members ofa society make use and e ar 0 Technology The knowledge techniques and tools that allow people to transform resources into a usable form and the knowledge and skills required to use what is developed 0 Nonmaterial culture 0 bstract or intangible human creations of society such as attitudes beliefs and values that in uence people s behavior 0 Belief the Luquot iLLiun LhaLceuain thing are uue or real How Much Do You Know About Global Food and Culture True or False Cheese is a universal food enjoyed by people of all nations and cultures F lse 0 Although cheese is a popular food in many cultures most of the people living in China find cheese very distasteful and prefer delicacies such as duck feet True or False Giving roundshaped foods to the parents of new babies is considered to be lucky in some cultures 0 True 0 Round foods such as pears grapes and mooncakes are given to celebrate the birth ofbabies because the shape of the food is believed to symbolize family unity Gestures with Different lIeanings in Other Societies Hook em Horns or Your spouse is unfaithful Gestures with Different Meanings in Other Societies Y Okay Or quotI ll kill youquot 4 H i Cultural Universals Customs and practices that occur across all societies 0 X le Appearance bodily adornment hairstyles Activities sports dancing games joking Social institutions family law religion Practices cooking folklore gift giving Components of Culture 0 mbol Anything that meaningfully represents something else 0 Objects words gestures 0 Language Symbols that express ideas and enable people to communicate o rbaland nonver a Create visual images share experiences and maintain group boundaries Values Collective ideas about what is right or wrong and good or bad desirable or undesirable 0 Provide us with the criteria by which we evaluate people 0 Value Contradictions are values that conflict with one another or are mutually exclusive 0 Core 39 39 39 39 39 39uwi I alue uu39 quot quot 39 39 Isuccess Ideal Culture refers to values and standards of behavior that people in society profess to hold is u u z I ooooE mulaliLy anu my w Ll 39 u na nu Iulluw Norms Established rules of behavior or standards of conduct SapirWhorf Hypothesis 0 According to this theory language shapes the view ofreality of its speakers 0 If people are able to think only through language then language must precede thought 0 If language creates reality are we trap by language Language and Gend Teacher Teacher Teacher Worker V v Worker cmplnycc quot Lu b mu r cniplnyci r Jmmm39l Mxml Cuslmlml autumn mamICIIHIICE man cleaning lady US Households English only 237365507 Viem msa 1225035 Spanish 343559394 llalian 782097 Chinese 2465761 Korean LUSL641 French 133311633 Russian 864069 Gennan 1122014 Navajo 170 62 1 Tagalog 1488385 Alabic 78632 1 U Ten Core American Values 0 Individualism Achievement and Success Activity and Work Science and Technology Progress and Material Comfort Efficiency and Practicality Equality Morality and Humanitarianism Freedom and Liberty 0 Racism and Group Superiority Polling Question 0 Do you favor or oppose an amendment to the U S Constitution that would make English the of cial language of the United States 0 avor o Oppose o No opinion Norms Norms are established rules of behavior or standards of conduct 0 Prescriptive norms state what behavior is appropriate or acceptable 0 Proscriptive norms state what behavior is inappropriate or unacceptable 0 Formal and Informal Norms ormal norms are written down and involve speci c punishments for violators 39 Laws Formal standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions o Sanctions are reward for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior 0 Positive sanctions include praise honors 0 Negative sanctions range from mild disapproval to death penalty 0 Informal norms are unwritten standards ofbehavior understood by people who share a common identity 39 en individuals violate informal norms people may apply informal sanctions Folkways Are informal norms that everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture 0 In the United States follgways include using deodorant o brushing our teeth 0 wearing appropriate clothing for a speci c occasion lVlores o Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences 0 T 005 are mores so strong that violation is considered extremely offensive and even unmentionable incest taboo which prohibits sexual relations between certain kin is an example of a nearly universal taboo 0 Formal standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions 0 Civil law deals with disputes among persons or groups 0 Criminal law deals with public safety and wellbeing Technology Cultural Change and Diversity C o anges in technology continue to shape the material culture ofsociet 0 Cultural lag is a gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions 0 Discovery is the place uf39 39 39 39 39 unKnUWn is recognized o Invention is the process of reshaping existing cultural items into a new form 0 Diffusion is the transmission ofcultural items or social practices from one group or society to another Cultural Diversity irefers to the wide range of cultural differences found between and within nations 0 Cultural di erences between and within nations are cause by 0 circumstances 39 Cl39mate geography 0 Social circumstances 39 Technology composition ofthe population 0 Homogenous societies meaningthat they include people who share a common culture and who are typically from similar social religious political and economic background 0 Heterogeneous societies they include people who are dissimilar in regard to social characteristics such as religion income or raceethnicity L o 1 g yulpuuplu beliefs values andor norms that set them apart in some significant mannerfrom the dominant culture 0 Culture shock is the disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically different from their own i u o 39 L practiceof39 4539 g quot 39 by 0 Cultural Relativism The belief that the behaviors and customs ofany culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture s own standards Cultural Diversity of US Society Religion Rellglous Alliliallon Jews 2 0 Omar i 1 Ollier Cnnslrans a Evangelical Protestants 25 9 Black Proteslams 7 8 Mainline Prolesmnls 18 0 Roman Catholics 9 Nomeligious 234 n 18 5 clzDIZCengageLcammg Cultural Diversity ofUS Society Income Household Income 510000 l0 524999 525 000 lo 549999 20 0 29 2 Under 59990 9 6 550000 l0 574999 19 W3 575090 and over 22 1 Cultural Diversity ofUS