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US HisPre Columbus

by: Eden Morar

US HisPre Columbus HIS 1043

Eden Morar
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eden Morar on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 1043 at University of Texas at San Antonio taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/231316/his-1043-university-of-texas-at-san-antonio in History at University of Texas at San Antonio.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
Final Exam Study Guide Written Answers How can you attribute at least part of the American personality and perspective to events and conditions of early American history Why were the Articles of Confederation replaced with the Constitution What did the Monroe Doctrine achieve for the United States How does Manifest Destiny differ from divine rule Why were United Stated Federal Territories so vital to the preCivil War North and South Multiple Choice True or False Four changes responsible for US economic growth in the first half of the 1800s Steam engines and factories Federal government s land policy Immigrants between 1840 and 1860 Manifest Destiny Mexico s Northern Borderlands Stephen F Austin land grant Mexico and Texas Texas Annexation Mexican American War The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Slave increase from 1790 to 1860 White supremacy in the South Defense of the institution of slavery Who did and did not own slaves in the South Number of slaves that distinguished a plantation from a farm PreCivil War economy North and South Paternalism African American Christianity Restrictions on southern free blacks Popular Sovereignty Harriet Beecher Stowe The Kansas Nebraska Act Kansas Territory Dred Scott Decision Abraham Lincoln and his beliefs on slavery Election of 1860 First state to secede Lincoln s first inaugural address Event that began the Civil War Reasons why Southerners thought they could win King Cotton Diplomacy How Lincoln felt about existing slave states The Emancipation Proclamation Odds facing the Confederacy Homestead Act and the Union Civil War nurses Dorothea Dix and Clara Barton Civil War under Grant Siege of Vicksburg Battle of Gettysburgh Confederate soldiers in the last months of the war Affect of the Civil War on the United States History 1043 Second Examination Review Guide Era of the American Revolution attles Lexington and Concord Apr 19 1775 General Thomas Gage the military governor of Massachusetts knew he was sitting on a powder keg Since Parliament had imposed the Coercive Acts in response to the Boston Tea Party American hostility toward British policies had increased and civil disobedience had spread Believing that he must take aggressive steps to prevent an escalation of the con ict he resolved to seize the arms and ammunition stockpiled by the local militias in Concord and Worcester Gage took huge precautions to keep his plan secret But nothing could be kept secret in Boston in 1775 AntiBritish Patriots like Paul Revere kept a close watch on every move made by the British troops occupying Boston Informers lled in the details By the time Gage was ready to act only the exact route was still unknown But even that was ascertained before the troops began piling into the small boats that would carry them across the Back Bay to Charlestown for their march to Concord Paul Revere s midnight ride therefore brought news to Patriot militia that were already on hyperalert As 700 British troops waded from their boats to the shore and then set off with wet feet toward Concord bells and musket shots rang through the night warning colonists and rattling the soldiers who knew how combative the Americans could be Therefore it was probably inevitable that someone would panic or overreact When the British troops reached Lexington around dawnihalf way to Concordithey were surprised to nd a band of American militia standing on the green to the side of the road The men had gathered hours earlieriby this time half had returned home But those remaining stood in silence to protest the assertion of British power represented by the troops passing through their village The Redcoats could have ignored them The militiamen were not blocking the road On another day they just might have But perhaps because they were wet and cold perhaps because they had been unnerved by all the bells and guns shots that echoed through the night the British soldiers enthusiastically formed ranks when their commander Major Pitcaimordered them into battle formation When Pitcairn ordered the damned rebels to lay down their arms his men shouted their approval When someone red a shotito this day no one knows whoithe soldiers jumped at the chance to deliver a volley A few Americans returned the re But clearly the militia got the worst of the exchange Eight were killed and ten were wounded only one British soldier received a minor wound But the British officers were more embarrassed by their loss of control than celebratory They quickly reformed ranks and set off for Concord The rest of the march was accompanied by even more warning shots By the time the British reached Concord the town s militia had been augmented by units from neighboring villages Yet initially they offered no resistance to the British troops marching through the center of town Their destination was James Barrett s house on the other side of the North Bridge about a half mile from the center of the village It was believed that the munitions were stored there Three companies were sent across the bridge and up the small hill to Barrett s house while three other companies remained at the bridge and kept a wary eye on the swelling militia watching from a nearby rise The morning may have passed without further event The companies searching Barrett s house found nothing of signi cance The British officers were anxious to get back to Boston without further event But then a re broke out downtown How it started no one is sure but the militia quickly concluded that the rest of the British force still in town searching buildings was torching their village As a result they ran to the bridge and opened re on the Redcoats barring their crossing The skirmish lasted only a few minutes killing two Americans and three British The rest of the British soldiers raced back into town rejoined the rest of their force and began the long march back to Boston Disorganized shocked by the exchange and tending to their wounded the American militia did not immediately follow the British troops But they were not too far behind At Meriam s comer about one mile east of Concord the militia caught the British and mounted the rst of the guerrilla attacks that would turn the Redcoats sixteen mile trip back to Boston into a nightmare Shooting from behind rocks and trees the Americans took a brutal toll on the retreating troops British of cers did what they could to guard their slowmoving column They sent out ankers to roust the ambushers the ghting between these and the militia was particularly brutal often hand tohand In several places the ankers managed to trap their American assailants between them and the British column where they became sitting ducks At Lexington moreover the retreating British column ran into a 1200 British troops sent out to reenforce them But by midaftemoon just about time the British reenforcements arrived another batch of militia from more distant villages began to pour in Some of the most intense ghting occurred after these fresh bodies joined the pursuing force Even with enforcements there would be no safety or rest for the British until they reached Charlestown around dusk By the time they reached their quarters in Boston they had lost 273 meni 73 killed 174 wounded and 26 missing Trenton and Princeton Dec 25 1776 Jan 3 1777 Washington had been humiliated in New York He had botched the defense of the city and been forced to ee with his army north along the Hudson with the British close on his heels He tried to slow their advance and redeem his reputation by strengthening the garrisons at Fort Washington and Fort Lee but the British took both fortsiWashington on 16 November and Lee on 19 November Washington next ed north to Peekskill then crossed the Hudson and doublebacked to the south toward the Delaware River British Generals Cornwallis and Howe followed in hot pursuit Cornwallis could have caught Washington s retreating army at New Brunswick but Howe typically ordered Cornwallis to slow his advance This enabled Washington to reach Trenton New Jersey on 7 December and cross the Pennsylvania River into Pennsylvania At this point Washington got clever he made sure to use every boat within miles When Howe reached Trenton the following day he had no way to cross For a week he scoured the New Jersey shore for boats But nding none he ordered his army into winter camp Small garrisons were left at Trenton Princeton and Bordertown but the majority of Howe s army was quartered in New York Washington could have sat safe for the winter But several considerations urged him toward action Almost half of his 3000man army was enlisted only through the end of the year they would soon be going home The other half suffered from sagging morale And according to his intelligence the Hessian troops stationed across the river in Trenton had taken few measures to fortify their position Therefore on 25 December Washington led 2400 men across the icy river and took the sleepy and Christmas cheer lled garrison by surprise After less than an hour of ghting the Hessians surrendered Only two Americans were killed more than 900 Hessian mercenaries were taken prisoner Washington returned to his camp on the other side of the Delaware River but believing that he could take another British winter camp he recrossed the Delaware on 31 December and occupied Trenton Meanwhile Cornwallis who had broken camp after hearing of Washington s Christmas surprise marched an army of 6000 men toward the Delaware When he pulled into Trenton Washington fell back to the banks of the river just as night fell Cornwallis being the typically over cautious British general that he was postponed his attack until the morning and sent his army to bed But while they slept Washington employed the old leavethecamp resbuming trick and slipped around the British army and marched on Princeton Cornwallis was awakened by the sound of ghting to the north He quickly roused his army but by the time they reached Princeton Washington had driven the British garrison from the town and was on his way Morristown New Jersey where he established an easily defended winter camp American victories at Trenton and Princeton could not have come at a better time After the disaster at New York the Patriots needed their morale boosted and Washington needed his credibility restored Within less than a week the American effort gained an entirely different complexion and the prospects for 1777 looked far more encouraging Campaign of Saratoga Sep 19 1777 Oct 17 1777 In 1777 ambitious General John Burgoyne convinced the British ministry that he could deal a devastating blow to the Americans by leading an army from Canada south through Lake Champlain and into the Hudson River valley while General Howe led an army up the Hudson River from New York Secretary of State Lord Germaine bought it and so in June 1777 Burgoyne departed Canada with a force of almost 8000 men By 7 July Burgoyne s army had taken Fort Ticonderoga and Skenesboro But the general aka Gentleman Johnny and Pomposo was as vain and unwise as he was ambitious He issued a statement condemning the Americans unnatural rebellion and threatening to turn the regions Indians loose on them Nothing could have better galvanized the militia resistance to him Burgoyne also dragged along an enormous baggage train that included 30 carts lled with his own supplies for example his mistress Another officer brought his wife and three daughters along for the adventure several others brought personal servants Therefore as Burgoyne39s army entered the dense woods below Skenesboro progress came to a grinding halt It took almost a month to travel the 25 miles to Stillwell on the Hudson and easier going But by then he was running short of supplies He sent a detachment to Bennington New York to commandeer provisions but they ran into John Starks and a force of New Hampshire militia recently inspired to fight at least partially by Burgoyne s outlandish proclamation At Bennington the entire British party was either killed or captured Burgoyne s men were exhausted and his army was short on supplies But he decided to press on toward Albany On 19 September however he ran into American General Horatio Gates and a rapidly growing force of Continental regulars and militia at Bemis Heights Burgoyne tried to break through the enemies line the first time on September 19 But suffering more than 600 casualties he was forced to withdraw Burgoyne dug in believing that it was just a matter of time before Howe sent reinforcements from the south But after