Drugs and Society
Drugs and Society BIO 1033
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Uriel Harvey on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1033 at University of Texas at San Antonio taught by Deborah Armstrong in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/231358/bio-1033-university-of-texas-at-san-antonio in Biology at University of Texas at San Antonio.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
111 CHAPTER 1 History of Psychoactive Drugs A De nition of a psychoactive drug is any substance that directly alters the normal functioning of the central nervous system B More than 4000 plants contain psychoactive substances Ancient Civilizations A Alcohol can be traced to the earliest civilizations 1 Ancient Egypt reward for pyramid workers wheat gtbeer B Opium use is recorded as far back as 6000 years ago Poppy Plant 1 Medicinally as a pain killer and to control diarrhea 2 Also employed as a euphoriant and as a sedative C Cannabis marijuana was used in ancient China India and throughout Eastern Europe and the Middle East as a medicine and euphoriant D Psychedelic mushrooms were used in India Siberia and Central America in religious ceremonies Middle Ages Dark Ages 9001200 Superstition Age A Psychedelics plants of the nightshade family such as henbane belladonna and the mandrake root were used as poisons painkillers and hallucinogens often by Witches and medicine men B Psychedelic mold ergot which grows on rye and Wheat plants caused outbreaks of mass hallucination When people ate bread made from contaminated grain C Islamic substitutes for alcohol which was forbidden by Koran included opium coffee and tobacco and khat a plant stimulant D Alcohol especially wine was produced in medieval monasteries often for sacraments The process of distillation was also developed E Coca leaf cocaine chewing was reserved for the upper classes of the lncan empire in South America F Hallucinogenic mushrooms containing psilocybin peyote cactus containing mescaline and ololiuqui vines containing DMT were used by Indian tribes of Central America IV D 39 17 1 51 4 A A Coffee drinking spread from Turkey and Arabia B Tobacco was introduced to Europe by Columbus It became an important revenue source for Spain and later for England C Opium was a central ingredient in medicinal concoctions 1 Theriac a mixture of opium and more than 70 different natural substances 2 Laudanum a tincture strong dosage of opium in alcohol D Distilled Liquors alcohol 1 Gin a juniper berry flavored drink was first made in Holland The London gin epidemic 1710 1750 caused great devastation E Cannabis marijuana hemp was cultivated for textiles and rope in Colonial America including George Washington39s Mount Vernon plantation Until the Civil War it was the nation39s second largest crop behind cotton V Nineteenth Century 1800 s Industrial Revolution Birth Science amp Medicine A Nitrous oxide chloroform and ether were first used as anesthetics no response to pain and sedatives B Opium spread though China as a result of British trade and the Opium Wars 18391842 and 18561860 The refinement of morphine from opium led to a surge in addiction throughout the US after the Civil War Refinement1800 s C use of of Drug refinement 1 Cocaine was isolated from the leaf of the coca bush in the 1860s 2 In 1874 heroin was refined from morphine and in 1898 the Bayer Company marketed heroin The invention of the automatic cigarette rolling machine spread cigarette Heroin and cocaine were in tonics and patent medicines 1 Thomas Edison and President William McKinley endorsed the Vin Mariani a red wine laced with cocaine 2 From 1886 to 1903 a bottle of CocaCola contained 5 milligrams cocaine VI Twentieth Century most drugs were regulated A Cigarette smoking spread rapidly for a number of reasons 1 Milder tobacco strains allowed for deeper smoke inhalation 2 In the 192039s the quotCamelquot brand was marketed to women young people and to dieters B sale of Regulations banned overthe counter sale of opiates and cocaine 1 Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 2 Opium Exclusion Act 1909 3 Harrison Narcotic Act 1914 Alcohol Prohibition 1 Eighteenth Amendment 1920 prohibits manufacture and alcohol 2 In 1933 prohibition is repealed D Ban on marijuana 1937 prohibits the use of the cannabis sativa plant products in textiles and medicines E 139 t 39 first quot quot drug used heavily in WWII by American British German and Japanese soldiers F Sedative Hypnotics Barbiturates and new tranquilizers such as Miltown are prescribed indiscriminately in the 1950s G LSD use is encouraged by Dr Timothy Leary in the 1960s H Legal and medical responses to abuse of psychoactive drugs focus on supply reduction stricter laws and demand reduction prevention and treatment I Methadone a legal narcotic was substituted for heroin and given to addicts beginning in the 6039s in order to control addiction J Opium supply from the Golden Triangle Burma Laos and Thailand boosts heroin use during Vietnam War K Smokable forms of cocaine and amphetamine appear on the drug scene VII Today and tomorrow A Psychedelics resurgence in the use of LSD MDMA quotecstasyquot B Inhalants use of spraycan solvents and their propellants becomes a trend C Heroin predicted resurgence in the use of heroin particularly smokable heroin Classification of Psychoactive Drugs A Uppers stimulants such as I 39 t 39 39 quot and caffeine are central nervous system stimulants khat beetle nut high dosage of caffeine 1 Physical effects increased heart rate increased blood pressure insomnia decreased appetite dilated pupils 2 MentalEmotional effects con dence euphoria anxiety paranoia B Downers are central nervous system depressants and are divided into four main categories 1 Opiates amp opioids such as opium heroin Percodan morphine and Demerol 2 Sedative hypnotics include the benzodiazepines such as Valium and Xanax and the barbiturates such as Seconal 3 Alcohol 4 Other downers include antihistamines and skeletal muscle relaxants Physical effects slow heart rate and respiration decrease coordination induce sleep dull the senses MentalEmotional effects reduce anxiety lower inhibitions euphoria C All arounders are psychedelics which can distort perceptions of reality and induce 39 quot 39 quot 39quot 39 39 39 39 They include LSD PCP psilocybin mushrooms peyote mescaline and marijuana D Other psychoactive fall into three main categories 1 Inhalants are gasses or liquids that are inhaled usually producing dizziness excitement or irritability 2 Anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs 3 Psychiatric medications such as antidepressant antianxiety and antipsychotic drugs Drugs can be named in many different names Ex Chemical name oxyco done
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