Society Race and Ethnicity mu Ind Emnlc mam nmuumw me l gh Culture 0 Classical music opera ballet live theater and other activities patronized by members of the uppermiddle and upper classes with time money and knowledge assumed necessary for its appreciation Popular Culture 0 Activities products and services that are assumed to appeal primarily to the middle and working classes 0 T ese include rock concerts spectator sports movies and television 0 Forms of popular culture 0 Fad is a temporary but widely copied activity followed by enthusiastically by large numberof people 39 people quot 39 39 Lile Iau urauney ha e little use or intrinsicvalue 39 Activity fads include pursuits such as body piercing surfing the internet and blade nights in new York city 39 Idea fads new age ideology 39 Personality fads such as those surrounding celebrities such as Jennifer lopez tiger woods and etc 0 Fashion is a currently valued style of behavior thinking appearance that is longer lasting and more widespread than fad Polling Question 0 Which cultural background do you identify with the most Choose only one Anglo white nonl spanic Hispanic African American black Native American American Indian Asian 00000 0 Other The Old Order Amish Subculture o 0 faith in God 0 Rejection of worldly concerns 0 Rely on horse and buggy for transportation Countercultures A group that strongly rejects dominant societal val Lies and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles eatniks ofthe 1950 s 0 Flower Children ofthe 1960 s 0 Drug Enthusiasts ofthe 1970 s Culture Shock Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism 0 Culture shock refers to the anxiety people experience when they encounter cultures radically different from their own 0 Ethnocentrism is the assumption that one s own culture is superior to others 0 Cultural relativism views and analyzes another culture in terms of that culture s own values and standards 0 Cultural Imperialism the extensive infusion ofone nation s culture into other nations 0 Biological needs includingfood and procreation 0 Instrumental needs including law and education 0 Integrative needs including religion and art 0 Ideology an integrated system of ideas that is external to and coercive of people to maintain their positions of dominance in a society 0 Commodities objects outside ourselves that we purchase to satisfy our human needs or wa nts Sociological Analysis of Culture unctionalist Culture helps people meet biological instrumental and expressive needs 0 Conflict Ideas can be used by the ruling class to affect members of otherclasses o Symbolic Interactionist People create maintain and modify culture during their everyday activities 0 Postmodern Culture is based on simulation of reality ratherthan reality itself Quick Quiz 1 7 consists of the physical or tangible creations that members of a society make use and share 39 Nonmaterial culture 39 Cultural universals 39 Material culture 39 High culture Material culture consists ofthe physical or tangible creations that members of a society make use and share 2 Language beliefs values rules ofbehavior family patterns and political systems are examples of 39 material culture 39 high culture 39 nonmaterial culture I cultural universals Anawer C 0 Language beliefs values rules of behavior family patterns and political systems are examples of nonmaterial culture 3 An example of a symbol is 39 a dove 39 all of the choices Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective and Research Methods Have you ever wondered o bout the structure and organization of society 0 How all the pieces of soc39ety fit together 0 What makes society function What causes it to be dysfunctional o p ople are in uenced by factors in their social environment including their family the media as well as educational political and economic institutions etc Sociology Students 0 Explore these questions everyday in an attempt to understand why people do the things they do within the structure of a particular society from a sociological perspective 0 Welcome to an elite group ofscholars The So What and Who Cares Factor Sociologists study what has happened what patterns can be observed and what social factors may have contributed to the existing social condition 0 The discipline of Sociology also studies who cares and who is a ected by the social condition right now Election 2008 What are the issues that you think sociologists would analyze regarding the presidential race of 2008 o How do you think the following issues would be relevant 0 Race and Ethnicity 0 Age 0 Gender 0 Social Class The Sociological Imagination o What is the structure ofthis particular society as a whole 0 Where does this society stand in human history 0 What varieties of men and women now prevail in this society and in this period And what varieties are coming to prevail Are We A Product of Our Environment 0 The sociological perspective says that we are a product ofthe socialization we receive in our culture a Family is the primary agent of socialization in this life long process Chapter Outline 0 Contemporary Theoretical Perspectives o The Sociological Research Process 0 Research Methods o Ethical Issues in Sociological Research Putting Sociological Life into Perspec i 0 So iology is the systematic study ofhuman society and social interaction 0 Sociologists study societies and social interactions to develop theories about 0 H ehavior is shaped by group life 0 How group life is a ected by individuals Nhy Study Sociology 0 us gain a better understanding of ourselves and our social world 0 Helps us see how behavior is shaped by the groups to which we belong and our societ o Promotes understanding and tolerance by helping us look beyond personal experiences and gain insight into the larger world order Society 0 A large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations 0 We are all a ected by global i terdependence a relationship in which the lives of all people are intertwined and any nation s problems are part ofa larger global problem Fields That Use Social Science Research h and man Services Business Communicallon Academia Counseling Anmusmg Bmadcasllng Ammopmogy Law Educamn Labor Rewawns Punhc Relaions Economics Cnmvnal Jushce Meolcme Manegevnenl Juuf ansm eeogrannv Nursing Mamenng Husxo Saudi Wovk mlurmanon smwes Mmh smmssl Cammumcanon Numismatian How Much Do You Know About Suicide True or False In the United States suicide occurs on the average of one every 17 minutes 0 True 0 A suicide occurs on the average of