Weeks 1 and 2 notes
Weeks 1 and 2 notes Comm 201
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Week 1 15001650 1515 Introductions Military and War in US History and Culture o Is history quotjust one damn fact after anotherquot 0 O 0 Facts are laid down but which facts and in what order Opinions and biases are put forth along with the facts Historians choose what to write about and how to interpret that39s topic what information they will use to source their writing etc Facts have to have signi cance otherwise they are just lists of raw data Signi cance of facts will be central to this class History is a dynamic process not listing facts We change history and history changes us Just because we derive our history from written documents that history is always the same but history is always changing A history written today using the same sources that were used in the 19505 would be different in many ways The quothowquot question and the quotcontingencyquot Contingency a backup plan for when things change Applied to history it is change over time The moment when thing changed ie the creation of the atom bomb 0 US Military History 0 O O 0 What is the military The armed forces of a nation Protect the country Organized institutions with speci c operational doctrines Backed by the federal government for the most part Project a nations interests What is military history Why do we study it A lot of our money goes into it The West and especially the US has a special reverence for their military prowess When is US military history When does it begin The pilgrims landing in 1620 Many of the uniforms and institutions come from the military of the British Empire Interaction with Native Americans developed an American way of war Tactics from Europe had to be adjusted in the Americas Who are we talking about Key gures generals leaders inventors policy makers Critical battles Opposition leaders and their militaries The home front artists lm makers The soldiers view point 0 Culture 0 Soldiers and policy makers are separate Soldiers do not usually make policy and policy makers do not usually ght wars 0 How American culture has shaped the military and vice versa 0 Raymond Williams said that quotCulture is one of the two or three most dif cult words to de ne in the English languagequot It is the ideas attitudes customs and beliefs that are held and projected by a speci c group of peoples People transmit culture through language material objects institutions etc 0 War and Society 0 The military as a set of institutions 0 The concept of militarism that we live in a militarized society Militarism the penetration of military culture into civil society The US military has penetrated deeply into American culture such as military yovers at football games We declare war on things War on Poverty War on Drugs War on Terror The US has been at war almost continuously since WWII America is not the only country to experience this now or in the past Both Spain and Britain had military societies which they brought to America where they encountered another military society the Aztecs Ways of War and Militarism 0 Ways of War 0 War is cultural Speci c to speci c groups of people Americans often think that war is a matter of killing the enemy but that was not true of every culture 0 Many Native Americans did not treat war this way They had different cultural practices around death and dying which changed their outlook 0 European examples War developed over a long period of time in the practice of killing enemies Fought wars for centuries where large armies clashed ghting to the deat Different cultural practices because of this 0 In Spain by 1100 Muslim societies from Africa had taken over much of the Iberian Peninsula In 1095 European armies stopped the Muslim invasion Around that time the Pope began to call crusades to retake the Iberian Peninsula and the Holy Land around the year 1100 Europeans ght wars for centuries against those they felt were pagan savages nonChristians usually In Spain this meant that the way to move up through the social hierarchy by buying titles Many of the people going on the crusades were hopeful that they would nd wealth slaves property etc in order to buy titles The conquistadors that came with Columbus arrived in 1492 the same year that the Muslims and Jews were expelled from Iberia with their notions of war and social mobility rooted in the Crusades In England the social hierarchy was stricter and titles could not be bought But they developed a military society through centuries of warfare with the French Spanish and others 0 For north eastern Native Americans the point of war was often to humiliate the opposing force to drive them away The spirit and the human body were tied together in a different way they were much more connected The NA39s felt that death was caused by spiritual means like a bad shaman or some sort of ill wishes Revenge killings or kidnappings were important to settle these differences often carried out against a shaman Europeans show up with their notion of attrition warfare along with diseases and wreaked havoc on the Native societies not used to these types of war or diseases NA39s have to change the way they ght as do the Europeans Europeans had a very quotproperquot form of war lines of battle and bright uniforms The NA39s used hitandrun tactics The combination of these two doctrines of war in uenced the way the American military would eventually be shaped 0 History American Encounters 1715 0 quotthe past is a foreign country they do things differently there LP Hartley 1953 It