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Notes from Article and Powerpoint

by: V.L.Anchondo

Notes from Article and Powerpoint BED 3344

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > Language > BED 3344 > Notes from Article and Powerpoint
Parent/Community Advocacy
Vanessa Espitia Mendoza

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Parent/Community Advocacy
Vanessa Espitia Mendoza
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by V.L.Anchondo on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BED 3344 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Vanessa Espitia Mendoza in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Parent/Community Advocacy in Language at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
P TH Issue Brief September 2009 1 Parental Engagement in the Elementary I and Secondary Education Act w N 0 Child Left Behind Act ESEANCLBl f39f t I BACKGROUND AND HISTORY ln 1965 President Lyndon Johnson signed into law the Elementary and Secondary Education Act ESEA which remains the most comprehensive federal education legislation in the United States today The original ESEA is best known for the its first chapter Title I which designates increased funding to schools and districts with lowaincome students in order to fight poverty and improve education in high need communities1 When ES EA was first passed the law did not include parental involvement requirements Later that year however the US Office of Education issued guidelines that schools should encourage parents to volunteer in the classroom2 President Richard Nixon enacted ESEA changes in 1973 that required all schools receiving Title l funds to establish Title One Parent Advisory Councils TOPACS which would have a membership elected by and composed of parents TOPACs and parental involvement provisions quot were further strengthened in 1978 In addition to increasing TOPAC s capacity and authority to make decisions with school districts on the use of federal funds the Education Amendments of 1978 required parents to be involved in developing programs and w provided with information about Title progress and their children s academic performance4 JThe reauthorization of ESEA in 1982 however weakened or eliminated many of these requirements leaving ESEA without strong parental involvement provisions5 More than a decade later in 1994 President Bill Clinton signed legislation that represented a more comprehensive model of parental involvement in I education6 These changes required Title I schools to develop SchoolParent Compacts outlining how students parents and schools would work together to meet state academic standards7 The 1994 law also a added multiple types of home and school involvement h quot and required Title I schools to spend at least one J quot percent of their Title funds on parental involvement The newest version of ESEA the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ESEA NCLB addresses parent and family involvement in education in a number of N sections most notably Section 1118 of Title and Title V Section 1118 of Title 1 provides the most comprehensive policies on parent involvement in education and district and school responsibilities for communication and collaboration with parents Title V authorizes Parental Information and Resource Centers PlRCs which are required to provide services to parents schools and the community that facilitate and develop parental involvement in education ESEANCLB also contains for the first time in law a broad definition of parental involvement based on the PTA National Standards for Parent and Family involvement Though the current ESEA NCLB provides guidance on parental involvement federal monitoring has found that State Education Agencies SEAS Local Education Agencies LEAS and schools are struggling to fully implement ESEA NCLB s parental involvement requirements9 t PT kmmmm One of the National Parent Teacher Association s PTA founding principles is its dedication to engaging parents in the education of their children Since the PTA39s inception it has provided workshops I and resources on child development to parent groups and community leaders In 1911 PTA advocated for a separate home education division within the US Bureau of Education Quite different from the present day home schooling movement home education was an international movement that encouraged parents to become knowledgeable on child development and education issues The US Bureau of Education created the division and named the PTA president as its director until 1919 when the division became a separate government agency In recent years PTA has developed the National Standards for FamilySchool Partnerships as well as assessment tools to measure these standards in schools Recognizing the importance of parent involvement in a child s education PTA has worked to ensure that provisions encouraging parental involvement were included in the 2001 reauthorization of ESEANCLB This version of ESEANCLB expired in 2007 and is due again for reauthorization As Congress and the Administration focus their efforts on ESEA NCLB parents PTA members and other child advocates have a unique opportunity to improve the law by ensuring that effective family engagement in education is a cornerstone of reauthorization PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT PROVISIONS AND PROGRAMS UNDER CURRENT LAW There are several provisions within ESEANCLB regarding parent involvement in education Following is an explanation of these provisions starting with the two most relevant sections of the law Section 1118 of Title and Title V and following with an overview of the other parental involvement provisions in ESEA NCLB II Title I Section 1118 This section contains ESEA NCLB s major parental involvement requirements Title I districts and schools receive a portion of federal funding proportionate to the amount of lowincome children residing in the 39 area Districts receiving more than 500000 in Title I funds must set aside at least one percent for parental involvement activities and distribute at least 95 percent of those funds to Title I schools 39 Parent Involvement Policies a a J 3 Title I districts and schools must work with parents A to develop written parental involvement policies at i quot the district and school level Districts must include the parental involvement policy in their Title I plan and distribute it to parents in a language and format W that parents can access and understand SEAS must x review districts parental