Consumer Health HTH 4513
Popular in Course
Popular in Health Sciences
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Lucas Hickle on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HTH 4513 at University of Texas at San Antonio taught by James Clark in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/231417/hth-4513-university-of-texas-at-san-antonio in Health Sciences at University of Texas at San Antonio.
Reviews for Consumer Health
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/29/15
Consumer Health Final 12142014 74100 PM Mack has been hospitalized and is under the care of a physician at that hospital Upon his discharge Mack will be referred to another physician while in the hospital Mack s care is supervised by a o A hospitalists Which statement is true regarding loss ratios for health insurance companies o B The loss ratio is calculated by dividing the amount paid out in benefits by the amount received in premiums Asgrinacetylsalicylic acid is effective against pain fever and inflammation inhibits blood clotting cheapest buffered aspirin has antacids enteric coated dissolves after leaving stomach delayed onset Dartmouth and U Chicago Med studies show aspirin protects against colorectal cancer small does had 40 reduction intestinal polyps high dose 20 reduction polyps longterm dose reduces cancers of mouth esophagus stomach breast Cautions may cause 0 Hypersensitivityallergic reaction 0 Gastrointestinal disturbances with internal bleeding 0 Ototoxicityringing in ears from large dose 925 tabs 325mg each 0 Prothrombin depressionreduce plasma for clotting 0 Over dose2535 lowdose aspirins 81mg each 0 Reye39s syndromein children or teens with viruses rare but can be fatal 0 Pregnancy large amts During later mo Of pregnancy can cause adverse effects for both mother and fetus More than 3250 mgday 10 adult tabs can delay prolong labor cause greater blood loss at delivery increase perinatal mortality and decrease neonatal birth weight Low doses of Aspirin prevent heart attacks 1 Previously suffered a heart attack or stroke 2 can save a life of heart attack victim if taken within hours of onset 3 prevent in individuals who are healthy with no history of heart disease 4 may prevent high blood pressure during pregnancy 5 may lesson frequency of migraines 6 may reduce the risk of developing colon cancer the KefauverHarris amendment1962 to the food act and cosmetic in 1938 pg 505 Overhauled and strengthened the drug provisions of the FDampC act of 1938 because Dr Kelsey prevented the release of Thalidomide on the US market because there were reports of deformed German babies being born after the mothers took thalidomide during their pregnancy Embalmingsome funeral directors charge for it even when viewing the body is not part of the service is when they replace bodily fluids with disinfecting chemicals to help preserve the body It is not needed though some states require it ch 21 waiting period loss ratio tactics insurance companies use to cut cost Some insurance companies have probation periods When medical exams aren39t required there is usually a 3 month waiting penod Maternity benefits may not be granted until 1012 months after the policy has been issue Waiting periods for surgeries such as tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy appendectomy hemorrhoid surgery and hernia repair Loss RatioThe amount of money a company pays out in claims amount paid in benefits divided by amount received in premiums High loss is favorable low loss indicates company is insufficient or making excess profits vary plan to plan company to company PPACA requires rebates to consumers if their loss ratios are lower than 8085 Rogaine FDA approved 1988 1996 FDA made it OTC oapply twice a day oMinoxidil marketed as Rogaine has some ability to retard malepattern baldness Minoixidil was originally approved by the FDA for the treatment of high blood pressure However in certain concentrations it was found to spur the growth of body hair 25 of men and 20 of women will attain hair regrowth works best 40yrs old with 10 years of baldness 30 no results 60 insignificant hair growth 10noticeable hair growth LigosuctionReshape parts of body using tube and vacuum device to remove unwanted fat deposits that don39t respond to dieting and exercise side effectstemp swelling and discomfort infection bagginess of skin pigmentation changes permanent if person doesn t regain weight cost 2884 mesotheragx oclaimed to be a nonsurgical alternative to liposuction o is claimed to permanently remove fat and improve body contours Touted as a nonsurgical alternative to liposuction involves injecting medications and plant extracts into layers of fat and connective tissue under the skin The injected ingredients may include agents that are used to open blood vessels nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications enzymes nutrients antibiotics and hormones 36 treatments required 10001500 per treatment FDA warns that no efficient studies prove effectiveness or safety Consumer reportsJohn Santa expert bias free fact based evaluations 3000 hospitals ranked drug recommendations ratings of safety and effectiveness of supplements advises that staffing ratios be considered when choosing a hospital but it notes that this information can be difficult to obtain Also the information may not be as reliable as they want Bovine Somatropin BSTgenetically engineered growth hormone used to increase milk production in dairy cow doesn t alter the milk no health risks l39iif quotquot J39l quot 7 Fl Incorporating adequate amounts of fiber water and exercise into ones daily routine can help prevent constipation Face liftimprove sagging facial skin jowls and loose neck skin by removing excess fat tightening muscles and redraping skin Lasts for an average of 510 years injury to nerves controlling facial muscles and feeling infection scaring asymmetry questionable claimspg 396 Durable power of attorneygives someone usually a family member the permission to make treatment decisions when a patient cannot which they must abide by by law antibiotics and viruses Antibiotics are typically prescribed for a specific period of time to eradicate germs that remain even though symptoms of the infection have disappeared Antibiotics are useless towards viruses most commonly used antimicro bacterial dramatically reduced death rates serious adverse effects resistance over 100 antibiotics Benzyl peroxideworks by producing irritation that speeds up the turnover of cells lining the follicle Often stings and burns most effective OTC ingredient for acne Key ingredient in ProActive illegal practice by insurance