is hard to use the term quotwequot when refereeing to American history often we use it to refer to people who identi ed themselves as English citizens as the colonists did Also hard in military history because it has a clear link to patriotism the good of the country and Americans want to refer to this as our history completely America was not inevitable we came about due to contingent moments Avoid inevitability seek out the contingency 0 Americans know that the Native Americans got a bum deal and most know the story better than other historical moments This is obviously much too simpli ed The fact that NA39s were on the losing side of many battles makes it seem like their demise was inevitable but what39s more important is what happened as the years progressed 0 History is not how it turned out it39s what happened along the way Colonization o Iberian Peninsula the 15th century saw the completion of the Spanish reconquest of Iberia from the Moors in 1492 after a series of periods of war and peace much of the Mediterranean following the fall of the Roman Empire came under the cultural and intellectual in uences of Islam the Muslim expansion into Europe is halted near the Pyrenees mountains in between modern France and Spain circa 1100 CE Pope Urban issues a decree for the Crusades in response to this in order to push the Muslim39s back as well as to clean up the streets of Europe over owing with beggars and criminals Most of the people who join the Crusades therefore are poor They seek riches and valor in the Holy Land However this creates a lens through which Christian European s see quotothersquot Others referring to nonChristians they had a militant view against these others creating a warrior culture in Europe which the Spanish and others bring with them to the New World the reconquest is solidi ed after the marriage of King Ferdinand to Isabela in 1466 They also fund Columbus39 expedition in 1492 15th C and After The Rise of NationStates 0 Before this armies were largely made up of conscripts and volunteers Nationstates create large standing and professional armies o Nation a people with common interests culture NationState a governed political structure that uni es a nation England and the quotOtherquot 0 The English also had a role in the creation of quotothersquot They did not have the same experience with Muslim s but the English were almost constantly at war with France 0 The Hundred Years War 13371453 is a dynastic ght over who is going to rule over the Northern European continent It also helps to create the idea of French and British nations 0 What pushed people in England to move and colonize the Americas 0 England in the 16th and 17th centuries The government is divided between the King and Queen and the Parliament 0 Parliament is further divided by the House of Lords aristocracy and hereditary and the House of Commons landed peasants The House of Commons was elected by land holding peasants The landed gentry begin creating enclosed estates which displaced the small landowners because the larger land holders realized that they could make more money this way 0 Those displaced the quotsturdy poorquot moved into cities after losing their land The gov decides that these are the poor who should be sent to the colonies o The English colonize Ireland making them into quotothersquot during the 16th C Becomes a blueprint for the English colonial tactics in North America It was easy to make the Irish into enemies because they had remained Catholic rather than become protestant The English gov took away lands from the Catholics and settle protestant Scots or Englishmen on the stolen land They set up new penal codes for the Irish and resulted in the brutal treatment of the Irish Catholics The English like to take the high ground over the Spanish for their mistreatment of Native Americans even though what the English were doing in Ireland was essentially the same 0 Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Francis Drake lead the colonial movement in the English government They fund many of the expeditions including the famous quotlostquot colony on Roanoke Island in North Carolina Goals of the quotWest Country Menquot were 0 To plant Christian religion 0 To traf c and grow their economy 0 To conquer new lands in the name of the king 0 The Chesapeake Roanoke 158789 is the rst English colony and fails miserably This may be due to an underestimation on the colonists part of how harsh this new environment would be to live in it was found deserted in 1589 The second colony Jamestown 1607 does manage to take off but only just They train militia and hire professional soldiers for protection 0 The Jamestown colonists did not realize that they were setting down in a large NA confederacy led by the Powhatan39s the Native American39s greatly outnumbered the colonists in Jamestown o The Englishmen did not know how to grow corn or eat North American foods The Powhatan were the most important allies the colonists had they taught the British how to survive in the hostile environment 0 Indian allies are essential for any European nations trying to colonize the New World 0 North American Colonies o The British colonists bring a belief in the militia system to America with them It becomes the most basic form of the American military system In addition to the militia they brought a fear of large standing regular armIes Feared the standing armies due to history of oppression and how expensive the armies are to maintain You need bases equipment pay for the soldiers etc they also feared military coups Formed