three weeks of waiting and no reenforcements he decided to test the American lines again Pomposo however knew virtually nothing about the terrain or the American deployments As he advanced he suddenly realized his error and brilliantly brought his 1500 men to a halt in the middle of a wheat field At this point Daniel Morgan s ri emen peppered him from the woods on both his left and his right while Benedict Arnold led a dashing charge against the center of his stunned lines Burgoyne realizing all too late that he was in trouble fell back to Saratoga But by now the American forces had almost doubled as militia poured in from all directions Finally recognizing the impossible odds Burgoyne surrendered his entire army of almost 6000 men on 17 October Saratoga was devastating for the British cause The loss of 6000 men 27 canons 5000 small arms and the other remnants of Burgoyne s ridiculous baggage train was bad enough But the diplomatic consequences were even greater France who had been waiting for proof that the Americans might win before extending support rushed into action Not only were French officials convinced that the colonies might prevail they worried that Burgoyne s defeat might prompt conciliatory overtures from Britain to America The last thing France wanted was the war to end with anything but a crushing and colonysacrificing defeat for their historic enemy Therefore French diplomats quickly offered commercial and military alliance to the American colonies The battle also elevated the reputation of Horatio Gates Some even suggested that he should replace Washington at the top of the command structure That would not happen But his success encouraged those who appreciated his use of the colonial militia While other commanders including Washington had struggled with how to use the unpredictable and undisciplined militia in battle Gates used them effectively at Saratoga Monmouth Court House Apr 28 1778 The winter of 1778 was a hard one for the American troops at Valley Forge Dressed in rags short on food and crowded into makeshift huts they prompted Washington to send unusually blunt petitions to Congress for assistance Part of the problem was that the region was short on supplies and the provisions that did exist could command a better price if sold to the British hunkered down in Philadelphia only eighteen miles away But the American army s inefficient commissary and quarter master departments were also to blame Plagued by corruption and subject to frequent Congressional meddling the departments did a miserable job of supplying Washington s army By spring however reorganization of the supply departments had brought some relief to Washington s troops but morale was also improved by the training regimen established by the Prussian emigre William Augustus Henry Ferdinand Baron von Steuben Boasting lengthy but perhaps embellished military credentials he offered his services to Washington and the general appointed him inspector general Von Steuben embraced the task Although he spoke virtually no English he produced a training manual for the American troops and took personal charge of the drills at Valley Forge Loud and profaneihe did know how to curse in Englishihe entertained and won the respect of the men By the time Washington broke camp in May the Continental Army was a different beast On 20 May this new and improved army demonstrated its skills When several regiments under the command of the Marquis de Lafayette were cornered by British forces near Barren Hill Lafayette was able to maneuver the American troops out of trouble through a series of neatly performed marches and countermarches The far greater test came a month later at Monmouth Courthouse On 18 June British General Henry Clinton evacuated Philadelphia and marched 10000 men toward New York Washington set off in pursuit but ordered Charles Lee to take an advance guard forward to harass the tail of Clinton s long train Lee who had been captured in 1776 and recently freed in a prisoner exchange was reluctant to accept the assignment When he came into contact with the British rear guard commanded by Charles Cornwallis his lack of enthusiasm showed The Americans had a huge numerical advantage 5000 to 2000 but Lee provided his junior officers with virtually no direction and within minutes the Americans were in disorganized ight Informed that American forces had engaged the British ahead Washington rode forward to observe He was stunned then furious to discover his troops racing toward him in full retreat The famously eventempered Washington exploded in rage dressed down the incompetent Lee and assumed command of the eeing troops He established a defensive line in a well chosen spot high ground that could only be accessed by passing through either a swamp or some dense woods From there he commanded his quickly reordered troops as the British attacked Perhaps because they smelled blood once the American fell back in disarray or perhaps because they did not realize that with their new training all the American forces needed was solid leadership the British foolishly advanced against the wellpositioned American forces After several failed assaults Clinton removed his army from the field And that night it was the British army s turn to steal away under the cover of darkness Cowpens ampGuilford Court House January 17 1781 amp March 15 1781 After the disaster at Camden Nathaniel Greene was given command over America s southern army More prudent than Gates he avoided a direct confrontation with Cornwallis and his increasingly confident British troops Instead he sent Daniel Morgan to harass Britain s western posts and Henry Lee to disrupt the supply lines linking Comwallis s main army at Winnsborough to Charleston South Carolina Cornwallis decided to match force with force and dispatched the dashing and cruel Lt Col Banastre Tarleton to engage Morgan They met each other at Cowpens on 17 January a large meadow roughly 500 yards long and just as wide anchored at its southern end by two small hills about 70 yards apart The two forces were roughly equal in size Both had cavalry units and both supplemented their regulars with militia And both knew the reputation of the American militia Morgan however used this knowledge to better advantage At the front of his lines Morgan placed 150 sharpshooters Behind them he positioned 300 militia and behind them on the crest of the rst hill another 450 men Behind these between the rst and second hills Morgan positioned his small cavalry of about 125 horsemen Tarleton as expected sent his cavalry and infantry directly into the center of the Americans front line Morgan s sharpshooters red several rounds at the cavalry before retreating to the back line The American militia held their re until the infantry had advanced within musket range then they red two volleys before also falling back behind the rst hill as previously instructed The British believing that the American militia was retreating as usual pressed toward the center of the main American line at the top of the hill There they met stiff resistance from the forces deployed there Only the American right gave way and smelling blood the British poured through the opening But when they did they ran smack into blazing guns of the militia who had fallen back to other side of the hill At this point Greene also sent his cavalry hidden between the hills into the ank of the stunned enemy Tarleton managed to escape with about 50 others More than 100 British soldiers were killed and more than 800 prisoners were taken The Americans suffered fewer than 100 casualties and received a tremendous boost in morale In addition Cornwallis resolved to track Morgan down and he did at Guilford Courthouse By then Morgan had reunited with Greene bringing their combined forces to almost 4500 men In the battle fought on 15 March the British eventually won the eld but they suffered more than 500 casualties forcing Cornwallis to fall back to Wilmington until he could be re enforced with fresh troops The South was back in play Yorktown Aug 30 1781 Oct 19 1781 After the crushing defeat at Cowpens and the costly victory at Guilford Court British General Charles Cornwallis decided that the Carolinas could not be subdued until Virginia which had supplied militia and supplies to the Carolina Patriots was brought under control Therefore in April 1781 he marched his army out of Wilmington North Carolina and into Virginia There he rendezvoused with Banastre Tarleton and American tumcoat Benedict Arnold and continued the attack on Virginia s government initiated by Arnold in January when he burned the capital in Richmond But when Washington sent more troops to Virginia to reenforce the small army under the Marquis de Lafayette Cornwallis withdrew to the coastal town of Yorktown There he could better communicate with General Clinton in New York Words of Comwallis s coastal location reached American General Washington at an ideal time He had recently extracted a promise from French General JeanBaptiste rockpaperscissors Rochambeau to join him in an attack against the British in New York Even more recently French Admiral de Grasse had sent word that he had left the West Indies and expected to reach the Chesapeake with his eet of 29 ships and 3000 men by mid October Washington immediately dropped his plans for an attack against Clinton in New York and prepared to march the Continental and French armies to Virginia Washington s march to Virginia was logistically a thing of beauty He oversaw even the most minute details such as the selection of routes the repair of roads and bridges the commandeering of boats for river crossings and the arrangement of supply depots all ran through the general Even more cleverly he threw the British off the scent by leaving a token force to bang round New Jersey as though preparing for an attack on New York He repaired the bridges leading to the city as though they would soon be carrying heavy traf c he even had large bread ovens constructed for his faux army By the time Clinton realized that he had been duped and could send frantic word to Cornwallis Washington s army was past Philadelphia and making quick time Lafayette also played a critical role in the campaign he and his 4500 men hovered near Yorktown discouraging Cornwallis from moving his army This impediment to ight increased on 30 August when de Grasse reached Yorktown set up a naval blockade and added an additional 3000 troops to Lafayette s force Comwallis s situation was already grim by the time Washington arrived with the 7000 men he had brought from New York 2000 Americans and 5000 French as well as 3000 Virginia militia that he had gathered en route Cornwallis now faced a besieging army of 17500 men A sea escape was impossible given the size of de Grasse s eet ghting his way through Washington s forces by land would be even more suicidal Frantically he begged Clinton for help but like most British generals Clinton hesitated He eventually dispatched a small eet about twothirds the size of the French eet deployed at Yorktown and 7000 troops They reached the waters outside Yorktown on 24 October five days after Cornwallis had surrendered The American victory at Yorktown did not bring an immediate end to the war Clinton still had a large army in New York and King George could not stomach the thought of surrendering his colonies But the alreadyfading support for the war in Parliament dried up completely following news of Yorktown In February and March 1782 Parliament passed a series of measures calling for the end of the war and the negotiation of a peace settlement with America Key Events Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the Second Continental Congress states the reasons the British colonies of North America sought independence in July of 1776 The declaration opens with a preamble describing the document39s necessity in explaining why the colonies have overthrown their ruler and chosen to take their place as a separate nation in the world All men are created equal and there are certain unalienable rights that governments should never violate These rights include the right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness When a government fails to protect those rights it is not only the right but also the duty of the people to overthrow that government In its place the people should establish a government that is designed to protect those rights Governments are rarely overthrown and should not be overthrown for trivial reasons In this case a long history of abuses has led the colonists to overthrow a tyrannical government The King of Great Britain George III is guilty of 27 specific abuses The King interfered with the colonists39 right to selfgovemment and for a fair judicial system Acting with Parliament the King also instituted legislation that affected the colonies without their consent This legislation levied taxes on the colonists It also required them to quarter British soldiers removed their right to