Drugs and Society
Drugs and Society BIO 1033
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Chapter 1 Psychoactive drugsHistory and Classification History of psychoactive drugs Historically people have chosen to alter their perception of reality with substances To alter states of consciousness To reduce pain Forget harsh surroundings Alter a mood Explore feelings Promote social interaction Escape boredom Treat a mental illness Stimulate creativity Enhance the senses Five Historical Themes of Drug Use Human beings have a basic need to cope with their environment and existence Human brain chemistry affected by psychoactive drugs induce an altered state of consciousness or mood Commercial standpoint Governments and businesses have been involved in cultivating manufacturing distributing taxing and prohibiting drugs Technological advances refining and synthesizing drugs increased the potency of these substances Efficient and faster methods of drug delivery to intensify the effects II PREHISTORY amp THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD 85004000 BC Prehistoric lifedangerous and mysterious environment Inflict pain or death rapidly Brutal weather Predatory animals Aggressive enemy tribes Abusive relatives Lifethreatening diseases mostly infectious diseases They constantly search for ways to control these dangers Draw cave pictures Build more complex societies cities Worship gods Fasted danced chanted selfhypnosis selfinflicted pain meditated performed rituals and ceremonies PREHISTORY amp THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD 8500 4000 BC Early man lived in a dangerous and mysterious environment that could inflict pain or death rapidly Brutal weather Predatory animals Aggressive enemy tribes Abusive relatives Lifethreatening diseases mostly infectious diseases They constantly search for ways to control these dangers Draw cave pictures Build more complex societies cities Worship gods Fasted danced chanted selfhypnosis selfinflicted pain meditated performed rituals and ceremonies II PREHISTORY amp THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD 8500 4000 BC cont d By chance or by experimentation Ingesting certain plants ear 11nd anxiety reduce pain treat some illnesses give pleasure and let them talk 0 go 5 Use of medicinal and psychedelic plants 50000 years ago Used mostly in shamanic religions the shaman is a combination of priest doctor and a key figure in these religions to contact spirits and gods Use of drugs spread though tribal migrations Brought to America about 1000015000 years ago More than 4000 plants yield psychoactive substances although only about 150 have historically been used Most predominant opium marijuana coca tea coffee tobacco and plants that ferment into alcoho Alcohol has been the most popular drug over the millennia as foodmedicinedrug Consumption of fermented foods and learned how to ferment alcoholic beverages thus assuring the supply m A NCIENT CI VILIZA TIONS 4000 BCAD 400 Nomadic tribes start to settle into small agricultural communities Powerful civilizations mainly where the land was fertile river valleys Tigris and Euphrates in the Middle East and Nile in Egypt The earliest crops were wheat and barley used to make bread and beer Asian civilizations used rice as food and to make wine Some ancient cultures also cultivated opium poppy and hemp plant Cannabis or marijuana As people began to migrate explore trade and conquer other lands they carried their drugs to other cultures m A NCIENT CI VILIZA TIONS 4000 BCAD 400 Alcohol Alcohol use dates from the earliest civilizations Sumeria in ancient Mesopotamia Many ancient civilizations considered alcohol and wine a gift from the gods Osiris gave wine to the Egyptians Dionysus to Greeks and Bacco to Romans Rice wine was the drink of masses in ancient China and Japan Written proof of attempts to regulate and control alcohol use and abuse in several civilizationsworks Ancient Babylonia code of Hammurabi India Vedas China first tax on alcohol Egypt hieroglyphic Greek and Roman societies The Bible has more than 150 references to alcohol often warnings Ancient Egypt Warnings ha whirl Mime Make not thyself helpless in drinldnginthe iii Allah we will it beerahop For will not the words ofthyreportr epeated g h l inlh 39 7 any without Lby um than has Sh out Imm month knowing ttcred them mhlllll life th Fannig down thy limbs willbebtoken and Z The 3 3239 Ml no one will give thee 11112353 ligelll as for thy lc llilll l Pgl ii Pf if companions in the willing ofbccr they willgel up 1 ilht KR mm and say Outside with this drunkard 7 Egyptian hieroglyphic from 1500 BC advising moderation in barley beer drinking and avoidance of other compulsive behaviors III ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS 4000 BC AD 400 Opium Opium was used by ancient