the militia to get around this in the 16005 Able bodied men would get together and drill to stay ready when needed that was the idea at least Only able bodied men ages 1660 depending on the colony it was a compulsory muster meaning that all men in this category had to serve However people who had lots of money or land could exempt themselves through donations or paying someone to take their place in the militia 0 Over time the drills and musters become less frequently dropping from weekly meetings early on to quarterly meetings towards the end of the century especially in cities Militias grouped together in companies or trainbands one and the same There was no standardized size of these units 0 By and large they were farmers and servants and they drilled in tactics and weapon training 0 The English colonies feared their Catholic enemies mainly the Spanish and the French who consume the colonists military thought process o The English colonies hired professional soldiers like John Smith in VA or Myles Standish in Mass to train and lead the colonies militia 0 Being a soldier was linked to being a good Christian Killing and ghting was not against the Christian view they felt that they were doing god39s work in their wars against Catholics or Indians 0 Equipment Guns and armor was manufactured in England and sold to the colonies The British did not want the colonies to become too independent and did not set up manufacturing plants in the colonies Made the colonies economically dependent on the mother country through mercantilism Matchlock Muskets c 1550517005 0 Had to light a fuse which would light a pan of powder that would release the hammer and shoot the projectile o Smoothbore barrels were very inaccurate and the bullet would often rattle down the barrel They were only accurate at about 20 yards 0 Could not ght in the rain because of the lit fuse 0 Slow to reload had 53 steps to reload o Replaced by the intlock musket in the 18th century Wore armor at least breastplates and helmets They also brought pikes and swords 0 These were heavy and did not make a lot of sense when used against Native Americans 0 Social life of the militia Political and military leadership The leaders of civil society become leaders of the military society as well Localized militia the New York militia would not go and ght in Massachusetts they imagine their duty to be localized they are distinct by colony Civilian control of the military takes hold during this time Many colonists were glad that they got away from the immediate British gov many of the colonies were controlled by royally appointed governors and a colonial assembly The assembly controls the militia while the governor controls money and funding 0 The drawbacks of the militia They get together and train then leave and work their farms They cannot muster quickly to respond to a threat The lack of roads also hampered their mobility Native tactics also make the militia system rather ineffective because they are so different from the pitched battle culture of Europe The NA39s used hit and run tactics a little damage here and there and then disappear This led to the misconception by the Europeans that the NA39s were cowards o NA39s were also more concerned with humiliating their enemies than killing them 0 honor was a different concept in the Americas than it was in Europe where quotmanly valorquot was essential to honor relied on the stronghold concept of walled in garrisons or block houses that would keep the citizens safe 0 this kept the people safe but not their homes or elds which were easily destroyed by the attackers 0 Changes to the militia system In the east with its major cities the militia became more ceremonial than practical It was a privilege for the wealthy to go out and feel like they were part of something In the west the militias have to adapt to their proximity to large numbers of Indians They form ad hoc companies with new sorts of soldiers such as scouts or rangers 0 They have more knowledge of the forests as well as Indian languages and tactics 0 These men have a distinct type of hybrid war strategy that was a combination of Native American and European doctrines o Believed that once they joined the militia the soldiers had a legal contract of payment or reimbursement with the colonial gov if their demands were not met the militia would pack up and leave This is a very English thought process Militia comes to be made up of people of the lower working classes a trend that continues to this day rather than all able bodied men The population growth in the colony affords them the ability to create a certain class of militia men 0 Rebellion and War and Militias Role 0 Militia slow to mobilize often ends up as a police force more than an expeditionary force They deploy against local rebellions such as Bacon39s Rebellion in 1676 in VA or the Stono Rebellion of 1739 in South Carolina 0 Reasons for con ict Tobacco is the cash crop of VA necessitates large tracts of land which inevitably encroaches on Native lands This produces lots of con icts resulting in raids and counter raids on part of both sides European concepts of ownership played into this the thought that putting up a fence and planting meant that the land was theirs Native Americans had an idea of usufruct rights where essentially everyone used the same land Therefore when the NA39s sold land to the colonists they didn39t fully understand that they were giving explicit ownership to the Europeans These lead to the Tidewater Wars in the mid16005 in VA The Powhatan lead the attacks killing around 25 