every 17 minutes in the United States 0 This differs with respect to the sex raceethnicity and age of the individual 0 Men are four times more likely to kill themselves than are women True or False o More teenagers and young adults die from suicide than from cancer heart disease AIDS birth defects stroke pneumonia in uenza and chronic lung disease combined True 0 Suicide is a leading cause of death among teenagers and you adults 0 It is the third leading cause of death among young people between 15 and 24 years of age following unintentional injuries and homicide Suicide 0 As a Personal Trouble 0 Many people consider suicide to be the result of personal problems 0 As a Public Issue 0 Sociologist Emile Durkheim related suicide to the issue of cohesiveness in society instead of viewing it as an isolated act that could be understood by studying individual personalities or inherited tendencies Suicide Rates by Race and Sex 5 Ltd J Importance of a Global Sociological Imagination o e future of our nation is intertwined with the future of other nations on economic political environmental and humanitarian levels 0 Understanding diversity and developing tolerance for people who are different from us is important for our personal social and economic wellbeing Highlncome Countries 0 ese are nations with highly industrialized economies technologically advanced industrial administrative and service occupations and high levels of national and personal income xamples United States Canada They generally have a have a high standard of living and a lower death rate due to advances in nutrition and medical hn 1 tec o o y hhddleIncome Countries 0 Sometimes referred to as developing countries these are nations with industrializing economies particularly in urban areas and moderate levels of national and personal income 0 Examples Nations ofEastern Europe and many Latin American countries where nations such as Brazil and Mexico are industrializing rapidly Low h1come Countries 0 Lowincome countries are primarily agrarian nations with little industrialization and low levels of national and personal incom 0 Examples Many of the nations of Africa and Asia particularly India and the People s Republic of China Race Ethnicity and Class 0 e is a term used to specify groups of people distinguished by physical characteristics Most sociologists consider race a social construction used to justify inequalities Ethnicity refers to cultural identity and is based on factors such as language or country of origin Class is based on wealth power prestige or other valued resources 0 Sex and Gender o Sex refers to the biological and anatomical differences between females o and males Gender refers to the meanings beliefs and practices associated with sex differences referred to as femininity and masculinity Industrialization e process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture and handmade products to dependence on manufacturing industries 0 First occurred during the Industrial Revolution in Britain between 1760 and 1850 o Resulted in massive economic technological and social changes People were forced to leave rural communities to seek employment in the emerging cities Urbanization o The process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in cities rather than rural areas The factory system led to arapid increase in the number of cities and the size ofpopulation People from diverse backgrounds began working in the same factory and living in the same neighborhoods This led to the development ofnew social problems inadequate housing crowding unsanitary conditions poverty pollution and crime August Comte o Considered the founder of sociology 0 Com e s philosophy became known as positivismi a belief that the world can best be understood through scienti c qquy Comte believed objective biasfree knowledge was attainable only through the use of science rather than religion Two Dimensions of Comte s Positivism o Methodological he application of scienti c knowledge to physical and social phenomena 0 Social and political o e use of such knowledge to predict the likely results of different policies so the best one could be chosen Harriet lVlartineau elieved society would improve when 0 women and men were treated equally o enlightened reform occurred 0 cooperation existed among all social classes Herbert Spencer 0 Contributed an evolutionary perspective on social order and social change 0 Social Darwinism The beliefthat the human beings best adapted to their environment survive and prosper whereas those poorly adapted die out Emile Dmquotkheim o l39eved the limits of human potential are socially based 0 One of his most important contributions was the concept of social facts 0 Social facts are patterned ways of acting thinking and feeling that exist outside any one individual but exert social control over each person Karl lIarx 0 Viewed history as a clash between con icting ideas and forces 0 Believed class con ict produced social change and a better society 0 Combined ideas from philosophy history and social science into a new theory lIax Weber 0 Believed sociological research should exclude personal values and economic interests 0 Provided insights on rationalization bureaucracy and religion Georg Simmel Theorized about society as a web ofpatterned interactions among people 0 Analyzed how social interactions vary depen 39ng on the size of the social group 0 Developed formal sociology an approach that focus es attention on the universal recurring social forms that underlie the varying content of social interaction Jane A d dams o Founded Hull House one ofthe most famous settlement houses in Chicago 0 One of the authors of a methodology text used by sociologists for the next forty years 0 AwardedNobel Prize for assistance to the underprivileged WEB Du Bois 0 One of the rst to note the identity con ict ofbeing both Black and American 0 Pointed out that people in the US espouse values of democracy freedom and equality while they accept racism and discrimination Theoretical Perspectives T eoretical perspectives are based on ideas about how social life is organized o The major perspectives in US sociology are 0 Functionalist Society is composed of interrelated parts that work together to maintain stability within society This stability is threatened by dysfunctional acts and institutions On the macrolevel 0 Conflict 39 Society is characterized by social inequality social life is a struggle for scarce resources Social arrangements bene t some groups at the expense of