trial by jury and prevented them from trading freely Additionally the King and Parliament are guilty of outright destruction of American life and property by their refusal to protect the colonies borders their confiscation of American ships at sea and their intent to hire foreign mercenaries to fight against the colonists The colonial governments tried to reach a peaceful reconciliation of these differences with Great Britain but were continually ignored Colonists who appealed to British citizens were similarly ignored despite their shared common heritage and their just cause After many peaceful attempts the colonists have no choice but to declare independence from Great Britain The new nation will be called the United States of America and will have no further connections with Great Britain The new government will reserve the right to levy war make peace make alliances with foreign nations conduct trade and do anything else that nations do French Alliance of 1778 The Treaty of Alliance with France was the defensive alliance between France and the America formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War which promised military support in case of attack by British forces indefinitely into the future Delegates of King Louis XVI of France and the Key People George Second Continental Congress who represented the United States government at this time signed the treaty along with The FrancoAmerican Treaty of Amity and Commerce at the Hotel de Crillon in Paris on February 6 1778formalizing a FrancoAmerican alliance that would technically remain in effect until 1800 and the signing of the Treaty of Mortefontaine despite being annulled by the United States Congress in 17983 and the execution of King Louis XVI during the French Revolution Washington George Washington 173299 was commander in chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War 177583 and served two terms as the first US president from 1789 to 1797 The son of a prosperous planter Washington was raised in colonial Virginia As a young man he worked as a surveyor then fought in the French and Indian War 175463 During the American Revolution he led the colonial forces to victory over the British and became a national hero In 1787 he was elected president of the convention that wrote the US Constitution Two years later Washington became America39s first president Realizing that the way he handled the job would impact how future presidents approached the position he handed down a legacy of strength integrity and national purpose Less than three years after leaving office he died at his Virginia plantation Mount Vernon at age 67 Horatio Gates Horatio Lloyd Gates July 26 1727 7 April 10 1806 was a retired British soldier who served as an American general during the Revolutionary War He took credit for the American victory in the Battles of Saratoga 1777 7 a matter of contemporary and historical controversy 7 and was blamed for the defeat at the Battle of Camden 1780 Gates has been described as quotone of the Revolution s most controversial military figuresquot because of his role in the Conway Cabal which attempted to discredit and replace George Washington the battle at Saratoga and his actions during and after his defeat at Camden Nathaniel Greene Nathanael Greene August 7 OS July 27 1742 7 June 19 1786 frequently misspelled Nathaniel was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War known for his successful command in the Southern Campaign forcing British general Charles Cornwallis to abandon the Carolinas and head for Virginia When the war began Greene was a militia private the lowest rank possible he emerged from the war with a reputation as George Washington39s most gifted and dependable officer Many places in the United States are named for him Greene suffered financial difficulties in the postwar years and died suddenly of sunstroke in 1786 Benedict Arnold Benedict Arnold January 14 1741 OS January 3 17407 June 14 1801 was a general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army While a general on the American side he obtained command of the fort at West Point New York and planned to surrender it to the British forces After the plan was exposed in September 1780 he was commissioned into the British Army as a brigadier general Born in Connecticut Arnold was a merchant operating ships on the Atlantic Ocean when the war broke out in 1775 After joining the growing army outside Boston he distinguished himself through acts of intelligence and bravery His actions included the Capture of Fort Ticonderoga in 1775 defensive and delaying tactics despite losing the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain in 1776 the Battle of Ridgefield Connecticut after which he was promoted to major general operations in relief of the Siege of Fort StanwiX and key actions during the pivotal Battles of Saratoga in 1777 in which he suffered leg injuries that ended his combat career for several years Despite Arnold39s successes he was passed over for promotion by the Continental Congress while other officers claimed credit for some of his accomplishments Adversaries in military and political circles brought charges of corruption or other malfeasance but most often he was acquitted in formal inquiries Congress investigated his accounts and found he was indebted to Congress after spending much of his own money on the war effort Frustrated and bitter at this as well the alliance with France and failure of Congress to accept Britain39s 1778 proposal to grant full selfgovemance in the colonies Arnold decided to change sides and opened secret negotiations with the British In July 1780 he was offered continued to pursue and was awarded command of West Point Arnold s scheme to surrender the fort to the British was exposed when American forces captured British Major John Andre carrying papers that revealed the plot Upon learning of Andre s capture Arnold ed down the Hudson River to the British sloopofwar Vulture narrowly avoiding capture by the forces of George Washington who had been alerted to the plot Arnold received a commission as a brigadier general in the British Army an annual pension of 360 and a lump sum of over 6000He led British forces on raids in Virginia and against New London and Groton Connecticut before the war effectively ended with the American victory at Yorktown In the winter of 1782 Arnold moved to London with his second wife Margaret quotPeggyquot Shippen Arnold He was well received by King George III and the Tories but frowned upon by the Whigs In 1787 he returned to the merchant business with his sons Richard and Henry in Saint John New Brunswick He returned to London to settle permanently in 1791 where he died ten years later Because of the way he changed sides his name quickly became a byword in the United States for treason or betrayalHis con icting legacy is recalled in the ambiguous nature of some of the memorials that have been placed in his honor General William Howe William Howe was one of the British generals during the Revolutionary War He was born on August 10 1729 in England He was the illegitimate uncle of King George the Third who was the British king during the Revolutionary War Before he was sent to ght in the war Howe was sympathetic to the colonists But as a soldier he had to ght against them He came to the colonies on May 25 1775 as a Major General When he landed he led the British troops in attacking Breed39s Hill This battle became known as the Battle of Bunker Hill The Americans fought bravely but they eventually ran low on ammunition and the British nally captured the hill Many British soldiers died during the battle but General Howe led his troops well In 1776 General Howe and his troops began the battle for New York City In July they landed on Staten Island In August they fought against General George Washington in the Battle of Long Island The British won the battle but then they stopped instead of going to chase the Americans That let the Americans escape with their troops General Howe won the important battle of White Plains against George Washington but he made another mistake Again he did not chase the Americans and destroy the Continental Army He took his troops back to Fort Washington which they had passed They captured the Fort including 3000 prisoners and many supplies This was a bad loss for the Americans Then General Howe and his troops captured Fort Lee New Jersey across the river from New York City The British had captured all of New York General Howe liked staying in New York He did not ght for the first part of 1777 But when he did ght he beat George Washington in the Battle of Brandywine and then he took over Philadelphia He then wrote to England asking for permission to retire as CommanderinChief On April 14 1778 he got a letter telling him he could retire He sailed back to England and retired He died on July 12 1814 General John Burgoyne quotGentlemen J ohnny General John Burgoyne 24 February 1722 7 4 August 1792 was a British army of cer politician and dramatist He rst saw action during the Seven Years War when he participated in several battles mostly notably during the Portugal Campaign of 1762 Burgoyne is best known for his role in the American War of Independence During the Saratoga campaign he surrendered his army of 5000 men to the American troops on October 17 1777 A 39 J to J a force A 39 J to capture Albany and end the rebellion Burgoyne rr advanced from Canada but soon found himself surrounded and outnumbered He fought two battles at Saratoga but was forced to open negotiations with Horatio Gates Although he agreed to a convention on 17 October 1777 which would allow his troops to return home this was subsequently revoked by the Second Continental Congress and his men were made prisoners of war Burgoyne faced criticism when he returned to Britain and never held another active command Burgoyne was also an accomplished playwright known for his works such as The Maid of the Oaks and The Heiress but his plays never reached the fame of his military career He served as a member of the House of Commons of Parliament for a number of years sitting for the seats of Midhurst and Preston He is often referred to as Gentleman Johnny General Henry Clinton General Sir Henry Clinton KB 16 April 1730 7 23 December 1795 was a British army officer and politician best known for his service as a general during the American War of Independence First arriving in Boston in May 1775 from 1778 to 1782 he was the British Commanderin Chief in North America In addition to his military service due to the in uence of the 2nd Duke of Newcastle he was a Member of Parliament for many years Late in life he was named Governor of Gibraltar but died before assuming the post He came from a noble family that could trace its lineage to 1066 and had a long history of service to the Crown The son of George Clinton an admiral of the eet Henry had two sons who continued the family tradition of high command General Sir William Henry Clinton 176971846 and Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton 177171829 Baron von Steuben Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand von Steuben born Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin von Steuben September 17 1730 7 November 28 1794 also referred to as the Baron von Steuben1 was a Prussianbom military officer who served as inspector general and Maj or General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War He is credited with being one of the fathers of the Continental Army in teaching them the essentials of military drills tactics and disciplines2 He wrote the Revolutionary War Drill Manual the book that served as the standard United States drill manual until the War of 1812 He served as General George Washington39s chief of staff in the final years of the war The Critical Era Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 founding states that established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution1 Its drafting by the Continental Congress began in mid1776 and an approved version was sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 The formal ratification by all 13 states was completed in early 1781 Even when not yet ratified the Articles provided domestic and international legitimacy for the Continental Congress to direct the American Revolutionary War conduct diplomacy with Europe and deal with territorial issues and Native American relations Nevertheless the weakness of the government created by the Articles became a matter of concern for key nationalists On March 4 1789 the Articles were replaced with the US Constitution2 3 The new Constitution provided for a much stronger national government with a chief executive the president courts and taxing powers design the Articles were purposely designed to make establishment of such a government impossible Each state was guaranteed quotits sovereignty freedom and independence The general government was given certain responsibilities but no power to enforce its actions