of the colonists The ghting rages for 10 years from 162232 and a second one from 164446 0 The colonial gov tries to negotiate with the NA39s after the rst war to prevent a second con ict but European immigration and westward migration makes it dif cult to maintain the peace 0 Bacon39s Rebellion Gov Berkeley longtime governor of the Virginia colony makes a longterm peace treaty with the Powhatan39s where both essentially agree to leave each other alone Nathaniel Bacon comes to VA looking for land and wealth He can afford land but Berkeley and his cronies hold all of the good land Bacon becomes angry and wants the land but instead of attacking Berkeley he and his followers go out and indiscriminately attack lndian settlements in the area even those allied with the colony He then marched on and burned Jamestown before dying of dysentery and the rebellion zzled out The militia didn39t even mobilize until afterJamestown had been burned o The Pequot War 1637 Took place in New England around the Plymouth colony The Pequot tribe was the dominate military force in the area The Plymouth colony was closely allied with the Wampoanog Indians who were enemies of the Pequot The colonist initiated an attack against a Pequot village following the death of some British merchants at the hands of the Pequot Led by Benjamin Church a colonial militia supported by Indian allies surrounded a Pequot town early in the morning and while most of the Pequot men were away and the allied troops massacred the Pequot39s They were aided by the Wampanoag and Mohawk indian39s political agendas they wanted a less powerful Pequot nation so that they could have better trading rights 0 King Philips War 1675 Last major colonial lndian war Led by Metacom a Wampanoag chief The most expensive colonial war and one of the most destructive in terms of percentage of population that was killed Week 2 notes HSTAA 212 11215 Mystic River and Total War 0 Action of professional soldiers 0 John Mason CT and John Underhill Mass leaders of the militia who are just regular guys more or less 0 Begin targeting noncombatants such as women and children Use justi cation that the Europeans are not killing Christians Compared to Europe this was brutal warfare By the early 17th c European warfare had become quotgentlemanlyquot with set battles and long lines marching at each other and taking their turns to deliver volleys In the Americas militias and soldiers try to absolutely break the ability of the Native Americans to wage war 0 Important to note that Native Americans were important allies to the heavily outnumbered European forces 0 King Philips War 0 O O O Takes place in lower New England the Plymouth Colony CT RI European settlers began moving westward looking for timber and farmland as the NE colonies didn39t possess a cash crop Metacom King Philip was Wampanoag chief who was angered by the European encroachment and he began to mobilize for war Europeans respond to this by mobilizing the militias and their Native American allies for the most destructive percentagewise war on the North American continent 25 of the NE colonists die in the war Decisive battle The Great Swamp Fight The Europeans and their allies attacked a Narganeset village on the Mystic River 0 American Ways of War 0 O 0 European and NA alliances are often situational and not long term Working with the NA39s creates a hybrid form of war in America By the end of King Philips War the colonists are used to viewing the NA39s as quotsavagesquot If they could be Christianized the colonists would do so If the NA39s resisted conversion the colonists saw this as justi cation for conquering them Was King Philips War worth it A pyrrhic victory for the colonies o Pyrrhic is a victory that comes at too high a cost 0 Cost 100000 pounds and around 6 of colonial population Evolution of the Militia System Began creating militia districts rather than just towns or cities These districts had quotas to meet in unit size if they could not muster enough volunteers they would initiate a draft 0 The draft favored the wealthy and often pulled people from the lowest classes of society Many criminals were part of the draft if the draft wasn39t enough than the gov would put forth bounties to ght in order to give more incentive for individuals to join the militia 0 From Colony to Nation 0 3 main ideas Tension in the American military tradition militia and regular army freedom independence liberalism 0 American public feared strong military history of generals seizing power as despots in past republics and other governments American military developments as part of global history colonialism mercantilism capitalism o lnseparably tied to world events especially as a colony of England 0 American Revolution becomes a world war as did many previous colonial wars 0 America is a theater of colonialism and its policies such as mercantilism Interplay between colonial culture religion society and politics and military developments Providence individualism Capitalism takes place at the same time that liberalism emerges many of these ideas are intertwined 0 Early Colonial Wars 0 Very violent time in North American history as France Britain and their lndian allies ght over control of the country 0 French technically control the most land in NA but it is mostly populated by Native Americans French do not have the population that the British did were mainly trying to convert NA39s with the Jesuit missionaries 0 North America is one of the most contested colonial areas in the world necessitated the cultivation of NA allies o The Fur trade