Sumerian people Mesopotamia Pain relief treatment of cough diarrhea Psychological effects of euphoria and sedation Early Egyptian medical texts refer to it as a medicine and as a poison In Greece Hippocrates the father of Medicine recommended opium as a painkiller and treatment for female hysteria In Rome excised tax on opium provided about 15 of the city s revenue in 312 AD 793 stores sold opium III ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS 4000 BC AD 400 Cannabis marijuana Hemp plants historically prized as a source of fiberoil edible seeds and as a medicine As an analgesic and pain killer for surgery China For constipation rheumatism absentmindedness malaria beriberi female disorders and wasting diseases Used for its stupefying and hallucinogenic properties China In India it was considered a sacred plant that gave freedom from distress In Eastern Europe about 500 BC Scythians threw Cannabis into hot stones placed in small tents and inhaled the vapors The Greek physician Galen wrote about its use to stimulate enjoyment and promote hilarity III ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS 4000 BC AD 400 Mescal Bean San Pedro and Peyote Cacti mescaline Appeared in preColumbian Mesoamerica Religious use of mescaline in Peru dates back 3300 years Dozens of hallucinatory psychedelic plants in North and South America complex ceremonies overseen by shamans Other South American cultures consumed pe ote cactus to produce hallucinations and communicate wit the supernatural Evidence in Texas demonstrate use of peyote cactus about 3000 years ago Mostl ceremonial use their foul taste and nauseating effects kept t em from everyday use III ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS 4000 BC AD 400 Psychedelic mushrooms Mostly in India Siberia and Mesoamerica In 1500 BC in India the Amanita muscaria mushroom also called fly agaricquot was used The Mayan and Aztec cultures in preColumbian Mexico and Central America preferred the use of Psiocybin mushroom The main active hallucinogenic ingredients are psilocybin and psilocin III ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS 4000 BC AD 400 Coca Leaf and Tobacco in Mesoamerica Evolutionaril the development of plants containing stimulant alkaloids to acco nicotine and coca leaves cocaine occurred 65 250 million ago This bitter alkaloids were the plant s natural way to keep animals away About 5000 BC humans started drinking chewing snorting and possibly smoking tobacco mainly for stimulation uring religious ceremonies About 50003C humans started chewing coca leaves for stimulation nutrition and to control appetite Other mild stimulant plants that have been popular in early times Eml de the betel nut the coffee bush the khat shrub and the ephedra us IV MIDDLE AGES 4001400 Psychedelic Hexing Herbs Members of the nightshade family Solanacea including belladona henbane mandrake root mandragora jimson weed or datura thornapple contain the psychoactive chemicals atropine and scopolamine Used by medicine men and also by women who were later accused of witchcraft IV MIDDLE AGES 400 1400 Psychedelic Mold Ergot St Anthony39s Fire A brownish purple fungus Ca Viceps purpurea Grows on infectedcontaminated rye or wheat Contains lysergic acid diethylamide the natural form of LSD There have been numerous outbreaks of ergot poisoning over the centuries In France in 944 AD about 40000 people died from an ergotism epidemic Symptoms include hallucinations convulsions permanent insanity burning sensation in extremities extreme delirium and gangrene Middle Ages 400 1400 From Medicine to Psychoactive Drug to Poison At low dosesmedicine At moderate intermediate doses display psychoactive effects At high doses become a poison Problem with addiction Problem with tolerance Problem with overdose IV MIDDLE AGES 4001400 Alcohol and Distillation Alcohol consumption Middle Ages as cultural attitudes bounced between abstention temperance and bingeing Christianity in its early days celebrated its faith with banquets of wine and bread Problem with alcohol increased and then wine was used only as a symbol Inevitable drinking became a moral cause Alcohol as a preservative because alcohol kills bacteria that live in water alcoholic drinks were often the only safe liquids to drink Technical advances in cultivation and purification distillation of alcohol made a difference in consumption alcoholic content raised from 14 to 40 whiskey distillation in Ireland the XII Century IV MIDDLE AGES 4001400 Islamic Substitutes for Alcohol Wine was not used as a sacrament in Islam and drinking of wine was frowned upon Through centuries temperance gave way to prohibition Opium tobacco hashish concentrated Cannabis khat and particularly coffee were employed as substitutes for alcohol in Islamic countries to provide stimulation but also as medicines