The Confederation Congress was empowered to declare war and make treaties but it had no army and could not levy taxes It had no authority to establish courts Although Congress could coin money each state also had this right Regulation of commerce and revenues was left to the states purpose The full name of the Articles of Confederation was Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union It was the written agreement that served as the constitution of the United States from 1781 to 1789 The purpose of the Articles was to provide a general government for the 13 colonies that had won their freedom from British rule and to bring about perpetual union of these new states successes The Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance created territorial government set up protocols for the admission of new states the division of land into useful units and set aside land in each township for public use To declare war and make peace To coin and borrow money To detail with foreign countries and sign treaties To operate post offices failures Traditional arguments and more recent views raising and maintaining a military Commerce between the states foreign relations money and raising taxes The national government could not force the states to obey its laws It did not have the power to taX It did not have the power to enforce laws Congress lacked strong and steady leadership There was no national army or navy There was no system of national courts Each state could issue its own paper money Each state could put tariffs on trade between states A tariff is a taX on goods coming in from another state or country Land Ordinances Northwest Ordinances also called Ordinances of 1784 1785 and 1787 several ordinances enacted by the US Congress for the purpose of establishing orderly and equitable procedures for the settlement and political incorporation of the Northwest Territoryiie that part of the American frontier lying west of Pennsylvania north of the Ohio River east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes this is the area known today as the American Midwest 1784 The Ordinance of 1784 drafted by Thomas Jefferson and passed by Congress divided the territory into a handful of selfgoverning districts It stipulated that each district could send one representative to Congress upon its attaining a population of 20000 and it would become eligible for statehood when its population equaled that of the least populous existing state 1785 The Ordinance of 1785 provided for the scientific surveying of the territory s lands and for a systematic subdivision ofthem Land was to be 39 J39 39J J J39 to ar 39 grid system the basic unit ofland grant was the township which was a square area measuring siX miles on each side A township could then be subdivided into a number of rectangular parcels of individually owned land The minimum land sale was set at one square mile 640 acres and the minimum price per acre was one dollar One section in each township was to be set aside for a school These procedures formed the basis of American public land policy until the Homestead Act of 1862 1787 Northwest Ordinance The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 the most important of the three acts laid the basis for the government of the Northwest Territory and for the admission of its constituent parts as states into the Union Under this ordinance each district was to be governed by a governor and judges appointed by Congress until it attained a population of 5000 adult free males at which time it would become aterritory and could form its own representative legislature The Northwest Territory must eventually comprise a minimum of three and a maximum of five states an individual territory could be admitted to statehood in the Union after having attained a population of 60000 Under the ordinance slavery was forever outlawed from the lands of the Northwest Territory freedom of religion and other civil liberties were guaranteed the resident Indians were promised decent treatment and education was provided for Under this ordinance the principle of granting new states equal rather than inferior status to older ones was rmly established The ordinances were a major accomplishment of the oftenmaligned government under the Articles of Confederation The Coming of the Constitution Emergence of Nationalists James Madison James Madison Jr March 16 1751 7 June 28 1836 was an American politician and political philosopher who served as the fourth President of the United States 180971817 and is considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States He was the principal author of the US Constitution and is often called the Father of the Constitution In 1788 he wrote over a third of the Federalist Papers the most in uential commentary on the Constitution The rst president to have served in the United States Congress he was a leader in the 1st United States Congress drafting many basic laws and was responsible for the rst ten amendments to the Constitution and thus is also known as the Father of the Bill of Rights As a political theorist Madison s most distinctive belief was that the new republic needed checks and balances to protect individual rights from the tyranny of the majority As leader in the House of Representatives Madison worked closely with President George Washington to organize the new federal government Breaking with Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton in 1791 Madison and Thomas Jefferson organized what they called the Republican Party later called the D quot P r quotquot Party in FF quot39 to key policies ofthe Federalists especially the national bank and the Jay Treaty He secretly coauthored along with Thomas Jefferson the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 to protest the Alien and Sedition Acts As Jefferson s Secretary of State 180171809 Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase doubling the nation s size and sponsored the illfated Embargo Act of 1807 As president he led the poorly prepared nation into the War of 1812 against Great Britain A series of disasters at the beginning of the war damaged his reputation but by 181415 American forces repulsed major British invasions the Federalist opposition fell into disarray and Americans felt triumphant at the end of the war During and after the war Madison reversed many of his positions By 1815 he supported the creation of the second National Bank a strong military and a high tariff to protect the new factories opened during the war Alexander Hamilton Though he never attained the highest of ce of his adopted country few of America s founders in uenced its political system more than Alexander Hamilton 17551804 Born in the British West Indies he arrived in the colonies as a teenager and quickly embarked on a remarkable career He was a member of the Continental Congress an author of the Federalist Papers a champion of the Constitution and the rst secretary of the Treasury where he helped found the rst national bank the US Mint and a tax collection bureau that would later become the US Coast Guard Troubled by personal and political scandals in his later years Hamilton was shot and killed in one of history39s most infamous duels by one of his ercest rivals the then Vice President Aaron Burr in July 1804 Mount Vernon Conference 1785 The rst direct step leading to the calling of a constitutional convention was the meeting at Alexandria in 1785 of conferees from Maryland and Virginia to discuss problems relating to navigation of the Potomac River The hospital Washington who as a planter on the river was personally interested in this controversy invited the delegates to Mount Vernon Agreements were reached there but feeling that similar problems were common to all the states the delegates recommended a general conference On January 21 1786 the General Assembly of Virginia proposed quota joint meeting of commissioners from the States to consider and recommend a federal plan for regulating commercequot and named ve commissioners among whom were James Madison and Edmund Randolph to attend Annapolis Convention Annapolis Convention 1786 interstate convention called by Virginia to discuss a uniform regulation of commerce It met at Annapolis Md With only 5 of the 13 statesiDelaware New Jersey New York Pennsylvania and Virginiairepresented there could be no fullscale discussion of the commercial problems the nation faced as a result of the weak central government under the Articles of Confederation The main achievement of the convention was the decision to summon a new meeting for the express purpose of considering changes in the Articles of Confederation to make the union more powerful An address was drawn up by Alexander Hamilton and was sent to all the states asking them to send delegates to Philadelphia in May 1787 The move was extraconstitutional but Congress passed a resolution urging attendance The call from Annapolis was heeded and delegates from 12 states met From that Federal Constitutional Convention was to emerge the Constitution of the United States Constitutional Convention of 1787 On May 25 1787 55 delegates representing every state but Rhode Island met at the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia which is now known as Independence Hall Notable delegates included George Washington Benjamin Franklin Alexander Hamilton and James Madison At first the convention was very secretive No members of the press were allowed to observe and no official journal of the proceedings were kept In fact chaperones were assigned to Ben Franklin at all times the eldest of the delegates who had a reputation for being talkative The chaperones assumed the responsibility for making sure that Franklin did not publicize the details of the debates 39 of the 55 delegates had served in the Continental Congress and were well aware of the restrictions placed on the national government by the Articles of Confederation They were convinced of the need for a stronger national government The vast majority of delegates entered the proceedings similarly convinced by their experiences under the Articles The first question facing the delegates was whether to attempt to amend the Articles of Confederation or to throw out the Articles and create a new framework of government The decision was made early on to create a new framework embodied in a new national constitution At this point the convention became known as the Constitutional Convention Once the drafting of the Constitution had begun it became clear that the major stumbling block to agreement on a governmental system would be achieving a balance between the needs of large and small states James Madison presented the first suggested framework of government which contained a solution to this con ict of interests in the Virginia Plan The Virginia Plan called for a strong unified national government rather than a loose confederation of states The Plan gave Congress unbridled powers of legislation and taxation and allowed Congress to veto state laws and use military force against the states The Plan further called for a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses based on state population The lower house would choose the members of the upper house from a pool selected by the state legislatures These houses would jointly name the president and federal judges The Virginia Plan met with staunch opposition especially in regard to the scheme for representation as proportional to population William Patterson a delegate from New Jersey presented an alternative to the Virginia Plan called the New Jersey Plan to counter Madison s proposal The New Jersey Plan called for a unicameral congress in which each state would have an equal number of seats This was the only main difference between the plans as both would strengthen the national government at the expense of state power The debate over representation resulted in a long impasse that held up the proceedings of the convention for weeks Finally the delegates from each state agreed to assign one member to a quot grand committeequot which would decide the issue once and for all On July 17 1787 the committee approved the Connecticut Compromise which gave each state an equal vote in the upper house and made representation in the lower house proportional to population The remaining debates went far more smoothly and the decisions regarding the executive and judicial branches were fairly unanimous On September 17 1787 the new Constitution was approved by the convention and sent to the states for ratification Federalists vs AntiFederalists The creation of the Constitution entailed hours of debate and compromise and even when it was completed some delegates were unhappy with it The task of fixing the ailing Confederate government was not complete yet each state had to ratify or approve the Constitution Basically people divided into two groups the Federalists and the AntiFederalists Each of their viewpoints is worth examining as they both have sound reasoning