beaver upstate New York eastern Great Lakes area European fashion wanted the lush and water proof beaver fur for hats Mercantilist economy driven furs shipped to Europe to be made into hats In order to maximize pro ts the colonists had to rely on the NA s who knew the territory and hunting spots and how to trap the animals Took place in the western wilderness of the colonies lndians traded furs for glass beads weapons metal objects O o For many NA groups the Europeans were just good trading partners 0 NA39s were historically shrewd traders and diplomats the trade with Europeans gave them technological as well as economical superiority The Beaver Wars were a series of con icts in the late 17th and early 18th c39s between NA groups vying for access to beaver furs 0 Did not always result in violent con ict Europeans constantly complain about how smart the NA39s were when trading with the Europeans the NA39s played the con icting coonia parties against each other 0 Would use trade agreements with one country to get more from another ie French give x so the British have to give x5 in order to stay competitive o NA39s wanted guns would trade with whomever would give them guns The Barnett gun manufacturer put a serpent on guns being sent to the colonies the NA39s would only trade for these guns Called a Northwest gun o Creates a dual dependency in the Great Lakes area no one controlled the area totay everyone depended on one another for political economic and military power Europeans especiay relied on NA39s no one was able to dictate their own terms until much later Native peoples north of the St Lawrence river Algonquin peoples Montagnais Abnaki Ottawa and Huron tend to ally with the French while the 5 later 6 Nations Confederacy of Iroquoian peoples Mohawk Seneca Onondaga Cayuga Oneida allied with the British The Five Nations Confederacy was the dominant NA diplomatic organization in the area Series of feebe coonia attempts to weaken New France 1690 aborted plan to capture Montreal by miitia forces turned back at Quebec 1709 2nCI failed attempt 1711 3rd failed attempt The miitia constantly acts for regular troops as reinforcements to the colonial militia which is repeatedly denied leads to greater collaboration between militia and NA forces This is a seed of rebellion as the colonists see the British gov as not caring enough about them Series of colonial wars often as a result of wars being fought in Europe during the 18th c Yamasee war 171525 was a rare occurrence of colonial warfare while the European continent was at peace Tense coonia relations French Spanish and British forces were constantly vying for more colonial territory in the 18th c The British attack on Cartagena in 1740 against the Spanish went terribly American militia join British regulars on the expeditionary force 0 Gives colonists ammunition to say that the British regulars talked a big game but weren39t that good of soldiers The British regulars said the same of the colonists The attack on Louisbourg an island fortress in New France was captured by a joint force of coonias and regulars o Colonials celebrate the victory as the will of god quotthe nger of godquot Regulars say it wouldn39t have happened without the British Army 0 Raises tensions between the two groups At the end of King George39s War in which both these battles took place the peace treaty gave Louisbourg back to the French which the colonists saw as an affront to their safety and sacri ce o The Great Awakening Plants and independent spirit in peoples understanding of Christianity There were many different sects of Christianity in the colonies mostly Protestant and Catholic denominations especially after the Great Awakening o Enlightenment movement happens around the same time as the Great Awakening Rational thought on god Emphasized science and logical thought Poitica thoughts change and seep into the colonies Major players in Europe and the Americas John Locke Montesquieu Ben Franklin Thomas Jefferson 0 7 Years War French and Indian War 17561763 0 French dominated the Ohio Valley 17505 Lots of territory but can39t really defend it begin moving traders trading posts and forts into the areas Has lots of access to beaver furs as well as NA trading and military aies 0 French initiative Having the initiative means the opponent has to respond to what you are doing Sent many troops to the Ohio Valley and garrison them in forts Strengthen their alliances with NA39s in the area as well as further east and south of the Ohio Move more ships to Louisbourg because it is an obvious choice for British attack should war erupt 0 Albany Conference 1754 Coonists fear the looming increase of French presence Need to protect themselves from the French and their Indian allies Strengthen the militia units 0 British regulars move into the colonies and are still unimpressed with the colonial militias Braddock s defeat in 1755 during an attempt to take Ft Duquesne Ambushed by French and NA allies the British vanguard falls back in disorder creates a total route of British forces Braddock is killed and George Washington among others are taken captive by the French The colonial militia holds better than the British regulars gives the militia a sense of pride Still couldn39t stand up to the NA allies who knew the territory so well 0 By 1758 the British realized that the French were winning the war The French had better allies strategy and are overwhelming British efforts to counterattack o In 1758 William Pitt becomes leader of the British war effort and changes the strategy Before this the British