others On the macrolevel o Symbolic Interactionist 39ety is the sum ofthe interactions ofpeople and groups Behavior is learned in interaction with other people how people de ne a situation becomes the foundation for how they behave On the microlevel o Postmodernist Societies 39 by 39 quot39 39 39 andglobal 39 39 bring into question existing assumptions about social life and the nature ofreality On the macromicrolevel Polling Question 0 Which sociological perspective do you think explains the concept of inequality in our society the most accurately o Structuralfunction ist 0 Con ict o Symbolic interactionist o Feminist The Sociological Research Process Res arch is the process of systematically collecting information for the purpose of testing an existing theory or generating a new one o The relationship between theory and research has been referred to as a continuous cycle Theory and Research Cycle Deductive Research 0 ts with Theory Hypothesis Observation and Generalization THEHOG 0 General to Speci c o Topdown approach or Waterfall 0 Conclusion follows logically from premises facts 0 Inductive Res earc 0 Starts with Observation Generalization Theory OGT 0 Specific to General 0 Bottom up approach or hill climbing 0 Conclusion is likely based on premises 0 Involves degree of uncertain y o Quantitative and Qualitative Research 0 Quantitative research focuses on data that can be measured numerically I Example comparing rates of suicide 0 Qualitative research focuses on interpretive description rather than statistics to analyze underlying and patterns of social relationships Conventional Research Model Select and define the research problem Review previous researc Formulate the hypothesis Develop the research design Collect and analyze the data 0 Draw conclusions and report the ndings Hypothesized Relationships Between Variables Causal Sociai integration quotThe lack oi social integration causes su idequot Hypothesized Relationships Between Variables lIult1ple Causes Nauqmlly ery mmv manual I ause wcxun39 Qualitative Research Method 0 Researcher begins with a general approach rather than a highly detailed plan 0 Researcher has to decide when the literature review and theory application should take place 0 The study presents a detailed view of the topic 0 Access to people or other resources that can provide necessary data is crucial 0 Appropriate research methods are important for acquiring useful qualitative data Research Nlethods Survey Research Describes a population without interviewing each individual 0 Standardized questions force respondents into categories 0 elies on selfreported information and some people may not be truthful Research lVlethods Analysis ofExisting Data Content Analysis Materials studied may include o blic records of cial reports and raw data collected by other researchers 0 books diaries poems and gr iti 0 movies television shows advertisements greeting cards 0 music art and even garbage Research lVlethods Field Research 0 Study of social life in its natural setting Observing and interviewing people where they live work and play Generates observations that are best described verbally rather than numerically Approaches to Field Research Participant observation I ollecting observations while part ofthe activities of the group being studied 0 Ethnography Detailed study of the life and activities of a group ofpeople over a period of years Res each ldethods Experiments Stu y the impact of certain variables on subjects attitudes or behavior 0 Designed to create reallife situations 0 Us ed to demonstrate a caus eandeffect relationship between variables Polling Question you possessed the money skill and other necessary resources in which one area would you like to conduct researc o Racial pro ling o The causes ofsexual orientation 0 Sexual assault and a use The effects of divorce on children 0 ASA Code of Ethics Disclose research ndings in full and include all possible interpretations of the data 0 eguard the participants right to privacy and dignity while protecting them from harm ASA Code of Ethics 0 Protect confidential information provided by participants Acknowledge research collaboration and disclose all financial support 0 Quick Quiz Sociology helps us get a better understanding of ourselves and our world by enablingus to see how behavior is shaped y the groups to which We belong and the society in which We live Using the Sociological Imagination allows us to make personal troubles public issues The approach that begins with a theory and uses research to test the theory is called deductive Durkheim identi ed four types of suicide They are Altruistic Egoistic Anomic Fatalistic Hypothesis 0 In research studies a tentative statement of the relationship between two or more concepts 0 a statement ofrelationship between two variables Independent Variable o ariable that is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable Dependent Variable o A ariable that is assumed to depend on or be caused by one or more other independent variables Random Sampling study approach in which every member of an entire population being studied has the same chance of being selected Probability Sampling 0 C oosing participants for a study on the basis ofspecific characteristics possibly including such factors as age sex raceethnicity and educational attainment Validity o In sociological research the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure Reliability In sociological research the extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or to the same individuals over time Quantitative Data 0 re in depth longhand data from larger groups of people Qualitative Data 0 ore speci c data from smaller groups of people Research Methods peci c strategies or techniques for systematically conducting research Survey OH in which the researcher gathers facts or attempts to determine the relationships among facts Secondary Analysis 0 A research method in which researchers use existing material and analyze data that were originally collected by others Field Research The study ofsocial life in its natural setting observing and interviewing people where they live work and p ay Participant Observation 0 A research method in which researchers collect data while being part of the activities of the group being studied Ethnography o A detailed study of the life and activities ofa group ofpeople by researchers who may live with that group over a period of years Experiment A research method involving a carefully designed situation in