The AntiFederalists did not want to ratify the Constitution Basically they argue that It gave too much power to the national government at the expense of the state governments There was no bill of rights The national government could maintain an army in peacetime Congress because ofthe necessary and proper clause wielded too much power The executive branch held too much power Of these complaints the lack of a bill of rights was the most effective The American people had just fought a war to defend their rights and they did not want a intimidating national government taking those rights away again The lack of a bill of rights was the focus of the AntiFederalist campaign against ratification The Federalists on the other hand had answers to all of the AntiFederalist complaints Among them The separation of powers into three independent branches protected the rights of the people Each branch represents a different aspect of the people and because all three branches are equal no one group can assume control over another A listing of rights can be a dangerous thing Ifthe national government were to protect specific listed rights what would stop it from violating rights other than the listed ones Since we can39t list all the rights the Federalists argued that it s better to list none at all Overall the Federalists were more organized in their efforts By June of 1788 the Constitution was close to ratification Nine states had ratified it and only one more New Hampshire was needed To achieve this the Federalists agreed that once Congress met it would draft a bill of rights Finally New York and Virginia approved and the Constitution was a reality Interestingly the Bill of Rights was not originally a part of the Constitution and yet it has proved to be highly important to protecting the rights of the people Constitution as a document To resolve these problems delegates from most of the states met at the Annapolis Convention in 1786 When nothing was resolved they agreed to reconvene in 1787 at a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia At this second convention it was quickly decided that an entirely new constitution was needed rather than just a revision to the Articles A major point of contention was the structure of the new legislative branch Small states supported the New Jersey Plan under which all states would have equal representation in the legislature Large states advocated the Virginia Plan to create a bicameral twohouse legislature in which representatives would be appointed according to population The Great Compromise among the states created a bicameral Congress in which states would be equally represented in the Senate and proportionally represented in the House of Representatives The framers of the Constitution believed strongly in checks and balances and separation of powers to prevent any one branch of government from ever becoming too powerful As a result the new government would also have a strong executive branch and an independent judiciary branch The Electoral College First to balance the roles of the small states and the large states In the electoral college each state gets 1 elector per representative and senator As the House of Representatives is based on population that gives a degree of in uence to the larger states However each state has the same number of senators which gives the small states a degree of in uence Second the constitutional convention did not believe that a national electorate really would have sufficient information and knowledge about the candidates to intelligently vote The Constitution was written at a time when there was no intemet no television no radio no telephone and no telegraph The primary method of communication between communities was by mail For the most part what a resident of Savannah Georgia knew about what was going on in Philadelphia or New York depended on the contacts of the local newspapers The framers thought that letting the state legislatures pick a group of informed citizens to participate in the election of the president was the best way of getting a somewhat knowledgeable vote Third even with that the framers really did not expect too many clear choices to emerge other than the rare George Washington The rules that the constitutional convention established two votes per elector with no more than one from any state were meant to serve as a mechanism for nominating candidates with the House to actually choose the President and VicePresident This part of the reasoning failed as the framers did not think that national parties would form They were wrong As a result the rules got changed after the election of 1800 This last reason intended to make the nal choice of the President rest with Congress in most elections is why the electoral college was not designed to strengthen the executive branch The framers thought as the only popularly elected part of the government the House of Representatives would be the strongest quotbranchquot Threefifths compromise Threefifths Clause During the framing of the Constitution Southern delegates argued that slaves should count toward representative seats while the delegates of northern states most of which had or would soon abolish slavery argued that to count slaves as members of the population would grant an unfair advantage to the southern states The result of this debate was the adoption of the Threefifths Clause which allowed threefifths of all slaves to be counted as people New Jersey Plan The New Jersey Plan was presented at the Constitutional Convention as an alternative to the Virginia Plan The New Jersey Plan favored small states in that it proposed a unicameral Congress with equal representation for each state Virginia Plan The Virginia Plan was the first major proposal covering representation presented to the Constitutional Convention It proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population The Virginia Plan favored the large states who would have a much weightier voice than the small states under this plan The small states proposed the New Jersey Plan in opposition Connecticut Compromise Ending weeks of stalemate the Connecticut Compromise reconciled the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan for determining legislative representation in Congress The Connecticut Compromise established equal representation for all states in the Senate and proportional representation by population in the House of Representatives First New Government Issues creating the structures of the government The Articles of Confederation stipulated that all thirteen states had to ratify any new constitution for it to take effect To circumvent this hurdle the delegates included in the new Constitution a section outlining a new plan for ratification Once nine of the thirteen states had ratified the document at special conventions with elected representatives the Constitution would replace the Articles in those nine states The delegates figured correctly that the remaining states would be unable to survive on their own and would have to ratify the new document as well Federalists vs AntiFederalists Debates erupted throughout the states about whether the new Constitution was an improvement On one side were the Federalists who favored the Constitution and a strong central government The Federalists counted among their number many of the wealthier propertied and more educated Americans including John Adams George Washington Benjamin Franklin James Madison and Alexander Hamilton among others On the other side were the AntiFederalists who favored a weaker central government in favor of stronger state legislatures Not all of them liked the Articles of Confederation but none of them wanted the new Constitution to be ratified Generally from the poorer classes in the West but also with the support of patriots like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry the AntiFederalists feared that a stronger national government would one day destroy the liberties Americans had won in the Revolution They worried that the new Constitution didn t list any specific rights for the people Financial reform Hamilton s Financial Package Funding and Assumption Hamilton wanted his measures to establish confidence in the new US government at home and abroad His proposal stipulated that Congress would have to fund the entire debt at par which meant that the federal government would pay back all borrowed money with interest Hamilton believed that funding the debt at par would send a signal that the United States was a responsible new member of the international community and a safe environment for speculators to invest their money He also believed that a sizeable national debt would prevent states from drifting from the central government and thus bind them together However Hamilton s ideas seemed ludicrous to many Secretary of State Jefferson for instance believed that a large national debt would be a national curse that would depress poor farmers and ruin the economy To the dismay of the J effersonians assumption and funding at par both worked as foreign investment began to boost the edgling US economy The Excise Tax of 1790 To raise money to pay off these debts Hamilton suggested that Congress levy an excise tax on liquor However because farmers often converted their grain harvests into liquor before shipping since liquor was cheaper to ship than grain many congressmen from southern and western agrarian states believed that the excise tax was a scheme to make northern investors richer A compromise was finally reached in 1790 Congress would assume all federal and state debts and levy an excise tax to raise revenue In exchange the nation s capital would be moved from New York City to the new federal District of Columbia in the South Rise of opposition Thomas Jefferson and Madison Rise of J effersonian Republicans The argument over the 1st Bank of the United States Hamilton then set out to create a national Bank of the United States which would serve as a storehouse for federal money but also be funded by private investments This proposal infuriated Secretary of State Jefferson and sparked even more of a debate than had the Reports on the Public Credit the elastic clause The controversy over the national bank stemmed from differing interpretations of the Constitution s elastic clause which grants Congress the power to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper to carry out its duties Hamilton believed this clause justi ed creation of the national bank Jefferson believed that the bank was unconstitutional and stripped power from the individual states Strict Construction versus Loose Construction The Electoral College unanimously chose George Washington to be the first president with John Adams as vice president Soon after the new secretary of the treasury Alexander Hamilton wanted to repair the national credit and revive the economy by having the federal government assume all the debts of the individual states He also wanted to establish a national Bank of the United States The Constitution said nothing about a national bank but Hamilton believed that the Constitution allowed many unwritten actions that it did not expressly forbid Thomas Jefferson the secretary of state and a strict constructionist believed that the Constitution forbade everything it did not allow These ideological differences within Washington s cabinet formed the basis of what later became full edged political partiesithe Hamiltonian Federalists and the Jeffersonian DemocraticRepublicansp Rise of the first political parties The Constitution said nothing about a national bank but Hamilton believed that the Constitution allowed many unwritten actions that it did not expressly forbid Thomas Jefferson the secretary of state and a strict constructionist believed that the Constitution forbade everything it did not allow These ideological differences within Washington s cabinet formed the basis of what later became full edged political partiesithe Hamiltonian Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic Republicans The constant debates between Hamilton and J effersoniand their own personal animosity for each otherisplit the cabinet and Congress during Washington s presidency and eventually led to the maturation of the Federalists and the DemocraticRepublicans into distinct political parties Though Federalist and AntiFederalist factions had formed during the debate over ratification of the Constitution neither were full edged political parties until Hamilton and Jefferson polarized political opinions in Congress and Washington s cabinet meetings At the time political parties were looked down upon and viewed as undemocratic and even disloyal in the wake of the Revolution Many including Washington believed that pa1ties would only split the Union and destroy everything that Americans had worked so hard to achieve Today in contrast political pa1ties are regarded as essential components of any thriving democracy The Whiskey Rebellion Despite the passage of