effort had focused on winning the war in continental Europe Pitt shifted to a maritime focus in order to defeat the French in the Americas felt this would help smooth over relations with the colonists which it does not 0 Shift to maritime strategy gives rise to privateers Similar to pirates but are under the authorization of the crown they are ghting for They even get to keep the booty they captured off of French ships for themselves Were often sometimes privateers sometimes pirates Privateering was an easy and cheap way for the British crown to expand her navy Privateer format anticipates the creation of the US Navy during the Revolution Ideas of independence and emerging capitalist ideas in the privateers o More people wanted to join privateers rather than the actual British navy leads to the Royal Navy39s policy of quotpressingquot people for service 0 British victory Battle of Quebec 1759 was a European style battle lines marching uphi to send voey s at each other The mastermind General Wolfe is killed during the battle He was able to maneuver his forces around Quebec which enticed the French to come out of the fortress and meet him on the eld 0 Treaty of Paris ends the 7 Years War one of the main factors contributing to the American Revolution 12 years later France lost nearly all its territory in North America everything east of the Miss River goes to Britain everything west goes to Spain Proclamation line of 1763 set the westward boundary of the British colonies at the Appalachian Mountains Before this the colonists considered it well within their rights to settle this land angry at the British gov British fought a very expensive war to protect the colonies expected colonists to pay taxes to support the British army which had saved them Colonists felt that it was their right as Englishmen to be protected The British also begin quartering troops in civilian homes in addition to their garrisons became a major source of discontent within the colonial society 11415 Colonial Revolution 0 Pontiacs Rebellion 0 Far west out near Detroit 0 The French have been kicked out of their forts now occupied by the British The Indian allies of the British pro t from this To keep the peace the British lay aside the western territory as Indian land 0 Rebellion is quickly put down but the British response convinces the colonists that the British favor the Indians over them 0 Sons of Liberty and the Stamp Act 0 A stamp that one had to buy on most items such as legal documents playing cards etc o Colonists see this as unfair and for protest groups such as the Sons of Ube y A sort of prototerrorist group Used violence and threats and mob rule to demonstrate how upset they were 0 Stamp act was repealed in 1765 one year after its passing 0 Freedom and Slavery o What did the colonists mean when they said these things Who was free Freedom meant economic independency which meant that you owned property and were a man Most of British Empire 80 therefore was unfree Women were always unfree belonging to husbands fathers or the state Tenants are not free indentured servants are not free someone in debt is not free 0 Thoughts of freedom come from the enlightenment thinking and the tenants of liberalism Liberalism was about freedom of the individual belief in rationality which went hand in hand Tenants of liberalism seep into capitalism such as faith in technologies ability to bring progress Liberty and technology intertwined because tech frees us from work The thinking of T Jefferson T Paine B Franklin 0 Colonists worried that the Empire will take away their rights as Englishmen 1775 Lexington and Concord 0 British troops sti quartered in Boston and other cities Redcoats march out of Boston to raid a weapons cache being collected by the Sons of Ube y o The colonial militia was more effective now when the British reached Lexington they engaged around 80 militia men who scattered quickly As they moved into Concord they met over 1000 militia men who drove them back to Boston Shows the militias ability to organize and react quickly hence quotminutemenquot Dual Army Tradition o G Washington elected ClC of the Army Wants a regular continental army in addition to the militia Many people fear a standing army but they need one to augment the militia 0 Civilian Congress thus gains control over the army They develop policy strategy selected generals oversaw resources Civilian control of the military causes tension as the war and the country progress Minutemen and Militia Minutemen were usually younger men 25 and younger meant to be called out very quickly and were localized Usually well trained and were a quick response team By 1770 the militia was getting better and more disciplined training 0 Often called out to ght loyalist militia such as at Moores Head Creak in NC in 1775 0 Good for patrolling and policing and in small skirmishes Could not stand up to regular British troops Counter insurgency Indian patrols garrison guards were their main roels Continental Army 0 O 0 Made up mostly of New England militia who were numerous and experienced having fought in the 7 years war and against Indians Congenital Army modeled after the British Army The army was very political people worried about it and it was expensive Congress authorizes 75000 men but it never reaches that size Many soldiers would have rather have served in the militia or privateers to regular army Army had to turn to bounties to entice people to join Made up of volunteer farmers and tradesmen as well as those pressed into service such as criminals exslaves current slaves