involvement policies and 39k39 practices to ensure they meet the requirements in Section 1118 A district s parent involvement policy must address how the district will Involve parents in the joint development of its parental involvement policy and school improvement plan Provide coordination technical assistance and other support necessary to assist schools in planning and implementing effective parent involvement quot activities to improve student achievement j H a Build schools and parents capacity for strong parental involvement 39 0 Coordinate and integrate parental involvement policies created under Section 1118 with parental involvement strategies under other programs such as Head Start Conduct with parents an evaluation of the parental involvement policy in improving the academic quality of the school identify any barriers to greater parental participation and revise the policy to address these challenges r39l 39 I Action Provide technical assistance training and materials to parents to increase children s academic achievement 1 1 At the school level parental involvement policies detail the ways in which parents and schools will work together to meet these expectations Schools developing a parental involvement policy are required to inform parents of their right to participate in the policy development and to hold at least one annual meeting at a convenient time for parents describing the process and parents right to participate Schools must distribute the school policy to parents and make Jr it available to the community 9 I Inform parents of state standards assessments Section 1118 etc Work with parents to educate school staff on effective parental involvement strategies Integrate and coordinate parental involvement efforts with other programs to encourage and support parents in more fully participating in the reducatioh of their children J quotIn addition schools must work with parents to develop a School Parent Compact outlining each party s responsibility to support student learning for supporting student learning At minimum compacts must emphasize ongoing effective parent teacher communication in the form of annual parentteacher conferences frequent reports home and reasonable opportunities for parents to contact school staff volunteer and participate in or observe classroom activities involvement at parents request Title V Parental Information and Resource Centers and Local Family Information Centers Parental Information and Resource Centers Sections 5561 through 5565 of Title V authorize Parental Information and Resource Centers PlRCs x that provide statewide leadership capacitybuilding technical assistance training and support in the L fr 539 a Commanicatio r v Title I schools must provide parents with timely understandable information on school programs curricula assessments and expectations This includes offering flexible opportunities for parent meetings as requested Title districts and schools must inform parents and organizations of the Parental Information and Resource Centers PIRCs and provide migrant limited English proficient LEP and disabled parents opportunities to fully participate in their children s education Schools may even use a portion of their one percent set aside to provide transportation childcare or home visits to facilitate parental involvement and communication r39 t Itquot policies programs and activities to improve student academic achievement PIRCs are funded through a competitive grant process administered by the US Department of Education s Office of Innovation and Improvement Currently approximately 40 million funds 52 PIRCs across the nation with at least one in each state Recently PIRCs have transitioned from providing direct services to using a quality framework that creates a statewide infrastructure for I parental involvement and leadership The National 5 PIRC Coordination Center operated by a federally funded partnership between Southwest Educational Development Laboratory and Harvard Family Research Project provides technical assistance and training r to PIRCs to fulfill this expanded role I H 9 39 i Capacity Building 39 quot htle l districts and schools must also help build capacity for parental involvement in the following wayslo lam crises Action 9 i a H I and hem StUdemS meet academlcl andards f I I 0 Ensure that information communicated to parents The compact describes the schools responsrbility I is in a format and language they cam understand to provide a highquality curriculum instruction rf g 1 and learning environment and parents39 responsibility I Provide other reasonabe supports for parenta implementation of effective parent involvement r I u I K l39 r LJ quot 1 t it llquot 93 Jquot h Currently PlRC s responsrbrlrtles are very broad They include 1 Serving rural and urban areas Iquot Using at least half of their federal grant to serve areas with high concentrations of lowincome children 0 Using at least 30 percent of their federal grant for early childhood parent programs 0 Focusing on serving parents of low income minority and LEP children I Networking with LEAs schools parents and other relevant organizations and agencies Coordinating the efforts of federal state and local agencies that provide parent involvement or family education programming and identifying proposed needs and the best means of delivery for services PlRC funding must be used to assist parents in one or more of the following ways11 Assisting parents in participating effectively in their children s education and helping students meet State and local standards 0 Obtaining information about a range of services and programs available to assist parents and school personnel s work with parents Helping parents use technology 0 Supporting State or local education personnel in participating in parent involvement activities Coordinating and integrating early childhood programs with school age programs Local Family Information Centers Section 5566 of Title V authorizes Local Family Information Centers LFle If PIRC appropriations were to exceed 50 million in a fiscal year the US Secretary of Education then has the option to grant half of the exceeding amount to local nonprofit parent organizations to establish LFICs These centers provide direct services to parents in local communities by helping them obtain the training information and support they need to effectively engage in their children39s education and raise their academic achievement However because PlRCs have never received sufficient funding LFICs have never been