the Indian Intercourse Acts beginning in 1790 Native Americans frequently raided American settlements west of the Appalachians until federal troops crushed several tribes in the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 Later when farmers in western Pennsylvania threatened to march on Philadelphia to protest the excise tax on liquor in 1794 Washington dispatched 13000 federal troops to crush the insurgents The Whiskey Rebellion however ended without bloodshed The domestic turbulence and foreign clashes of the late 1780s caused many Americans to grow discontented with their new governmentia problem that was only exacerbated by the passage of Hamilton s excise tax in 1790 Because most farmers converted their grain harvests to alcohol before shipping the tax placed a heavy burden on their alreadyempty pocketbooks In reaction a small band of Pennsylvania farmers initiated the Whiskey Rebellion against the government in 1794 to redress grievances and seek change Rumors of insurrection and another revolution circulated from the West through the countryside until they reached lawmakers in Philadelphia In response Washington organized an army of 13000 and marched them to western Pennsylvania Upon arrival however the troops found that the shocked and awed rebels had already disbanded This first true test of the new federal government did much to demonstrate Washington s willpower and the government s authority The struggle to stay neutral Views on the French Revolution of 1789 Few other international events had such a profound impact on the United States as the French Revolution which began in 1789 when the French overthrew King Louis XVI Thomas Jefferson and many other Americans rejoiced that the French were continuing the revolutionary cause to plant democracy in Europe Jefferson believed that a firm friendship with republican France would benefit both countries However when the revolution turned bloody heads literally began to roll and war erupted between France and Britain American public opinion became split Though most of Jefferson s supporters believed the United States should still honor the 1778 FrancoAmerican alliance more conservative Americans such as Alexander Hamilton thought the United States should seek an alliance with London Washington s Neutrality Proclamation After a heated debate over whether the United States should ally itself with France or Britain Washington finally ended the debate when he issued his Neutrality Proclamation in 1793 The proclamation pledged mutual friendship and the desire to trade with both nations Citizen Genet and the French in uence The neutrality issue was not closed for the French however France s ambassador to the United States Edmond Genet or Citizen Genet as he preferred to be called violated Washington s neutrality order by commissioning US privateers to ght for France and trying to make arrangements to use US ports in the war effort against Britain The Citizen Genet affair as it came to be called caused such outrage that Genet was recalled as ambassador He chose to remain in the country however and ultimately even became a US citizen Jefferson displeased and embarrassed by Genet eventually resigned his cabinet post in part over the affair Anthony Wayne and the Battle of Fallen Timbers Jay Treaty To prevent another war with Britain Washington dispatched Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Jay to London in 1794 to negotiate a settlement Under Jay s Treaty Britain agreed to withdraw its troops from the Ohio Valley and pay damages for American ships that the Royal Navy had seized illegally The United States meanwhile agreed to pay outstanding preRevolutionary War debts The treaty greatly displeased the Jeffersonians who believed that the United States was cozying up to Britain and thought the treaty required horrendous concessions Pinckney Treaty A year later in 1795 Pinckney s Treaty ended the disputes with Spain The agreement gave Americans access to the Mississippi River in exchange for promises of nonaggression against Spanish territory in the West Hamiltonians disapproved of this treaty as much as the Jeffersonians disapproved of J ay s Treaty The two sides compromised by ratifying both treaties QuasiWar The QuasiWar was an undeclared war fought mostly at sea between the United States and French Republic from 1798 to 1800 In the United States the con ict was sometimes also referred to as the FrancoAmerican War the Undeclared War with France the Undeclared Naval War the Pirate Wars or the HalfWar The XYZ Affair Adams wanting to avoid open war with France sent ambassadors to Paris in 1797 to negotiate peace and normalize relations When the emissaries arrived however French officials demanded a 250000 bribe before they would even speak with the Americans let alone guarantee a truce These officials whom Adams dubbed X Y and Z outraged Congress and the American public The XYZ Affair prompted many to cry Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute Adams s popularity skyrocketed and Congress braced for war Although no war declaration was ever made the United States and France waged undeclared naval warfare in the Atlantic for several years Shortly before he left office several years later Adams negotiated an end to the fighting in exchange for ignoring damages to seized cargos France agreed to annul the FrancoAmerican alliance John Adams and the struggle with Hamiliton and the High Federalists High Federalists 1795 Upon John Adams election to presidency and Hamilton s subsequent resignation from the Treasury the Federalist party split into two sections the supporters of John Adams and the supporters of Alexander Hamilton High Federalists The High Federalists were fervent supporters of Alexander Hamilton s policies sharing practically all of the same beliefs as the Federalist party in general the desire for a national bank the desire for a strong central government and the use of the elastic clause The distinguishing desire of the High Federalists however was their desire to go to war with the French When John Adams refused to go to war High Federalists scorned and accused him of obstructing the United States preparation for war afterwards officially splitting from the Federalist party This split however injured the Federalists after losing the election of 1800 to Thomas Jefferson the Federalist party gradually declined eventually disappearing during Andrew Jackson s presidency Had the High Federalists not split from the Federalist party John Adams may have won the election of 1800 and the Federalist party may have thrived for decades to come Jefferson as President The fallout from the Alien and Sedition Acts dealt a serious blow to John Adams and the Federalists Despite the Sedition Act s attempt to suppress free speech DemocraticRepublicans rallied around the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Also damaging to the Federalists was the internal power struggle between the president and Alexander Hamilton The two had been opponents within the Federalist Party for years but cut all ties with each other when Adams chose to negotiate peace with the French in 1800 The ideological rift split the party in two and ruined Adams s chances for reelection In the election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson and New Yorker Aaron Burriboth DemocraticRepublicansi received the same number of Electoral College votes The Federalist Congress therefore had to determine which of their hated rivals would become the next president After much debate Congress chose Thomas Jefferson The Revolution of 1800 Despite the viciousness of the campaign there were no revolts or riots when the Democratic Republicans took office Such a peaceful transition of power from one party to another was almost unprecedented in history Indeed many historians call the election of 1800 the Revolution of 1800 7a crucial moment that confirmed that the new nation would survive Contemporary Europeans who had believed that the American experiment would ultimately fail were also temporarily quieted Jefferson in office West Point Ideas for a national institution for military education were circulated during the American Revolution In May 1801 the Secretary of War Henry Dearbom announced that the president had appointed Major Jonathan Williams grandnephew of Benjamin Franklin to direct organizing to establish such a school118 Following the advice of George Washington John Adams Alexander Hamilton and others119120 in 1802 Jefferson and Congress agreed to authorize the funding and construction of the United States Military Academy at West Point on the Hudson River in New York On March 16 1802 Jefferson signed the Military Peace Establishment Act directing that a corps of engineers be established and quotconstitute a Military Academyquot The Act would provide welltrained officers for a professional army On July 4 1802 the US Military Academy at West Point formally started as an institution for scientific and military learning War with Tripoli The First Barbary War was an undeclared war waged by the United States against the North African states of Morocco Tripoli Algiers and Tunis The principle cause of the war was that those states harbored and supported the actions of pirates against American shipping vessels in the Mediterranean Sea The war which lasted from 1801 to 1805 did not completely end the acts of piracy against American vessels but it did prove that the United States was capable of waging war if necessary in places far from its own shores Louisiana Purchase Despite his belief in limited government Jefferson seized the opportunity in 1803 to buy the vast expanse of the Louisiana Territory from France France had reacquired the territory from Spain in 1801 but Napoleon s costly war in Europe forced him to consider selling the land Jefferson fearing that the French would revoke US access to the major Mississippi River port of New Orleans sent James Monroe to Paris to offer 10 million for New Orleans alone Napoleon however in need of money offered the entire Louisiana Territory for 15 million and Monroe agreed Although the Constitution said nothing about the purchase of new lands Jefferson swallowed his pride and accepted the Louisiana Purchase The new territories included presentday Louisiana Arkansas Missouri Minnesota North Dakota South Dakota Nebraska and Kansas as well as parts of Montana Wyoming Colorado and Oklahomaiall for a mere 15 million Not only was the purchase the best real estate deal in history by far it also established a precedent for purchasing lands to expand the United States farther westward Marbury v Madison One of the justices William Marbury sued Madison for his appointment and the case eventually reached the Supreme Court in 1803 Chief Justice John Marshall a diehard Federalist sympathized with Marbury but believed that Jefferson would never adhere to a ruling against Madison Therefore Marshall ruled in Marbury v Madison that although Marbury was entitled to the judgeship the Supreme Court could not force the president to give it to him Although the Judiciary Act of 1789 had given the Supreme Court this power Marshall s ruling effectively declared that act unconstitutional Marshall thus simultaneously gave Jefferson his victory and strengthened the Supreme Court with the power of judicial reviewithe right to declare Congress s laws unconstitutional British and French power Trafalgar The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined eets of the French and Spanish Navies during the War of the Third Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars Austerlitz Battle of Austerlitz also called Battle of the Three Emperors Dec 2 1805 the first engagement of the War of the Third Coalition and one of Napoleon s greatest victories His 68000 troops defeated almost 90000 Russians and Austrians nominally under General MI Kutuzov forcing Austria to make peace with France Treaty of Pressburg and keeping Prussia temporarily out of the antiFrench alliance J ena Auerstadt The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt older name Auerstadt were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the river Saale in today39s Germany between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia The decisive defeat suffered by the Prussian Army subjugated the Kingdom of Prussia to the French Empire until the Sixth Coalition was formed in 1812 Embargo When the British warship HMS Leopard entered American territorial waters and impressed several Americans from the merchant ship USS Chesapeake in 1807 Jefferson was outraged Fed up with Britain s and France s refusal to accept US sovereignty Jefferson convinced Congress to pass the Embargo Act that same year to punish both nations The Embargo Act forbade American ships from sailing to all foreign ports until Britain and France agreed to respect American shipping rights Jefferson s plan back red however for he failed to realize that American merchants needed trade with Europe more than European