IV MIDDLE AGES 4001400 Coffee and Tea caffeine Coffee Coffea arabica was originally discovered growing wild in Ethiopia about 850 AD used medicinally during the fourteenth century During the later Middle Ages coffee was made more potent once people learned how to roast and grind the beans Tea from the leaves of Thea sinensis was supposedly used in China 4700 years ago There are approximately other 60 plants that contain caffeine such as guarana mate yoco kola nut and cocoa IV MIDDLE AGES 400 1400 Cultivation and use of the coca leaf continued during the years 200800 AD The Incan nobility in South America Peru carried their precious supply of coca leaves in ornate bags The Aztec Huichol Cora and other Indians of Mexico were still using psychedelic plants and mushrooms for their rituals Cheeks stuffed with cocada Columbian carving V RENAISSANCE amp THE AGE OF DISCOVERY 1400 1700 Two general trends European explorers and traders encountered diverse cultures and unfamiliar psychoactive drugs Coffee from Turkey and Arabia Tobacco and coca from the New World Tea from China Kola nut from Africa Similarly the explorers carried their own culture39s drug using customs and drugs to the rest of the world Urbanization greater secularization spreading wealth and growing personal freedom also increased use V RENAISSANCE amp THE AGE OF DISCOVERY 1400 1700 Alcohol Laws limiting the use of alcohol particularly high potency distilled beverages were aimed at controlling intoxication and alcohol poisoning Laws were aimed at temperance rather than prohibition Closingtime laws established in England and Switzerland Limited sales on religious days The increasing availability of distilled beverages provided hefty tax revenues V RENAISSANCE amp THE AGE OF DISCOVERY 1400 1700 Coca and the Conquistadors The Spanish conquistadors appropriated the Inca coca plantations Control production and keep the natives supplied with the stimulant Subjugated natives work harder in the fields and mines Coca chewing increased dramatically as did revenue from the trade Tax revenues from the coca trade helped pay for the colony But many Spaniards oppossed its use particularly missionaries V RENAISSANCE amp THE AGE OF DISCOVERY 1400 1700 Tobacco crosses the Oceans In 1492 Christopher Columbus noted used of tobacco by the natives They used it as medicine for a variety of ailments Spain and England started exporting tobacco to Europe Sir Walter Raleigh introduced tobacco smoking for recreation to the court of Queen Elisabeth Portuguese sailors introduce tobacco to Japan and China The debate about tobacco and addiction starts However over the centuries craving for tobacco and the addictive qualities of nicotine have overwhelmed most calls for prohibition V RENAISSANCE amp THE AGE OF DISCOVERY 1400 1700 Coffee and Tea Coffee drinking became widespread in Europe first among wealthy classes then as quantities increased and prices declined among middle and lower classes Coffee became a favorite drink also as an alternative to alcohol Coffeehouses became centers of social intellectual political and literary discussion Dutch traders introduced tea to Europe in 1610 The popularity of tea increased until it became the center of social interaction ie afternoon tea V RENAISSANCE amp THE AGE OF DISCOVERY 1400 1700 Opium During the Renaissance Theriac one of the opium preparations came into favor again as a medicine for the treatment of many illnesses In 1524 Paracelsus returned to Western Europe from Constantinople with the secret of Laudanum a tincture of opium in alcohol It was used as a panacea or cureall medication It was readily available cheap and soon used and abused in all strata of society A medicine that could kill pain and made one euphoric was highly prized in any society VI AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT amp THE EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1700 1900 o Refinement of drugs 0 New methods of production 0 Intake Government39s and merchant39s economic motives all led to greater use 0 More mental physical and social problems including abuse and addiction VI AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT amp THE EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1700 1900 Distilled liquors and the Gin Epidemic Beer and wine have some nutritional value but distilled spirits have virtually no nutritional component Distilled liquors gin whiskey with their higher alcohol content led to epidemics of drunkenness and alcoholism The English Parliament encouraged production and consumption of gin Urban alcoholism and mortality rate skyrocketed leading to the London Gin epidemic from 17101750 Only stiff taxes and the strict regulation of sales brought the epidemic under control During the latter half of the eighteenth century rum and whiskey was a mainstay of the