funded or implemented Other Parental Involvement Provisions in ESEA NCLB Parental involvement is a component of other provisions in ESEA NCLB as well SEAS LEAs and schools are required to share several sources of information with and solicit input from parents Following is an explanation of these requirements organized by Title and Section Title l Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged Section 1001 One of ESEA NCLB39s purposes is to provide parents with substantial and meaningful opportunities to participate in their children s education Section 1111 SEAS receiving Title funds must Collect and distribute to districts and schools effective parental involvement practices that are based on the most current highquality research 39 Assist districts and schools in developing and implementing parental involvement policies and activities P Jones Action 0 Distribute annual state report cards on student performance and teacher quality Districts must also distribute annual report cards on district and school performance At the start of every school year Title districts must notify parents of children in Title I schools that those parents can request to see the credentials of their children s teachers or paraprofessionals Title l schools must also notify parents if their child has been taught for four or more consecutive weeks by an instructor who is not highly qualified in the content area they are teaching Section 1112 Districts receiving Title funds must develop with school staff and Title parents plans describing how the district will work with schools to develop and implement effective parental involvement Title districts must reach out to parents of LEP students to enable those parents to become more involved in their children s education and to help their children become English proficient SEAs must annually review Title l districts plans to ensure they meet requirements in Section 1118 Sections 1114 and 1115 If a Title l school fails to meet state academic standards for adequate yearly progress for two consecutive years the district must identify the school as in need of improvement When notifying parents that their child s school or district has been identified for improvement Title I schools must explain how parents can become involved to help improve the school or district Title I schools or districts in need of improvement must also develop with parents a school improvement plan or a districtwide improvement plan If the school has a Title l Schoolwide Program the school must establish strategies to increase effective parental involvement to help improve the school In addition Title districts must review the effectiveness of schools parental involvement activities and assist schools in need of improvement with identifying and addressing problems in implementing Section 1118 SEAS must annually review the effectiveness of districts parental involvement and related activities Section 1116 Each year Title l districts must notify parents with children in Title l schools in need of improvement that their children can transfer to better public schools or request supplemental educational services such as tutoring Section 1117 States must create statewide School Support Teams to assist Title l schools These teams must include parents Section 1903 SEAS must create a Committee of Practitioners that includes parents The committee advises the state on implementing Title and reviews related state rules and regulations Title II Preparing Training and Recruiting High Quality Teachers and Principals Section 2122 Districts receiving federal Title ll funds must describe how the district will train teachers and principals to better involve families in their children s education especially immigrant and LEP families Title ll also encourages districts and schools to use technology such as email and web pages to increase parental involvement Title IX General Provisions Statutory Definition of Parental Involvement Section 9101 For the first time in law ESEANCLB defines parental involvement as The participation of parents in regular two way and meaningful communication involving student academic learning and other school activities including ensuring A that parents play an integral role in assisting their child s learning 8 that parents are encouraged to be actively involved in their child s education at school C that parents are full partners in their child s I education and are included as appropriate in w decisionmaking and on advisory committees to assist in the education of their child D the carrying out of other activities such as those described in Section 1118 t i t RESOURCES AND CONTACT lNFDRMATlDN For further information on the National PTA s recommendations for the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act ESEA NCLB please see PTA s annual Public Policy Agenda Available online at httpztwwwptaorgPTAPublicPolicyPDFfinalpdf If you should have any questions about ESEANCLB please contact Lela Spielberg MEd l Education Policy Analyst National PTA Office of Public Policy Address 1400 l Street NW Suite 300 Washington DC 20005 Telephone 202 289 6790 Ext 215 Email lspielbergptaorg Endnotes 1 Page A Winter 2006 Getting Ruby a Quality Public Education 42 Years of Building the Demand for Quality Public Schools through Parental and Public involvement Harvard Educational Review Volume 76 Number 4 pp 57085 2 D Agostino J et al 2001 Title Parent Involvement Programs Effects on Parenting Practices in Student Achievement In G Boorman S Stringfield and R Slaven Eds Title I Compensatory Education at the Crossroads pp 117 36 Mahwah NJ Lawrence Earlbaum Associates 3 Fege A 4 lbid 5 lbid 6 D Agostino J et al in Weiss H and Stephen N Book in Process Chapter 21 From Periphery to Center a New Vision and Strategy for Family School and Community Partnerships 7 lbid 8 lbid 9 200708 Expanded Title I Monitoring Parental involvement Student Achievement and School Accountability Programs SASA US Department of Education p 4 10 Section 1118 lists many optional capacity building activities as well 11 Section 5554 lists other permissive activitiesquot for PlRCs but does not require PlRCs to implement one or any of the permissive activities and programs everychild onavoice PTA National Headquarters 541 N Fairbanks Court Suite 1300 Chicago 1L 6061 1 3396 Tolleroe 800 307 4P TA 4782 Fax 312 670 6783 PTA0rg PTA Of ce of Public Policy 1400 L Street NW Suite 300 Washington DC 20005 9998 Phone 202 2896790 Fax 202 289 6791


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