merchants needed trade with America Economic depression struck the United States very hard but Jefferson refused to rescind the Embargo Act even when it became evident that it was failing The act was repealed only in 1809 two days before Jefferson left office NonIntercourse Act Congress s first order of business in 1809 was to repeal the hated and ineffective Embargo Act which had prevented US ships from sailing to foreign ports Congress replaced this act with the NonIntercourse Act which banned trade only with Britain and France until both agreed to respect American sovereignty and shipping rights Macon s Bill Number 2 restored US trade relations with Britain and France but promised to reinstate the NonIntercourse Act if either nation violated US shipping rights Berlin DecreeampMilan Decree 1806 and 1807 Berlin decree Napoleon declared his own paper blockade of the British Isle and barred British ships from ports under French control Milan decree ruled that neutral ships that complied with the British orders in council were subject to seizure when they reached continental ports This was Napoleon39s quotContinental systemquot This helped lead to the War of 1812 IT was harassment of US neutrality Put the US in an awkward spot either orders decrees they followed they would be in trouble with the other OrdersinCouncil edicts that closed European ports to foreign shipping unless they stopped first in a British port Battle of Tippecanoe Congress fearing a Native American uprising ordered the governor of the Indiana Territory William Henry Harrison to disband the Northwest Confederacy Indeed Harrison soundly defeated the Confederacy at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811 William Henry Harrison In 1809 the native populations became fierce in their resistance They were led by Tecumseh who proved to be a tenacious adversary In 1811 Harrison received permission to attack Tecumseh and his confederacy but before he could fully proceed on November 7 the Indians attacked Harrison39s camp on the Tippecanoe River Harrison and his men repelled the attacked but sustained 190 dead and wounded The stand at Tippecanoe would do little to stem the Indian revolts but it would serve as a touchstone for Harrison and his future political career The call for quotTippecanoe and Tyler tooquot would echo throughout his and running mate John Tyler39s 1840 campaign becoming the most famous political saying in US history During the War of 1812 Harrison further built his reputation commanding the army in the Northwest defeating the British and Indian forces and killing Tecumseh at the Battle of the Thames north of Lake Erie This sent the Indians scrambling for good and their presence in the region would never again pose a threat War Hawk Congress Regionalism vs Federalism Akin to the growing sectionalism in the United States was the emerging power struggle between regionalism and federalism President Jackson was the embodiment of federal power Though a Democrat he firmly believed that the federal government should have the final say over the states He also demonstrated on numerous occasions that he felt the presidency to be the strongest of the three branches of government On the other hand sectional politicians were emerging as well Henry Clay from Kentucky became the voice of the West lobbying to improve western infrastructure to facilitate transportation and help the growing agricultural economy Clay s ally Daniel Webster from Massachusetts was the primary advocate for the North campaigning for infrastructure as well as higher protective tariffs to help Northern manufacturers The primary voice of the South was the states righter John C Calhoun Henry Clay As a leading war hawk in 1812 he favored war with Britain and played a signi cant role in leading the nation to war in the War of 18121 In 1824 he ran for president and lost but threw his electoral votes to John Quincy Adams who made him secretary of state as the Jacksonians denounced what they considered a quotcorrupt bargain He ran and lost again in 1832 and 1844 as the candidate of the Whig Party which he founded and usually dominated John C Calhoun With a base among the Irish or Scotch Irish Calhoun won his first election to Congress in 181018 He immediately became a leader ofthe quotWar Hawksquot along with Speaker Henry Clay and South Carolina congressmen William Lowndes and Langdon Cheves They disregarded European complexities in the wars between Napoleon and Britain and brushed aside the vehement objections of New Englanders they demanded war against Britain to preserve American honor and republican values 19 Clay made Calhoun the acting chairman of the powerful committee on foreign affairs On June 3 1812 Calhoun s committee called for a declaration of war in ringing phrases The episode spread Calhoun39s fame nationwide Warithe War of 18127was declared but it went very badly for the poorly organized Americans whose ports were immediately blockaded by the British Royal Navy Several attempted invasions of Canada were fiascos but the US did seize control of western Canada and broke the power of hostile Indians in battles in Canada and Alabama By the 1810s many of the older and more experienced representatives and senators in Congress had been replaced by young and passionate new faces It was these hotheaded War Hawks primarily from southern and western states who had ordered Harrison to take military action against the Northwest Confederacy As frontiersmenpoliticians the War Hawks were strongly expansionist and the Confederacy offered the perfect excuse to drive Native Americans even further west The War Hawks also clamored for a new war against Britain citing Britain s impressment of US sailors seizure of American ships and cargos and refusal to withdraw troops from the Louisiana Territory The War Hawks also hoped that victory in a new war would win Canadaiand perhaps even Florida if Spain tried to help Britainifor the United States Although President Madison hoped to avoid war he eventually caved to pressures from the War Hawks and requested that Congress declare war against Britain in June of 1812 Madison and the War of 1812 In many ways the war went badly for the United States As a result of Jefferson s belief in frugal government the US Navy had been pared down to only a few gunboats and the Army was similarly meager Though American forces had some success in the Northwest they were unable to push through the British blockade ofthe eastern ports or prevent the burning of Washington DC in 1814 For most of 1814 the war remained a stalemate The Treaty of Ghent Unfortunately for the Hartford delegates their petition arrived in Washington too late just after news broke that the war had ended Britain and the United States weary of being stuck in a costly con ict that was more or less a stalemate had signed the Treaty of Ghent to end hostilities The treaty essentially stipulated that neither side had gained or lost any territory and it made no mention of impressments or the illegal seizure of ships For obvious reasons none of the Hartford Convention s demands were granted The Battle of New Orleans Oddly the most famous battle of the War of 1812 was fought two weeks after the peace treaty was signed General Andrew Jackson who had not yet received word of the treaty led US troops to a resounding victory in early January 1815 at the Battle of New Orleans Legacy ofthe War of 1812 Despite the sectional divides and the overall futility of the war the United States emerged from the War of 1812 with a newfound sense of enthusiasm and national pride Though the nation had neither lost nor gained territory Jackson s smashing victory at New Orleans gave the nation a previously unknown feeling of confidence To Americans the battle proved once and for all that the United States was an independent nation not just a rogue colony For this reason many historians refer to the War of 1812 as America s second war for independence Destruction of the Federalist Party A major factor was the war of 1812 The Federalist party for a long time supported peace with Britain and war with France whereas the DemocraticRepublican party had the exact opposite position Eventually British behavor towards the US during its war with France caused antiBritish and thus antiFederalist sentiment Quoting the Wikipedia regarding the first point Britain used her navy to prevent American ships from trading with France with which Britain was at war The United States which was a neutral nation considered this act to be against international law Britain also armed Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory and encouraged them to attack settlers even though Britain had ceded this territory to the United States by treaties in 1783 and 1794 Most insulting though was the impressment of seamen as the Royal Navy boarded American ships on the high seasAn angry public elected a war hawk Congress led by such luminaries as Henry Clay and John C Calhoun The war start with territorial ambitions on the American side but ended in status quo ante bellum Nevertheless it was deemed as a great success a quotsecond war of independencequot and a great wave of patriotism surrounded American victories In particular General Andrew Jackson became a national hero which helped him becoming a president in 1829 Especially important in the collapse of the Fedaralist party was the Hartford Convention of 18141815 This mostly Federalist convention in New England ended up suggesting some constitutional amendments but was alleged to consider the secession of New England from the Union and a separate peace with Britain After the war the convention was widely viewed as an act of treason and a black mark on the reputation of the Federalist party The Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States which expressed Arminian theology by which every person could be saved through revivals It enrolled millions of new members and led to the formation of new denominations Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the Second Coming of Jesus Christ An Age of Nationalism The Era of Good Feelings The Era of Good Feelings marked a period in the political history of the United States that re ected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars 2nd Bank of the United States The Second Bank was founded after the War of 1812 when it was realized that without a national bank the charter on the first bank was allowed to lapse it would be impossible to fund another war such as the one just fought Founded in 1816 the building was finished in 1818 National Road veto The Maysville Road veto was a famous veto by US President Andrew Jackson It is one of the most important events in the history of federalism in the United States The incident took place in 1830 The Maysville Road bill provided for the federal government to buy 150000 in stock in a private company to fund a 60 mile road connecting the towns of Maysville and Lexington an extension of the Cumberland and National Roads The US Congress passed the bill with a 103 to 87 vote in the House of Representatives Jackson vetoed the bill arguing that federal subsidies for internal improvements that were located wholly within a single US state were unconstitutional Jackson even said that he did not oppose the road but simply wanted the state to fund it and not the federal government Following this veto were seven more vetoes of public works projects including roads and canals This dealt a blow to the American System of Henry Clay Tariff of 1816 After the war of 1812 British competitors dumped their goods onto America at cheap prices so America responded with the Tariff of 1816 the first in US history designed for protection which put a 2025 tariff on dutiable imports First protective tariff becomes a sectional issue viewed to protect Northern industry at expense of the South Because south never developed industry most of cotton sold to England and England would surely retaliate about the protective tariff by their own protective tariff It was not high enough but it was a great start and in 1824 Henry Clay established program called the American System John Quincy Adams The following is a list of some of President John Quincy Adams s accomplishments Supported infrastructural and educational improvements in the shape of federal projects like road and canal building a national university and a national bank but was met with stiff opposition from supporters of Andrew Jackson in Congress Signed the quotTariff of Abominationsquot in 1828 which protected American manufacturers but raised prices on many goods especially in the South Renowned as one of America s greatest diplomats before his presidency and one of American s greatest congressmen after his presidency but was not a particularly effective president Monroe Doctrine Monroe is most famous for the foreign policy doctrine that bears his name Devised by John Quincy Adams the 1823 Monroe Doctrine warned European powers to stay out of the New World and