Introduction to Sociology
Introduction to Sociology SOC 1013
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Willis Pfannerstill on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1013 at University of Texas at San Antonio taught by Ginny Garcia in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/231332/soc-1013-university-of-texas-at-san-antonio in Sociology at University of Texas at San Antonio.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
N E 4 What is Sociology What constitutes society A social science used to understand the patterns of human behavior in society A scientific way to think about society and its in uence on humans 7 it is an integrated science of society Social structure and Social institution constitute society Who are the major sociological theorists and what were their contributions Structural Functionalism Sociology s 1St and most dominant until the 1970 s theoretical perspective 7 it was developed by Auguste Comte The social world can be studied in the same way as the physical world positivism Society is an organic system homeostatic nature Herbert Spencer 18201903 developed an analogy for society that systematically compared it with organisms Each one independent and rely on others in order to maintain balance Emile Durkheim 18581917 made several basic assumptions What function does it serve Ex Crime poverty If something exist it serve function Social Evolutionary Explains the origin of parts of societies Based on the premise that societies having characteristics that enable them to better adapt to their physical and social environments have a better chance for survival than those that fail to develop such characteristics Con ict Karl Marx 1818 1883 posited that that the degree of inequality in the distribution of resources in a society creates con ict between those who have and those who do not have access to resources Max Weber 18641920 criticized Marx and argued that several other sources of con ict exist including Positions of political power party Occupancy in advantaged economic positions class Membership in highranking social circles status groups Key Concepts Inequality inherent due to the interests of the owning class inherently unfair Power ability of a person or group to exercise in uence and control over others What were the ideas developed during the Enlightenment Positivists society could be studied using the natural sciences Humanitarianism human reason can direct social change for the betterment of society Symbolic Interaction Theoretical perspective claiming that people act toward things because of the meaning things have for them Ex 24 a 0 we an ad w an 1 am V39 O Ex Tattoo 4443 um C93 51 UM J 43 wm 33 5 U33 DJSd 5313 gymquot 43 Herbert Bluiner coined the tenn symbolic interaction Rational Choice TheoryExchange Theory Rational Choice Proposition When faced with choices humans try to select the most rational or reasonable option de ned as the one that will yield them the maximum bene t Within the limits of their information and available choices guided by their preferences and interests humans will tend to maximize Ex Driving in traffic Skip the line to save the time Save gas EJUIYL JJJ 553 Exchange theory Theory which seeks to explain the processes by which people see to maximize by exchanging rewards with one another If an exchange between two persons is voluntary then an exchange will not take place unless both partners believe they will bene t from it 7 Adam Smith af rational choice EX up amuwwwmwmwwmmw Kyljtfge Agata budge Mbld i What are the differences between primary and secondary data Primary M3lomatk Seconday m3lomat mn m9dr thany Be familiar with the following concepts Social Structure Organized pattern 0 of social relationships and institutions that together constitute society Sociological Imagination The ability to see the link between incidents in the lives of individuals and large social forces C Wright D any group characteristic they Mills in uence our behavior in much the same way physical structures channel our movements D Example sex ratio age composition D 0 Social Institution Established and o Cyberspace Interaction Nonverbal organized systems of social behavior communication is eliminated with a recognized purpose B One is free to become a different D Relatively permanent patterns or self I clusters of specialized roles groups organizations customs and activities devoted to meeting fundamental social needs Anonymity allows a new kind of relationship in society 1 Social Norms the rules governing behavior The principles or rules of social life that people are expected to observe normal behavior Paralinguistic Communication The component of communication that is conveyed by the pitch and loudness of the speaker s voice its rhythm emphasis and frequency and the D Most all of us want to be seen as frequency and length of hesitations normal so we adjust our behavior to D It is not what you say but how you be perceived as such say it D Nomis vary across cultures D Norms change over time D Examples premarital sex online interactions phone usage 0 Macro sociology Macro sociology 7 0 Scienti c Method Sociological addresses comparisons among larger research derives from the scienti c groups eg states method The analysis of large scale social Sociological research does not systems such as the political order necessarily proceed in a sequence of or economic system rigid steps Does not focus on everyday Sociological studies may be based on interactions surveys observations and other forms of analysis but they always depend on an empirical foundation 0 Micro sociology addresses 0 Spurious Relationship interactions among individuals and Situation that appear two variable small groups relationships could explain by third variable Ex Ice cream sales goes up when the temperature become high 0 Social Interaction A behavior 0 Variable between two or more people that is Variable anything that varies or given meaning changes Ex Hair color 7 religion Humans are forced into exchange Independent variable cause Ex Race relations because they seek rewards Dependent variable effect Ex from one another children 7 obesity If the reward for an interaction Example a lack of physical activity is exceeds the punishment a potential correlated with higher rates of obesity for social profit exists and the interaction is likely to occur EX 03393 3 ly l o Manifest Function o Involution D Manifest Functions those known societies sometimes decrease their to and intended by the social actor survival capacities in response to D 53 Cl z l L43 95le 4 dun various conditions D Ancient Egypt Greece China and Rome