economy of colonial America London Gin Epidemic VI AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT amp THE EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1700 1900 Tobacco Hemp and the American Revolution Nicotiana tabacum Virginia leaf became a financial mainstay for the southern colonies Virtually all tobacco was chewed or smoked in pipes or cigars Tobacco helped finance the American Revolutionary War Sculptures of tobacco leaves and flowers were used to decorate columns in the US Capitol building King Geor e II of England encouraged the plantation of hemp to establis an Amerlcan textile and rope industry George Washington cultivated hemp at his Mount Vernon plantation Until the Civil War hemp was the second largest crop behind cotton in the South however it was no longer profitable after the civil war VI AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT amp THE EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1700 1900 Nitrous Oxide The first anesthetic called anodyne a liquid form of ether was discovered in 1730 by Hoffman a German physician Inhaling a gas instead of smoking became more popular after Joseph Priestly discovered nitrous oxide NO or laughing gasquot in 1776 Several other gases such as chloroform were developed for anesthesia Later in the nineteenth century the refinement of various hydrocarbons fossil fuels into volatile solvents increased the range of substances that could be inhaled VI AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT amp THE EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1700 1900 Opium to Morphine to Heroin Mostly used before as a medicine Technical and economic development lead to habituation abuse and addiction Some of the technical developments were Smoking as a way to use opium increased amounts in blood and brain via the lungs more quickly and intensifies the effects Refinement of Morphine from opium by Seruner a German pharmacist in 1804 morphine is 10 times more powerful than opiumincrease tolerance and dependence Refinement of Heroin diacetyl morphine from Morphine in 1874 at St Mary39s hospital in London Bayer commercialized it for coughs chest pains and tuberculosis rapidly progressed to abuse and addiction Invention of the hypodermic needle to inject drugs directly into the blood more intense effects bypass the natural barriers that protect the body from infection VI AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT amp THE EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1700 1900 Opium to Morphine to Heroin Economic and political factors the Opium Wars England as a colonial power went to war against China which had prohibited opium to defend free tradequot to enforce the right to sell opium it grew in India to Chinese traders England was granted Hong Kong greater trade concessions and the right to sell opium VI AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT amp THE EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1700 1900 From Coca to Cocaine In 1859 Albert Nieman isolated the alkaloid cocaine from the coca leaf It became 200 times stronger it went from being a mild to a very powerful stimulant intense and addictive rush followed by ecstatic feelings and a physical stimulation This is the prime example of the effects of drug refinement Various medical and commercial developments popularized cocaine As a topical anesthetic Cocaine wine as a medicinal tonic Sigmund Freud promoted its use for a number of illnesses to feel better and relieve depression VI AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT amp THE EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1700 1900 Temperance and Prohibition movements The first temperance movement was started in the US in 1785 by Dr Benjamin Rush as advice for moderate drinking of beer and wine instead of hard liquors In 1826 businessmen who needed sober and industrious workers created the American Temperance Society By the end of the nineteenth century The Women s Christian Temperance Union and the antiSaloon League among others led the Temperance movement which later became the Prohibition movement into the twentieth century VI AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT amp THE EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1700 1900 OPIATES amp COCAINE IN PATENT MEDICINES amp PRESCRIPTION DRUGS Many over the counter medicines sold at the turn of the twentieth century were loaded with opium morphine cocaine Cannabis and usually alcohol Manufacturers did not have to list ingredients or back their claims The majority of addicts to opium and morphine in the Victorian era were women their male physicians overprescribed psychoactive medications iatrogenic addictionaddiction caused by medical treatment CocaCola contained about 5 mg of cocaine VII TWENTIETH CENTURY FROM PIPES 8 SMOKELESS