stated that the region was closed to further colonization In return the United States would not interfere with Europe s affairs and would recognize all existing European colonies in the New World The doctrine also pledged Monroe s support for the growth of democracy throughout the western hemisphere Impact of the Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine undoubtedly Monroe s greatest contribution as president has become one of the defining features of American foreign policy Ironically it was the British who first proposed the doctrine to John Quincy Adams for they wanted to protect their West Indian colonies from other European powersi and secretly to curb US expansion in the Caribbean Sensing Britain s motives Adams encouraged Monroe to issue the doctrine on his own which would give the United States more freedom than a joint USBritish declaration would Ultimately however the British supported the Monroe Doctrine as issued and much of the Doctrine s authority came from the Royal Navy s vigorous enforcement of it Florida Purchase Treaty AdamsOnis Treaty or Great Continental Treaty Spanish minister Do Luis de Onis and US Secretary of State John Quincy Adams sign the Florida Purchase Treaty in which Spain agrees to cede the remainder of its old province of Florida to the United States Spanish colonization of the Florida peninsula began at St Augustine in 1565 The Spanish colonists enjoyed a brief period of relative stability before Florida came under attack from resentful Native Americans and ambitious English colonists to the north in the 17th century Spain s lastminute entry into the French and Indian War on the side of France cost it Florida which the British acquired through the first Treaty of Paris in 1763 After 20 years of British rule however Florida was returned to Spain as part of the second Treaty of Paris which ended the American Revolution in 1783 Spain s hold on Florida was tenuous in the years after American independence and numerous boundary disputes developed with the United States In 1819 after years of negotiations Secretary of State John Quincy Adams achieved a diplomatic coup with the signing of the Florida Purchase Treaty which officially put Florida into US hands at no cost beyond the US assumption of some 5 million of claims by US citizens against Spain Formal US occupation began in 1821 and General Andrew Jackson the hero of the War of 1812 was appointed military governor Florida was organized as a US territory in 1822 and was admitted into the Union as a slave state in 1845 John Marshall and the Supreme Court Marshall served as Chief Justice during all or part of the administrations of six Presidents John Adams Thomas Jefferson James Madison James Monroe John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson He remained a stalwart advocate of Federalism and a nemesis of the Jeffersonian school of government throughout its heyday He participated in over 1000 decisions writing 519 of the opinions himself He helped to establish the Supreme Court as the final authority on the meaning of the Constitution in cases and controversies that must be decided by the federal courts26 His impact on constitutional law is without peer and his imprint on the Court39s jurisprudence remains indelible Fletcher v Peck 1810 Protected the permanence of legal contracts and established the Supreme Court s power to overrule state laws Dartmouth College v Woodward 1819 Protected the right of private institutions to hold private contracts without state government interference McCulloch v Maryland 1819 Declared the Bank of the United States constitutional and upheld Hamilton s loose interpretation of the Constitution McCulloch v Maryland was perhaps the most in uential of Marshall s rulings because it legitimized Hamilton s belief that the Constitution had been loosely constructed to allow the federal government to act in the best interests of the people Marshall s decision thus gave future presidents and congresses a green light to enact a wide variety of legislation in accordance with the spirit of the Constitution Likewise Marshall s Cohens v Virginia ruling was highly in uential because it helped establish the Supreme Court as the highest law of the land Cohens v Virginia 1821 Established that the Supreme Court had the power to review decisions by the supreme courts of the individual states Gibbons v Ogden 1824 Upheld the federal govemment s authority to control interstate commerce Erie Canal A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo completed in 1825 The canal considered a marvel of the modern world at the time allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West DeWitt Clinton The Rising Tide of Sectionalism Panic of 1819 A string of crises toward the end of Monroe s first term quickly dampened those good feelings however The first crisis hit in 1819 when overspeculation in western lands caused a financial panic The Panic of 1819 quickly cascaded into a fullscale depression The Bank of the United States was hit hard and many ybynight wildcat banks in the West went bankrupt Although all Americans were hit hard farmers suffered the most Hundreds were thrown into debtors prisons and poverty was rampant until the economy finally recovered nearly a decade later Cotton Gin Eli Whitney was the inventor of the cotton gin and a pioneer in the mass production of cotton Whitney was born in Westboro Massachusetts on December 8 1765 and died on January 8 1825 He graduated from Yale College in 1792 By April 1793 Whitney had designed and constructed the cotton gin a machine that J the J quot of J from the shortstaple cotton fiber Missouri Compromise Another crisis arose in 1819 when Missouri applied for admission to the Union as a slave state Even though Missouri met all of the quali cations the northemdominated House of Representatives denied the territory statehood because they did not want to tip the sectional balance in favor of the South eleven free states to twelve slave states The House also passed the Tallmadge Amendment later in 1819 declaring that no new slaves could be taken into Missouri and that slaves already there should gradually be freed Southerners outraged at these northern attempts to eliminate slavery blocked the Tallmadge Amendment in the Senate Congress was deadlocked over the issue for months until Henry Clay orchestrated the Missouri Compromise In exchange for admitting Missouri as an unrestricted slave state Southerners agreed to admit Maine as a free state thus preserving the sectional balance The compromise also declared slavery illegal north ofthe 360 3039 parallel west of Missouri The Republicans Split National Republicans vs Democratic Republicans The DemocraticRepublicans split into two groups the National Republicans led by Adams and Clay while the DemocraticRepublicans were organized by Martin Van Buren National Republicans The Election of 1824 The Era of Good Feelings was de nitely over by the time the 1824 election rolled around Controversy over the Missouri Compromise and Monroe Doctrine combined with the depression that followed the Panic of 1819 undermined national unity Five candidatesiall of them Democratic Republicaniran for the presidency that year Initially Secretary of State John Quincy Adams was the strongest candidate Also popular was Speaker of the House Henry Clay Then in the summer of 1824 General Andrew Jackson threw himself into the race Although he had little political experience he became the dominant candidate because he was the most popular man in the country In the end Jackson received more popular votes than the others but no candidate won enough electoral votes to become president The Rise of Jackson Jackson portrayed himself as a friend of a common man he was wealthy landslave owning and a lawyer Supported democracy and expansion of suffrage to white males Start of quotmudslingingquot in campaigns Jackson s supporters accused Adams of gambling and was nicknamed quotThe Pimpquot National Republicans accused Jackson of murder treason gambling and his war actions Accused his mother of being a prostitute Accused his wife of being a adulteress and a bigamist When she died Jackson forever accused JQA and his supporters The Election of 1828 Jackson ran again in 1828 for the DemocraticRepublicans by this time known simply as the Democrats Adams ran against Jackson as a National Republican but lost after carrying only New England Jackson who had appeal with the common men of America took all of the West and South In reality Jacksonior Old Hickory as many called himiwas a wealthy slave owner lawyer and general who had almost nothing in common with the average westemer Still his reputation as a fighting frontiersman and his military prowess proved more popular than the stuffy Adams from New England July 4 1776 Declaration of Independence is Approved by Congress Independence is proposed on June 9 by Richard Henry Lee Less than a month later on the most celebrated day in the nation s history Thomas Jefferson39s Declaration of Independence is adopted by Congress November 17 1777 The Articles of Confederation are Adopted by Congress The Articles of Confederation brought to Congress on July 12 1776 are officially adopted and sent to the states for ratification March 1 1781 The Articles of Confederation Become Law Maryland is the last state to ratify the Articles of Confederation and they become the law of the land September 3 1783 The Treaty of Paris is Signed After nearly a year of peace talks the Treaty of Paris is nally signed officially granting the US its independence May 20 1785 The Ordinance of 1785 is Passed The Ordinance of 1785 establishes the protocol for settlement of western lands 1786 Chief Joseph Brant Organizes an Alliance of the Northwest Tribes Chief Joseph Brant allies the tribes of the northwest wilderness in an effort to resist white settlement on Indian lands August 1786 Outbreak of Shays39 Rebellion Western Massachusetts farmers under the pressures of economic depression organize in an attempt to shut down three county courthouses through violent means The rebellion is put down but highlight the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation September 11 14 1786 The Annapolis Convention Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce delegates from five states meet at Annapolis and end up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation May 25 September 27 1787 The Constitutional Convention Delegates of every state but Rhode Island meet in Philadelphia to discuss the amendment of the Articles of Confederation Though it was not their original intent they decide to scrap the Articles and produce the Constitution laying out a new framework of government July 131787 The Northwest Ordinance is Passed The Northwest Ordinance defines the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory July 17 1787 The Connecticut Compromise is Approved by the Constitutional Convention Ending weeks of stalemate the Connecticut Compromise reconciles the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan for determining legislative representation in Congress The Connecticut Compromise establishes equal representation for all states in the Senate and proportional representation by population in the House of Representatives September 17 1787 The Constitution in its Final Form is Approved by the Constitutional Convention The Constitutional Convention officially endorses the Constitution and sends it to the states for ratification June 21 1788 New Hampshire Becomes the Ninth State To Ratify the Constitution Having been ratified by twothirds of the states the Constitution becomes the law of the land June 25 1788 Virginia Ratifies the Constitution Following nearly a year of intense debate Federalists win out in Virginia which ratifies the Constitution July 26 1788 New York Ratifies the Constitution Following Virginia39s lead New York ratifies the Constitution The two states represent the most crucial states to the functioning of the Union their ratification ensures the success of the Constitution March 4 1789 The First Congress Under the Constitution Convenes in New York The first Congress convenes symbolizing the beginning of a long period of working out the details of the new government April 30 1789 George Washington is Inaugurated Washington the nation39s first president takes the Oath of Office January 1790 Alexander Hamilton presents his Report on Public Credit to Congress Hamilton suggests the national assumption of state debt the sale of US government bonds and the establishment of a permanent national debt Though met with opposition his measures pass in Congress December 1790 Alexander Hamilton presents his Report on a National Bank to Congress Hamilton39s most controversial proposal he suggests the creation of the Bank of the United States as a depository for federal revenue and a source of federal loans The bank is granted a twentyyear charter in February 1791


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