which the researcher studies the impact of certain variables on subjects39 attitudes or behavior Correlation A relationship that exists when two variables are associated more frequently than could be expected by chance Spurious o Relating to a correlation an apparent although false relationship between two or more variables caused by me other variable content analysis he systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communication to extract thematic data and draw conclusions about social life control group 0 In an experiment the group that contains the subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable Correlation a relationship that exists when two variables are associated more frequently than could be expected by c ance experimental group 0 39 n experiment the group that contains the subjects who are exposed to an independent variable the experimental condition to study its effect on them participant observation 0 search method in which researchers collect data while being part of the activities of the group being studied Variable o in sociological research any concept with measurable traits or characteristics that can change or vary from o erson time situation or society to another The Hawthorne effect 0 is an example ofhow subjects may react to their knowledge ofbeing studied Debunking o unmasking of fallacies in the everyday and of cial interpretations of life Chapter 4 Questions for You 0 Is there a structure regarding how society is organized o How do the large pieces ofsociety fit to e er 0 What is the importance ofunderstanding social location as it relates to a group s overall placement in the social structure 0 What factors a ect the process of social interaction Chapter Outline 0 Social Structure The Macrolevel Perspective 0 Components of Social Structure 0 Societies Changes in Social Structure 0 Social Interaction The Mcrolevel Perspective Changing Social Structure and Interaction in the Future Social Structure and Interaction o ocial structure is the framework of societal institutions politics and religion and social practices social roles that m e up a society and establish limits on behavior 0 Social interaction is the process by which people act toward or respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationships and groups in society 0 Social structure and framework Slalusas and Roles Emergent Achieved status Spons Occupation Mass media Educaxion Sciencemedicine Income level lltary Social Groups Secondary groups Schools Corporations 0 r mmwwmm Homelessness 0 According to data published by the Congressional Research Service Reports2005 the number ofhomeless individuals inthe United States ranges from 60000025 millionpeople 0 Although single men constitute about sixty percent ofthe homeless population families constitute about one third of all homeless and are the fastestgrowing group ofhomeless The homeless elderly will also be an important group as erica ages in the next decades Who Are the Homeless How Much Do You Know About Homeless Persons True or False Most homeless people choose to be homeless False Less than 6 of all homeless people are that way by choice True or False Homeless people do not work False Many homeless people are among the working poor Mnimumwage jobs do notpay enough to support a family or pay innercity rent True or False Most homeless people are mentally ill False Most homeless people are not mentally ill estimates suggest that about 14 of the homeless are emotionally disturbed Polling Question People who are better off should help friends who are less well off 0 Strongly agree 0 Agree somewhat o Unsure 0 Disagree somewhat Strongl disagree Social Structure Framework Components of Social Structure Status 0 Roles 0 Groups 0 Social Institutions Status A socially de ned position in society characterized by certain expectations rights and duties Status o Ascribed status ocial position based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control such as raceethnicity age and gen er o Achieved status Social position that aperson assumes as a result of personal choice merit or direct effort 0 Master status is the most important status that a person occupies o Status symbols are material signs that inform others of a person s speci c status 0 Example Wearing a wedding ring proclaims that a person is married Polling Question If you could change one of the following in our society which would you change 0 Prejudice o The speed limit 0 The income distribution to be more equal Roles A set ofbehavioral expectations associated with a given status 0 Role Expectation A group or society s de nition of the way a speci c role ought to be played 0 Role Performance How a person actually plays a role Roles 0 Role Conflict Occurs when incompatible demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time 0 Role Strain Occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that the person holds 0 Role exit a situationin which a person disengage from local roles that have been central to their self identity Stages of Role Exit When people leave a role central to their identity ex retirement 0 Doubt 0 Search for alternatives separation leave of absence The turning point take an action Social Groups 0 A social group consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and a feeling of interdependence Primary groups 7 is a small less specialized group in which members engage in face to face emotion based interactions over an extended period of time 0 Family close friends school or workrelated peer grou s 0 Secondary iis alarger more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal goal oriented relationships for a limited period of time o Sch ols churches corporations Formal Organization 0 A highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving speci c goals 0 Many of us spend most of our time in formal organizations such as colleges corporations or the government Social Institutions ocial institution is a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social nee s Five Basic Social Institutions 0 amily Religion Education Economy 0 Government or politics Functionalists Five Tasks of Social Institutions 0 Replacing members Teaching new members Producing distributing and consuming goods and services Preserving or er Providing and maintaining a sense ofpurpose Society Technology 0 Subsistence Technology the methods and tools that are available for acquiring the basic needs of daily life 0 5 types of society based on various levels of subsistence technology 0 