TOBACCO TO CIGARETI39ES As governments and businesses exploited legal psychoactive drugs tea coffee alcohol and tobacco they became readily available to the masses The automatic rolling machine a milder strain of tobacco advertising mostly marketed to women young people and those who wanted to lose weight a more plentiful supply of the leaf and better cigarrette paper vastly expanded the market for cigarettes By the 3930s excised taxes on cigarettes provided a rich source of revenue for federal and state governments Smoking was considered socially acceptable In 1964 and 1967 the Surgeon General issued reports that concluded Cigarette smoking is a health hazardquot VII TWENTIETH CENTURY DRUG REGULATION In the United States regulation started in early in the twentieth Century The Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 prohibited interstate Sommerce in misbranded an adulterated foods drinks and rugs The Opium Exclusion Act 1909 encouraged the gradual reduction of opium production worldwide and eventual ban on smoking The Harrison Narcotic Act 1914 controlled the sale of opium opium derivatives and cocaine in the United States by requiring to pay a federal tax Creation of the Food and Drug Administration FDA 1930 Result eliminate over the counter availability of opiates and cocaine in the US Unwanted results Prescription drug diversion and development of a huge illicit drug trade VII TWENTI ETH CENTURY ALCOHOL PROHIBITION amp TREATMENT Early in the 20th century about half the budget came from taxes on liquor in the US It took 13 months to ratify the Eighteenth Amendment Prohibition in 1919 prohibiting the manufacture and sale of any beverage with an alcohol content above 05 Volstead Act 1920 It only took just 10 months to repeal Prohibition 13 years later Prohibition did help control a number of health and social problems but it created a new coalition of smugglers the Mafia and crooked police involved in the sale of illicit alcohol Alcoholics Anonymous AA a spiritual program that teaches alcoholics 12 steps to recovery was founded in 1934 by two alcoholics Bill Wilson and Dr Bob Smith Alcoholism as a disease not a moral weakness VII TWENTI ETH CENTURY MARIJUANA FROM DITCHWEED TO SINSEMILLA Marijuana smoking first detected in Texas about 1910 The federal response to marijuana was the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act which banned Cannabis sativa marijuana The use of marijuana was also a symbol of youthful rebellion against parents against authority and even against the war in Vietnam The sinsemillagrowing technique 1970 increased the concentration of THC tetrahydrocannabinol the active psychedelic ingredient About 250 million users of marijuana worldwide in 1960 VII TWENTIETH CENTURY AMPHETAMINES IN WAR amp WEIGHT LOSS First synthesized in 1887 as methamphetamine in 1919 but medicinal use started in 1930 as a decongestant Benzedrine Stimulating effects on CNS and the drug was often used non medically to stay awake or induce euphoria During World War II American British German and Japanese army doctors dispensed amphetamine to fight fatigue and increase aggression The appetitesuppressant anorexic qualities led to the massive use of amphetamines as diet drugs in the 39505 and 605 Amphetamines were also the fuel for the hippie movement and the Summer of Love in 1967 The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 passed but the street market grew VII TWENTI ETH CENTURY SPORTS amp DRUGS The cold war inflamed athletic competition between the Free World and the Communistbloc countries Olympics durinlg 50s and 60s The use of anabolic androgenic ster0Ids stimu ants and other performanceenhancing drugs became widespread By 1968 the International Olympic Committee IOC had de ned performanceenhancmg drug use made a lIst of banned substances and began drug testing as did the NCAA 12 years later Still a problem Underground steroid network in gyms Baseball Football Track and Field Cycling Other sports VII TWENTI ETH CENTURY SEDATIVEHYPNOTICS amp PSYCHIATRIC MEDICATIONS Advances in Pharmacology Drugs can be synthesized rather than having to rely on extracts from natural products The first major group of sedativehypnotics the barbiturates were used to induce sleep and calm anxiety Later on benzodiazepines came to dominate the prescription downer market eg Valium Xanax and Halcion The recognition of chemical brain imbalance as a cause of certain mental illnesses led to the development of new psychiatric medications to treat mental illnesses These developments also led to a better understanding of addiction VII TWENTI ETH CENTURY LSD amp THE NEW PSYCHEDELICS New hallucinogenic drugs The active ingredient in ergot fungus called LSD lysergic diethylamide was isolated and extracted in 1938 In the 19605 and in the years to come a flood of synthetic