vagabonds etc Ph osophy Believed in freedom were actively shaping their future Defending their homes Contracts with the gov were held dear serve your time and the gov will pay you and let you go off May colonials also believed in the justice of their war because they believed that God was on their side First Battles BunkerBreed s Hill and Ft Ticonderoga were both won in 1775 18th of all British of cers killed during the war died at Breeds Hill Still ghting as Englishmen until they realize that a few things need to change Wont be able to get anywhere without allies like France and Spain King George and parliament are not negotiating they want to violently stamp out the rebellion After burning of Falmouth and Norfolk by the Royal Navy the colonists realize that the British don39t care about them Washington s strategy Has to defend Americans ability to wage war not every town Adopts a strategy of retreat and only attacking when it was clear he could win Avoided pitched battles Northern Campaign 1777 Militias are ghting with the Continental Army under Washington s command Ri emen are deployed as skirmishers and snipers Less than 10 of the army owned ri es Ri es were very slow to load due to the ri ing Very accurate and had longer range Develop Dragoon Cavalry dismountable horsemen that can also ght as infantry Americans Find some success at Saratoga but it is a largely unsuccessful campaign 0 177778 Valley Forge Winter A starving time for the army but important developments The Marquis de Lafayette becomes a close friend of Washington and a skilled General as does Nathaniel Greene Gen Von Stueban arrives and trains the Continentals in Prussian fashion Whios them into a real ghting force France becomes an ally in 1778 followed by Spain in 1779 and the Dutch in 1780 once they realize the colonists won39t be easily defeated 0 Southern Campaign Militia often involved in a larger role Became an attrition war quotTarleton s Quarterquot meant take no prisoners because British Gen Tarleton did not take prisoners Numerous mutinies in the winter of 177980 in the Continental army but it survives Low point in the war Benedict Arnold betrays West Point to the British 0 Americans lose the Battle of Camden due to American Gen Gates inability to use his militia made them the entire left ank which was easily turned by the British Regulars 1781 Battle of Cowpens northern SC Led by Daniel Morgan Green39s second in command 0 Used the militia effectively Put his dragoons hidden in the rear with ri emen out front of his main lines on a hill with the militia Ordered the skirmishers to re 2 shots and retreat drawing the British into a trap as the British pursued the eeing skirmishers One of the few decisive American victories of the war Nathaniel Greene never wins a battle but wins the war He can replace what he loses while the British cannot he pulls them into VA far away from the British supply lines in Charleston SC British Surrender 1781 o Surrender at Yorktown effectively ends the war 0 Lots of myth that America stood alone and such 0 Outcomes French contributed a navy and immense amounts of weapons troops and ammunition Foreign assistance forces the British to ght on a global scale the American Revolution becomes a back water 0 First time that a dedicated group of volunteers stood up to a mighty empire in uences the French and Haitian Revolutions in the next decade Native Americans come out as the real losers Sided with the British during the war now subject to American ire Results in the dual army tradition of quotcitizensoldiersquot Was it radical or conservative First colonial nation makes it radical as does its adoption of liberal tenants Socially it was conservative the same people who were running the show before remain in power Women do not gain any sort of rights although they are celebrated as quotRepublican mothersquot Slaves do not gain freedom despite a revolution dedicated to freedom 0 The politics of establishing a military 0 0 Extremely political much of it due to liberalism which encourages debate Leaders have to reconcile liberty with a strong military At the time th military was the only major drain on gov funds was the main reason for taxing Republicans vs Federalists Federalist favor stronger gov and a large professional army lnclude GW A Hamilton John Adams Republicans favor less spending and looser federal control Includes Thomas Jefferson Threats to the new republic The Newburgh Conspiracy and address Disgruntled of cers of the revolution are not getting their pensions draft a mutinous address telling congress that they want their money or else 0 Washington is able to convince them otherwise and prevents the coup Henry Knox forms the Society of Cincinnati with other generals and some French ones even People fear that this group of stromgmen will run the country from behind closed doors Troops in Philly are waiting for their contracts to go up and mutiny in the capitol when congress cannot provide These factors contribute to public fear of a standing army 0 Washington39s 5 points Need a navy Western garrison for Indians and British forts Militia to a national guard makes them more professional and nannaHzed Arsenals for weapon storage Creation of a military academy West Point 0 Series of Comprimises 1St American Regiment hybrid military force reported to the congress as well as the governor of Penn The constitution a military with 2 masters the idea that one side wouldn39t be able to totally control the military 0 States cannot build their own militaries or make alliances Uniform Militia Act A