Hunting and gathering use simple technology for hunting animals and gathering vegetation o Horticultural and Pastoral I Pastoral Societies based on technology that supports the domestication of large animals to provide food I Horticultural societies based on technology that supports the cultivation of plants to provide food I 3 Factors 0 The deplation of food supply of large game as a source of food 0 An increase in a size of human population to feed 0 Dramatic weather and environmental changes that probably occurred by the end of the ice age Agrarian societies societies that use technology of large scale farming including animal drawn or energy powered plows and equipment to produce their food supply 0 Industrial Societies based on technology that mechanizes production Durkheim39s Typology of Social Solidarity functionedist 0 Social solidarity is based on social structure which is based on division of labor Mechanical Solidarity people are united by traditions and shared Value 0 Organic Solidarity o erms for social cohesion found in industrial and perhaps post industrial in which people perform Very specialized task and feel united by their mutual dependence people are united by mutual dependence on one another Tiinnies Genieinschaft and Gesellschaft o o Sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies 18557 1936 used the terms Geminscha and Gesellscha to characterize the degree of social solidarity and social control found in soci t39 e was especially concerned about what happens t Gemeinschaft Societies o Is traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability 5 0 social solidarity in a society when a loss ofcommunity occurs 0 A Gemeinschaft society would be made up of the Various family trees and how they are related to one another Gesellschaft Societies e urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships with little long term commitment to the group or consensus on Values A Gesellschaft society would be made up of clumps of trees each has a specialized relationship and may not be committed to the others Industrial and Postindustrial Societies symbolic o I dustrial societies are based on technology that mechanizes production 0 eople who are unemployed do not share the same status markers as those who havej b o A postindustrial society is one in which technology supports a service and information based economy 0 e characterized by an economy in which large numbers ofpeople provide or apply information or are employed in service jobs Social Construction of Reality e pr cess by which our perception ofreality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience 0 This meaning strongly in uences what we see and how we respond to situations Social Construction ofReality De nition of the situation We analyze a social context in which we nd ourselves determine what is in our best interest and adjust our attitudes and actions accordingly o elffulfilling prophecy A false belief or prediction that produces behavior that makes the original false belief come true Ethnomethodology The study ofthe commonsense knowledge people use to understand situations o Sociologist Harold Garfinkel 1967 initiated this approach and coined the term 0 ethno fo people and methodology for a system ofmethods e was critical ofmainstream sociology for not recognizing the ongoing ways in which people create reality and produce their own world Gof nan Dramaturgical Analysis 0 The study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation Chaptel 3 Socializa n Questions for you Which agents of socialization have had the greatest impact on your development o Famil 0 Education 0 PeerGroup o The Media 0 Religion Chapter Outline 0 Why Is Socialization ImportantAround the Globe 0 Social Psychological Theories of Human Development 0 Sociological Theories of Human Development Chapter Outline 0 Agents of Socialization 0 Gender and RacialEthnic Socialization o Socialization Through the Life Course 0 Resocialization Socialization in the Future Socialization The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self identity and the physical mental and social skills needed for survival in society 0 Socialization is the essential link between the individual and society 0 Socialization is the processthrough which we become human Why Socialization Is Important 0 Teaches us ways to think talk and act that are necessawforsocial living 0 uLluLy ale uLlull ed to support L 39 39 39 39 Allows society to pass culture on tothe next generation LifeLong Process 0 C ildren need to be surrounded by people who care forthem interact with them and provide for their basic needs This is essential for complete growth and development 0 Children who are isolated abused or neglected may experience longterm developmental challenges How Much Do You Know About Socialization and the College Experience True or False Professors are the primaw agents of socialization forcollege students How Much Do You Know About Socialization and the College Experience False o quot quot LnaL aunuugn important in 39 college experience ourfriends and acquaintances help us adapt to higher education How Much Do You Know About Socialization and the College Experience True or aboutquot 39 quot the In recent studies few students reportthatthey spend time studying with otherstudents How Much Do You Know About Socialization an e College Experience False o A recent study reported in The Chronicle oingher Education found that 877 percent of firstyear students at fouryear colleges stated that they studied with other students Similar data are not available for students at twoyear schools 0 Would this percentage be higher lower or about the same at twoyear and community colleges Human Development Each of us is a product of two forces 0 Heredity quotnature39l Determines our physical makeup 0 Social environment nurture l Determines how we develop and behave Sociobiology the study of how biology affects social behavior Problems associate with social isolation o In orderfor humans as well as uLllel 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 unis crucial See Harlows nonhuman primate experiment pg 10 Ultimately social isolation was detrimental tothe psychological growth of the Rhesus monkeys 0 Cases ofextreme social isolation and maltreatment in humans 39 SeeAnna and Geniepgs 109110 0 ut socialization and nurture both children were devoid of language cleanliness upright movement and in essence their humanity Without a social catalyst during our core stages ofdevelopment we are nothing