psychedelic drugs like MDA DMT PCP 2GB and particularly MDMA ecstasy appeared Most act as both stimulants and hallucinogenics VII TWENTI ETH CENTURY LEGAL amp MEDICAL RESPONSES Attempts to address the problems of abuse addiction and crime Supply reduction demand reduction and harm reduction are the three methods of prevention Discovery of brain chemicals ie endorphins that acted like psychoactive drugs expanded the understanding of addiction Treatment of addiction became a medical as well as a social science VII TWENTI ETH CENTURY METHADONE amp HEROIN The methadone maintenance program substitutes a legal opiate methadone for a illegal one heroin It was an early example of a harm reduction goal that was targeted to benefit society as well as the addict Still used today although with controversy In the 605 and 705 the war in Vietnam and flood of opium from the Golden Triangle Burma Laos Thailand resulted in a new group of heroin addicts VII TWENTI ETH CENTURY COCAINE 8 THE CRACK EPIDEMIC In the late 3970s and early 80s cocaine became a fashionable substance again Snorting and injecting the traditional methods for using cocaine were supplemented by smoking cocaine crack When smoked cocaine reaches the brain very fast in a matter of seconds with a powerful rush that only lasts a few minutes This normally leads to intense addiction Crack moved to the inner city and heavy use became more prevalent among minorities VIII TODAY amp TOMORROW Overall illicit drug use has declined since its peak in 1979 and 1980 However the age of first use for almost all drugs has gone down One of the most reliable predictors of developing drug problems and addiction is earlyonset drug use Problems with current drug use often have more to do with social ramifications Drug use has important geopolitical and economic implications VIII TODAY amp TOMORROW THE GEOPOLITICS OF DRUGS Heroin use has in the United States is mostly Mexican black tar and the relatively new Colombian white heroin Various Afghanistan groups including the Taliban used drug profits to fund insurgencies and or terrorism The Taliban subsequently banned poppy growing but by 2002 most poppy fields had been replanted Production also decreased in Asia the Golden Triangle Virtually all cocaine is grown in South America Colombia Peru and Bolivia lead to corruption civil war and unrest About 65 of cocaine smuggled into the United States comes through the Mexican border VIII TODAY amp TOMORROW HIV AIDS amp HEPATITIS C The spread of HIV virus and AIDS in the 19805 has had a profound impact on society Transmission of HIV and HCV by contaminated needles caused an explosion of infections in the IV drugusing population Drug use can also spread HIV and HCV through unsafe high risk sexual practices VIII TODAY amp TOMORROW METHAMPHETAMINES In the mid19905 street chemists developed somewhat safer ways of manufacturing illicit methamphetamines sold as crank crystal meth and speed Trafficking into the US is mostly through Mexico In the Philippines and Thailand small methamphetamine pills called ya ba have become extremely popular VIII TODAY amp TOMORROW MODAFINIL Provigil A new stimulant modafinil is prescribed only for narcolepsy It works on different parts of the brain than amphetamines CLUB DRUGS There has been a reemergence of the psychedelic clubs and rock music parties of the 19605 and 19705 only now they are called rave clubsquot or just music clubs The most common drug used at rave parties MDMA ecstasy is a psychostimulant Another party drug is GHB gammahydroxybutyrate classified as a sedativedepressant VIII TODAY amp TOMORROW MARIJUANA Cannabis 8 HEALTH Highpotency marijuana continues to be widely available The biggest story continues to be attempts to legalize marijuana for medical uses The drive to legalize or at least decriminalize marijuana continues Controversy and legal battles are likely to continue VIII TODAY amp TOMORROW TOBACCO HEALTH amp THE LAW Between 1962 and 2001 per capita tobacco use declined by more than 30 Due to continuous research on the dangerous health effects lung cancer Antismoking campaigns warning printed on packages Laws prohibiting smoking in public places and advertising Lawsuits against tobacco companies 246 billion over a 25 year period Increased smoking among women increased lung cancer deaths past those from breast cancer VIII TODAY amp TOMORROW OXYCONTIN oxycodone amp VICODIN hydrocodone OxyContin a timerelease version of oxycodone is crushed and injected to gives a powerful almost heroinlike high Hydrocodone Vicodin is the most widely abused prescription opiate ALCOHOL HANGS ON Alcohol still kills over 130000 persons a year in the United States compared to only 8000 killed by all other illicit psychoactive drugs combined Estimated 13 million alcoholic Americans Research has intensified including