protoSelective Service Act A way to create a quick response team to a crisis Was a way around a large standing army 0 The West 0 1791 o 1794 0 British and Indian enemies The Ohio Valley becomes important because immigrants want to settle the fertile valley Becomes a place of contention between US Indians and British forces Natives begin resisting American encroachment Becomes evident that the congressional response to the standing army is not working very well The Ohio Valley did not have a militia because it was a territory Congress sends the regular army numbering only 1200 men and of cers to control the area Gov St Clair looses 9001100 men convinces congress we need a larger force Also in uenced negotiations with Indians America didn39t want to ght wars so diplomacy was the preferred route but didn39t always work Whiskey Rebellion PA Farmers were angered by a tax placed on alcohol begin tar and feathering tax collectors Militia forces organize and march out to dispel the rebellion Large force shows the power that a large military projects Navy and the Quasi War with France 17981800 Washington s allots money for 6 frigates and new coastal forts to protect ports Quasi war comes up during debates about the size of the military Tips the republicans in the Federalists favros Authorize the creation of the Marine Corps as well as larger Army and Navy Passive military approach c 1800 Jefferson is elected in 1800 wants to reduce the size of almost everything Congress pulls funding on the navy most of the frigates never get built Policy of noninvolvement and defensive stance Creates gunboats instead of frigates Shallow draft good for calm seas and coastal areas 18011805 Tripoli Pirates and Gun Boats US had been paying the pirates not to attack their ships when the Pirates ignored this America sent her navy to defend merchants O O Tripoli pirates use gun boats on the Mediterranean Jefferson likes them because they are defensive small fast and coastal Gunboats could not take on frigates or operate out at sea and so they could not protect merchant ships Napoleonic Wars 18031815 British begin pressing American sailors into service on Royal Navy ships in order to support their war effort US getting sucked into European con ict Leads into the War of 1812 The West Increased antagonism on the part of the Indians Tecumseh and his brother Shawnee Indians form a large alliance and raid American outposts Defeated by William Henry Harrison at Tippecanoe in 1811 0 War of 1812 0 US navy 16 total ships 7 frigates 3 heavy British had over 1000 ships US reverts to privateers 1300 ships sanctioned by 1815 Madison was against going to war was worried about debt and support on the war front and there was a lot of regional factionalism Many in New England didn39t want to invade Canada or ght the British Many also felt that the American focus shouls have been on the west War develops into 3 theaters Great Lakes Chesapeake and the Gulf Americans lose many battles Washington DC is burned Battle of lake Erie Commodore Perry defeats the British on the Great Lakes Battle of the Thames Tecumseh is killed New Orleans Andrew Jackson holds off the British southern advance kills 3 of their top generals in the hemisphere Treaty of Ghent Americans embrace the myth of defeating the British 0 Only reason we weren39t destroyed is because they were dealing with Napoleon Was the last time America gets involved in a European war until WWI US looks inward to reform and revaluate military policy Context 18151845 0 O The economic market expands with the Industrial Revolutions more revenue means you spend more on the army Army is professionalized and of cer corps is created Sent to the west which was a miserable place to be US Navy and Army both bene t from post1815 nationalism People in favor of larger military Congress approves a 12000 man regular army Creates a General Staff embedded at the top levels of the gov to help with logistics and policy General Staff creates confusion as to who is in charge this was not laid out in the Constitution 0 Industrial Revolution develops projectiles such as the Minie Balls which were actually conical shaped musket balls More accurate especially with a grooved ri e Longer range up to 500 yards if you were an expert Ri es can now be loaded through the breech Faster loading percussion caps rather than black powder pan 0 Napoleon s in uence New schools of thought on war and how to conduct one Prussians also have a strong military tradition and develop a war college of their own in uenced by Clausewitz which laid out important thoughts on how wars should be fought a cold calculating approach to battle Others like Jomini wrote the Art of War focusing on the logistical side of war West Point and Annapolis 1845 train their cadets based on Napoleonic tenants 0 Looking west more and more Armies role in this is to build infrastructure building railroads digging ditches and laying railroad When they were not doing this they were sent to ght a very determined lndian enemy Policy position stemming from the Monroe Doctrine 1823 Nations are like free people should be able to develop on their own 0 US will not get involved in Europe but would oppose European powers colonial expansion into the Western Hemisphere Did not want interference in Latin America 0 America acts as the gate keeper to the Western Hemisphere Manifest Destiny 0 Farmers and pioneers are the vanguard Felt they had a god given right to territorial expansion 0 The men in the army have to secure the west for expansion
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