more than animals ProblemsAssociated with Maltreatment o Neglect isthe most frequent form of child maltreatment Freud39s Theory of Personality Sigmund Freud 18561939 His premise for human existence rested on two basic tendencies the urge to sunive and the urge to procreate o Consisted of three states that reflected different levels of personality I The a 39 39 39 J 39 J u 39 gratifiratinn o unconscious and demands of immediate satisfaction basic 39 The Superego The sense of conscience the moral and ethical aspects of ones actions T e cultural values and norms internalized by an individual 0 tes as ourconscience 39 The Ego The rational reality oriented self that imposes restrictions on the Id 0 a persons conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure seeking dries with the demands of society Erick Erickson Psychosocial Stages 0 Trust vs Mistrust birth to age one If infants are nurtured they form a sense of trust if they are neglected they will become mistrustful and anxious o AutonomyvsShame and Doubtage one to three If allowed to develop physical and mental abilities and allowed to control their environmentthey 39 39 n r l r urey B may 0 Initiative vs Guilt age three to five If initiative is encouraged children will developthe sense of initiative if ignored may develop guilt o Industryvs Inferiority age six to eleven Children seekto manipulate objects and become curious oftheirworkings encouragement develops the sense of industw if regarded as a nuisance children feel inferior 0 Identity vs Role Confusion age twelve to eighteen Adolescents attempt to develop a sense of identity in addition to having new roles if an accurate sense of identity is not attained the individual feels roleconfusion o Intimacy vs Isolation age eighteen to thirtyfive The individual seeks to develop relationships if they fail to do so isolation ensues Generativity vs Selfabsorption age thirtyfive to fiftyfive Generativity refers to being concerned forthe next generation whereas self absorbed persons are only concerned with material gains and relieving personal boredom o Integrity vs Despair maturity and oldage Integrity results in looking back on life and seeing it as meaningful despair results when personal issues go unresolved SelfConcept isthe totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves sists offour components 0 The physical self am tallquot 0 The active self I am good at sportsquot 0 The social self I am nice to oth squot o The psychological self I believe in world peacequot 0 Later in childhood the focus shifts from physical and active to social and psychological self 0 SelfIdentity is our perception about what kind of person we r o SelfConcept and SelfIdentity are both L sociaui aLiun Charles Horton Cooley 18641929 0 Concept ofthe quotLookingglass selfquot orthe way in which a person39s sense of self is derived from the perception of others 39 39magine ow our personality orappearance will look to other people can be favorable or unfavorable 39 We imagine how other people judge the appearance and personality that we think we re 39 We develop a selfconcept if we think an evaluation is favorable it is enhanced if not it is diminished George H Mead 18631931 0 Extended the idea of selfconcept to roletakin Roletaking refers to the process by which a person mentally assumesthe role of another person or group in orderto understand the world from that person s or group39s point ofview 0 Like assumingthe role of parent doctor teacher 39 Significant others 0 Are those a rtinn 39 39 39 quot ole ired and who are most important in the development of the self 39 Generalized other 0 T e child s awareness ofthe demands and expectations of the society as a whole 0 George H Mead divided the self into the quotIquot and the quotmequot 39 The quotIquot is the subjective element of the selfand representsthe unique traits ofthe person The quotmequot is the objective element of the self which is composed of internalized attitudes and demands of other members of society and the individual s awareness of those d m nds 39 He believed that socialization is a two way process between the individual and society 0 Mead s Three Stages of SelfDevelopment 39 Preparatow Stage up to age 3 Children prepare for roletaking by imitatingthe people around them Play Stage 3 5 Children begin to see themselves in relation to others Game Stage early school years Children understand their social position and the positions of those around them Children quot quot quot 39t quot others Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development 0 Sensorimotorstage birth to age 2 children understand the world through sensow contact and immediate action 0 Preoperational stage age 2 to 7 children begin to use words as symbols and form mental images 0 Concrete operational stage 7 to 11 children think in terms oftangible objects and events I 17 and up 39 39 39 u LninkauuuL LnefuLule and 39 quot auiun Kohlberg sStages of Moral Reasoning o Preconventional level 7 to 10 C il ren s perceptions are based on punishment and obedience Conventional level 10 to adult re concerned with how they are perceived by peers and how one conforms to rules 0 Postconventional level few adults reach this stage Pe p 39ew morality in terms of individual rights moral conductquot is judged by principles based on human rightsthat transcend government and laws Gilligan39s Stages of Female Moral Development Stage 1 A woman is motivated primarily by selfish concerns 0 Stage 2 She recognizes her responsibility to others 0 Stage 3 She makes a decision based on a desire to do the greatest good for selfand for others Cooley The LookingGlass Self We 39magine how we look to others 0 We imagine how other people judge the appearance that we think we present I we thinkthe evaluation is favorable our selfconcept is enhanced o If we thinkthe evaluation is unfavorable ourselfconcept is diminished Bronfenbrenher39s Ecological System Theory 39 Ecological systems are the interactions a child has with other people and how these interactions and are affected by other people and situations Microsystems immediate family 0 Mesosystems Family interaction 0 Exosystems outside the family Macrosystem Larger society Agents of socializatio persons groups or institutions that teach us what we need to know in orderto participate in society 0 most influential are the family the school peer groups and the mass media 0 Family 39 Most important agent of socialization 39 Forms oursense of self 39 Primawsourceofemotionalsupport o A