New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Drugs and Society

by: Mr. Uriel Harvey

Drugs and Society BIO 1033

Mr. Uriel Harvey
GPA 3.84

Deborah Armstrong

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Deborah Armstrong
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Uriel Harvey on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1033 at University of Texas at San Antonio taught by Deborah Armstrong in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/231358/bio-1033-university-of-texas-at-san-antonio in Biology at University of Texas at San Antonio.

Similar to BIO 1033 at UTSA


Reviews for Drugs and Society


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/29/15
C HAPTE R 2 I How drugs get to the brain A Five routes ofadministration 1 Inhaling vaporized drug is absorbed into the blood Via capillaries oflung air sacs onset in 710 sec Fastest 2 Injecting the drug is put directly into the body with a needle Intravenous onset in 1530 sec intramuscular onset in 35 min subcutaneous 35 min 3 Snorting and mucosal exposure drugs like cocaine and heroin are absorbed by blood vessels in the nose or mouth 35 min 4 Orally Drugs are absorbed into the blood via capillaries lining the small intestine 2030 min 5 Contact Liquid LSD into the eye 35 min skin patches such as those containing nicotine release set quantities for up to 7 days onset in 12 days Slowest B Drug circulation 1 Once a drug is absorbed into the bloodstream it circulates throughout the body 1 2 The time it takes a drug to reach the brain depends on blood volume adult or child the number of blood vessels saturating various organs and the speci c characteristics of the drug itself 2 Liver 3 The drug itself C The bloodbrain barrier Not over the counter drugs 1 The capillaries which supply blood to the brain have a fatty protective covering to prevent toxins Viruses and bacteria from entering the central nervous system CNS This protective layer is called the bloodbrain barrier 2 Psychoactive drugs can cross the bloodbrain barrier because they are fat soluble The more fat soluble they are the faster they enter the brain and the more intense the reaction Example heroin is more fat soluble than morphine Morphine Heroin Diacetyl morphine II The Nervous System A The nervous system is the principal target of psychoactive drugs It is a network of 100 billion nerve cells with 100 trillion connections 1 It is divided into two major parts the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system a The peripheral nervous system is further subdivided into two parts i The autonomic nervous system which controls involuntary functions ie breathing blood pressure The somatic nervous system which transmits signals from our senses into the brain and transmits motor commands out to our muscles Carries senses from our brain to move our muscles b The central nervous system brain and spinal cord which receives analyzes and transmits messages to various systems as well as enabling us to reason 2 Many psychoactive drugs affect the reward pleasure system of the brain which contains structures such as the nucleus acculnbens and hypothalamus Axon f release neurotransmitte Dendrites Axon terminals Cell Body III Nerve cells or neurons the building blocks of the nervous system have four parts dendrites which contain chemical receptors the cell body the axon and the terminals A Nerve cells conduct electrical impulses and communicate with each other by releasing tiny amounts of chemicals called neurotransmitters Dendrites Examples of neurotransmitters acetylcholine dopamine norepinephrine serotonin endorphins substance P GABA B Neurotransmitters are released into synapses which are microscopic gaps between neurons Axon Dendrites gt Axon Termlnal C Psychoactive drugs work because they bind to existing receptor sites on neurons and either mimic or block the normal functions of neurotransmitters Physiological Responses to Drugs A ToleranceAfter repeated exposure to a drug the body begins to adapt to its presence you need bigger dose 1 Dispositional tolerance the liver speeds up the disposal metabolism of the drug 2 Phar39macodynamic tolerance nerve cells become less sensitive to the drug by producing fewer receptors 3 Behavioral tolerance the person learns to compensate for the affects of intoxication 4 Reverse tolerance increasing sensitivity as tissues degenerate alcoholism 5 Acute tolerance almost instantaneous tolerance Sudden Onset 6 Select tolerance a person becomes tolerant to mood changes produced by a drug but not to other physical effects of that drug overdose B Tissue dependence tissues and organs come to depend on a drugjust to function normally C Withdrawal When a user stops taking their drug of addiction the body39s chemistry tries to restore its original chemical balance and undesired side effects called withdrawal symptoms occur The three types of withdrawal are CRAVING real symptoms 1 Nonpurposive withdrawal actual physical symptoms that occur when drug use ceases sweating goose bumps diarrhea tremors 2 Purposive withdrawal faked withdrawal symptoms or psychosomatic withdrawal symptoms neurotic delayed 3 Protracted withdrawal recurrence of Withdrawal symptoms after a person has already detoxi ed often causing craving for a drug often resulting in relapse Opiates Heroin Morphine Hydrocodone Vicodin Effects Withdrawal Constipation Diarrhea Drowsiness relaxed calm anxious shaking Heart rate down heart rate up D Metabolism the process of processing and eliminating foreign substances from the body 1 A drug is broken down into metabolites neutralized principally by the liver 2 Drug metabolites are eliminated principally by the kidneys in addition to the lungs sweat andor feces 3 Other factors affecting metabolic rates a Age e Health b Race f Emotional State c Heredity g Other drugs d Sex V Desired effects vs side effects A People take drugs for confidence energy pain relief anxiety control social con dence relief of boredom altered consciousness escape or to gain a competitive edge B The problem is that drugs also cause unwanted side effects ranging from the uncomfortable to the lifethreatening VI Levels of use A Level of use is judged rst by the amount frequency and duration of use then by the effect use has on the individuals life The six levels of use are 1 Abstinence 2 Experimentation 3 Socialrecreational 4 Habituation 5 Abuse Drug abuse is defined as the continued use of the drug despite negative consequences 6 Addiction Person spends most of their time either using getting or thinking about the drug Often they deny there is a problem and claim they can stop anytime they want VI Theories of addiction A Addictive Disease Model Addiction is a chronic progressive relapsing incurable and potentially fatal condition that is mostly a consequence of genetic irregularities B Behavioralenvironmental model In uences of one39s environment including stress abuse anger and peer pressure can induce addiction C Academic Model It is the use of drugs that causes the body to adapt through physiological mechanisms such as tolerance tissue dependence Withdrawal and psychological dependence VII Heredity Enviromnent and Psychoactive Drugs A Heredity 1 Some individuals may be genetically susceptible to addiction 2 Presence of alcoholic family members increases susceptibility to alcoholism 1 alcoholic parent 34 chance of being an alcoholic 3 Increased susceptibility means that if a person drinks heshe becomes a compulsive drinker quicker a more intense reaction to the first drink greater tolerance B Environment Stress physical or mental abuse companions who use the drug social acceptance of drug use medical problems etc all determine drug use habits C Psychoactive drugs The habitforming nature of the drug itself and how it is administered contributes to the probability of addiction The drugs that push the hardest and quickest toward addiction are in order from fastest to slowest Smoking tobacco


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.