genetic components neurobiology pharmacology and treatment VIII TODAY amp TOMORROW BEHAVIORAL ADDICTIONS eg eating disorders compulsive gambling Compulsive behaviors have many of the same signs and symptoms as drug addiction These include gambling and eating disorders sexual addiction internet addiction and even compulsive shopping COURTREFERRED TREATMENT Drug policy has shifted recently from a heavy emphasis on supply reduction to an equal emphasis on demand reduction About 40 states already use drug courts where a firsttime offender can be diverted from jail time to treatment WHAT IS A PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG A psychoactive drug is any substance that directly alters the normal functioning of the Central Nervous System CNSquot From the Greek psycho meaning mina Psychoactive drugs have chemical names trade names and street names CLASSIFICATION BY EFFECTS Uppers for stimulants Downers for depressants All Arounders for psychedelics OTHER DRUGS Classification by their purpose Performanceenhancing sports drugs Inhalants Psychiatric medications Caution note Information in this course should not be construed as medical advice UPPERS stimulants Cocaine Amphetamines Amphetamine congeners ie diet pillsquot Plant stimulants Caffeine Nicotine Newer synthetic drugs UPPERS stimulants contd EFFECTS are DOSEDEPENDENT Small doses Increased energy Feelings of con dence Raised heart rate and blood pressure Eupho a Insomnia Decreased appetite UPPERS stimulants contd Larger doses or more potent drugs Deplete the body s energy and exhaustion Heart blood vessel and seizure problems Cancer emphysema and heart disease ie tobacco Anxiety anger rapid speech and aggressiveness Paranoia anhedonia inability to experience pleasure and mental confusion Overuse of strong stimulants can mimic psychosis DOWNERS depressants Depress the central nervous system Opiates and Opioids Opium morphine codeine heroin oxycodone etc Sedativehypnotics Benzodiazepines barbiturates Alcohol Wine beer hard liquors Others antihistamines skeletal muscle relaxants over the counter sedatives DOWNERS depressants contd EFFECTS are DOSEDEPENDENT Small doses Slow heart rate and respiration Relax muscles and decrease coordination Dull the senses induces sleep diminish pain Constipation nausea opiates In the case of alcohol initially small doses seem to act like stimulants because they lower inhibitions thus inducing euphoria and freer behavior DOWNERS depressants contd Larger doses Slur speech and digestive problems Respiratory depression and coma Sexual dysfunction With alcohol dulling of the mind diminish anxiety neuroses Long term use causes physical and psychic dependence ALL AROUNDERS psychedelics All arounders hallucinogens or psychedelics distort perception and can induce the following illusions delusions hallucinations LSD psilocybin mushrooms MDMA ecstasy Ketamine Peyote Marijuana ALL AROUNDERS psychedelics Most hallucinogenic plants cause nausea and dizziness Marijuana increases appetite and makes eyes bloodshot MDMA ecstasy and LSD act as stimulants Ketamine as anesthetic Distort sensory messages Illusions Hallucinations Delusions OTHER DRUGS amp ADDICTIONS Inhalants Steroids and other sports drugs Psychiatric drugs Addictive behaviors INHALANTS Gases or liquids that are inhaled and absorbed through the lungs Organics solvents volatile nitrites and anesthetics especially nitrous oxide laughing gas Cause central nervous system depression Lower blood pressure Impulsiveness Excitement Irritability Dizziness Delirium and confusion Toxic to cells ANABOLIC STEROIDS Enhance performance by increasing muscle mass and strength Increase muscle mass and confidence Prolonged use can cause physical damage Acne High blood pressure Small testes Masculine features in women Mental effects stimulantlike high increased aggression outburst of anger of rhoid rage Other sports drugs and performance enhancing methods Stimulants such as amphetamines ephedrine caffeine Hormones Herbal and nutritional supplements ie creatinine Some therapeutic drugs diuretics pain killers Blood transfusions Psychiatric medications Medicinal use to try to rebalance irregular brain chemistry Most common are Antidepressants Antipsychotics and Antianxiety drugs Prescribed more and more frequently Variety of side effects Addictive compulsive behaviors Eating disorders compulsive eating anorexia bulimia Compulsive gambling Sexual compulsion Internet addiction Compulsive shopping Codependency Affect many of the same areas of the brain impacted by drugs Addictive compulsive behaviors Eating disorders compulsive eating anorexia bulimia Compulsive gambling Sexual compulsion Internet addiction Compulsive shopping Codependency Affect many of the same areas of the brain impacted by drugs
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