peergroup is a group of people who are linked by common interests equal social position and typically similar age 39 Function as agents of socialization by contributing to our sense of belonging and ourfeeling of self worth 0 School 39 Functionalist Perspective Functions of Schools 0 Teach students to be productive members of society 0 Transmit culture 0 Social control and personal development 0 Select train and place individuals on different rungs in society 39 Conflict Perspective Schools 0 Experiences depend on social class racial ethnic background gender and otherfactors 0 Children learn to be neat punctual quiet wait theirturn and remain attentive to their work 0 Schools socialize children for later roles in the workforce o The mass media as an agent of socialization 39 Organizations that use print 39 39 39 and 439quot 39 39 means 39 wi large numbers of peop e 39 Students on average spend 1000 hours peryear at school while they spend roughly 1600 hours peryear subjected to the mass media 39 Media As Socializing Agents 0 Inform us about events 0 Introduce us to a variety of people 0 Provide an array ofviewpoints on current issues 0 Make us aware of products that will supposedly help us 0 Entertain us Gender Socialization o refersto quot quot39 39 39 39 gure nature or 39 g or male ina quot39 g society 39 Such as color coded orgender based toys clothes and activities RacialEthnic Socialization 39 quot 39 quot 39 39 39 quot39 39 practices concerning the nature of one39s racial or ethnic status Relates to personal and group identity intergroup and interindividual relationships and position in the social hierarchy ReSocialization t e process of learning a new experience 0 quot auiLude values and 39 Lllu e in one39s background and previous Eithervoluntaworinvoluntaw 39 Voluntary when we assume new status of our own free will 39 Involuntaw occurs against a person39s wishes and generallytakes place within a total institution 39 For example military enrollment or a total institution 39 A total institu on is a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period oftime and come underthe control ofthe officials who run the institution Individuals respond to resocialization in different ways 39 Some become rehabilitated adapting the new w ys Others become hostile violent oranarchistictowards the system 39 or example inmates may conform to the rules in prison but they may have little respect forthe norms and laws ofthe greater society 0 A particularly popular novel as well as a movie on the subject One flew overthe cuckoo39s nest Occupational Socialization 0 One ofthe most important types ofearly adult socialization 4 phases by Wilbert moore Carrier choice 39 Anticipatow socialization learning aspect of occupation before entering it r L and 39 Continuous commitment remaining committed even problem arise Socialization through lifecourse 0 Each time we change status example bachelor master phd Anticipatow socialization the process by which knowledge and skills are learned forfuture roles o Lifecourse includes 0 In n 0 Childhood o Adulthood 0 Late adult hood Socialization in the future 0 Predictions for the future of socialization 0 Family willcontinue to be important 0 Increased cases of abuse and neglect 0 Growing dominance oftelevision and the internet Vocabulary 39 Ageism Prejudice and discrimination against older people 39 Anticipatow socialization Learning that helps a person achieve a desired position 39 Social Devaluation a situation in which a person or group is considered to have less social value than other individuals or group 39 Social Interaction the process by which people acttoward or respond to other peop e 39 ua39 39 a the economy politics and religion and the social practices r u r s such as roles and social roles that make up a society and that organize and establish limits on people s behavIo 39 Components of Social Structure 0 S s a socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations rights and duties Ascribe t t s a social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life based on attributes over which 0 d s a the individual has little or no control such as raceethnicity age and gender o Achieved status a social position that a mum by a a result of 39 quot 39 merit or direct effort 0 Masterstatus the most important status a person occupies Mead and Roletaking The self is divided into quotIquot and quotMequot 0 quotIquot represents the unique traits of each person 0 quotMequot is composed of the demands of others and the awareness of those demands 0 quotIquot develops first quotMequot is formed duringthree stages of selfdevelopment Agents of Socialization 0 Family 0 PeerGroup 0 School 0 Mass Media These agents as well as others help to facilitate the process of socialization Question 0 Which agent of socialization has had the greatest impact on your development 0 What role did this agent play in helpingto make you the person that you are Polling Question Which agenqu 39 39 yuu think is the ful genuel uineuence in how male and 39 39 4quot o The family 0 Religion 0 The peer group 0 Education 0 ass media Polling Question 39 edia source do you think has the strongest impact on attitudes and behaviors of your generation n Music and musicvideos o The Internet Magazines 0 Quick Quiz 1 Socialization is essential for o the individual s survival and for human development 0 a ofthe cho39ces o the sunival and stability of society 0 society to learn how to reproduce itself B Socialization is essential for the individual39s survival and for hum an development the survival and stability of society and for societyto learn how to reproduce itse 2 The lifelong practice of social interaction through which individuals acquire a selfidentity and the physical mental and social skills nee for sunival in society is ca ed 0 Socialization o sociological imagination o accultur t39 assimilation Answer A o The lifelong practice of social interaction through which individuals acquire a selfidentity and the physical mental and social skills needed for survival in society is called socialization 3 Kohlberg s research classified moral reasoning into three sequential levels asfollows 0 id ego superego o imagination imitation and simulation 0 preparatow play game reconventi nventional postconventional o p a Answer D Kohlberg s research classified moral reasoning into rnnlrnnfinnal nrl quot 39 39 levels 4 The by Charles Horton Cooley refers to the way in which a person s sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others