companies and health providers financial abuse physicians charge insured patients a higher fee and represent to the insurance companies that it is the normal fee when it is not illegal procedure is quotunbundlingquot which involves billing separately for procedures that normally are covered by a single fee An example would be a podiatrist who operates on three toes and submits claims for three separate operations Other forms of fraud include quotupcodingquot charging for a more complex service than was performed miscoding using a code number that does Not apply to the procedure charging for a service that was not performed deliberately ordering unnecessary tests for the purpose of financial gain and compensation kickback for making a referral Skin cancers including melanoma Skin cancers are most common among fairskinned lightly pigmented people oBASAL CELL CARCINOMAS These usually appear on the face ears or scalp as pale wax like pearly nodules They do not metastasize spread through the body but if untreated can harm surrounding tissues oSQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS These appear as red scaly sharply outlined patches If untreated they can metastasize oMELANOMAS These typically start as a mole like growth that increases in size and darkness They metastasize early and are highly malignant Staphylococcus bacteria Organism causing toxic shock syndrome high fever vomiting diarrhea rash liverkidney failure rapid blood pressure Excessive drying of the vaginal tissue can increase the risk of vaginal infection and susceptibility to toxic shock syndrome TSS a rare but potentially fatal infection Caused by Usually from use of tampons palliative care Hospices provide symptomrelieving to patients and families in both home and hospital settings This includes physical personal care psychological fear anxiety grief social individual and family support and spiritual religious aid by a medically supervised interdisciplinary team of professionals and volunteers Specialists in death awareness are available oMost hospice programs belong to the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization NHPCO a nonprofit advocacy group founded in 1978 The NHPCO estimates that in 2009 about 40 of hospice patients had cancer 13 had unspecified disability 12 had heart disease 11 had dementia and 8 had lung disease antihistaminessedativecounteract histamine a substance released during allergic reactions Found in many cold remedies Despite common beliefs they have no ability to prevent or abort colds or to relieve cold symptoms they can also cause drowsiness especially when combined with alcohol It can become dangerous with those two combined many uses sleep aids in some PMS drugs allergic reaction treatment vas deferens Male sterilization vasectomy is accomplished by cutting and sealing the vas deferens the tube from each testicle through which sperm travels before it is stored for ejaculation Procedures take 20min outpatient labs need to be done periodically after to ensure tubes have not reopened o traditional method local anesthetic incision each side of the scrotum complications swelling infection sperm leakage blood clots o No scalpel methodmicro vasectomy scrotal skin is open by puncture to reach the vas deferens decreases possibility of complications nerve claim shown to treat erectile dysfunction a penile prosthesisimplant may be useful if all other medical treatments are exhausted Viagra Cialis and Levitra have shown a 50 success rate Aphrodisiacs banned by FDA in 1990 EnZyte herbal mixture claimed to increase size of erection permanently founder Steve Warshak convicted of fraud poppers rush thrust hardware locker room bolt inhalant drugs to enhance sexual pleasure sold as room odorizersincense to avoid FDA jurisdiction contain amylbutyl bitrates causes dilations of the blood vessels to increase blood flow deaths have been reported from combining with Viagra percentage of UV light that should be filtered out by sunglasses oAt least 99 UV radiation should be blocked out oScreen out at least 75 of visible light oBe perfectly matched in colors and free of distortion oHave lenses that are gray preferable color green or brown oThe higher the UV number the more important it is to take protective measures douchingconsists of forcing water or other fluids into the vagina for cleansing causes drying and disrupts normal bacteria should never been done 6 weeks after giving birth or miscarriage oIncreases risk of STD and pregnancy oIncreases risk of cervical cancer oDouching alters pH balance of vagina oDouching is not needed for cleanliness oDouching within 3 days before pelvic examination or pap smear can interfere with the accuracy of these procedures can contain local anesthetics which can cause the masking of infection symptoms caffeine high BP tachycardia oTachycardia is when the heart beats over 100 beats per minute The relation between tachycardia and caffeine is that caffeine makes your heart beat faster and if you have tachycardia and consuming caffeine it can be bad for your heart oCaffeine slightly enhances pain relief Anacin aspirin caffeine Excedrin aspirin acetaminophen caffeine side effects of caffeine inhibit sleep stomach upset heartburn palpitations ulcers drug interactions drink coffee with your aspirin r i if payment of health care cost by preventive governments comprehensive care for all Canadians high tech equipment limited Zinc Mineral marketed as cold remedy Cleveland Clinic Study 133mg2hrs 6 per day lozenges taste worse than placebos fewer symptoms shorter duration based on self report not confirmed by other research Long term Zn might impair immunity and cause malnutrition benefits unknown any benefits are minor negative ion generators aeroiontherapy Proponents claim illness can be prevented by neutralizing positive ions with mechanically produced negative ions polluted air may be lower in negative ions and higher in positive excess positive is claimed to cause a variety of physical and emotional problems scientific studies fail to support these claims generators may produce toxic amounts of ozone Hormonal contraceptives These hormones suppress ovulation thicken the cervical mucus interfere with the transport of sperm through the tubes and make the tissue that lines the uterus less receptive to implantation of a preembryo Oral contraceptives OC39s available only by prescription contain 1 or 2 hormones combo pills contain estrogen and progestin minipills contain only progestin Depot medroxyprodesterone acetate DPMA synthetic drug 100 effective injected every 12 weeks Ortho Evra patch releases estrogen and progestin worn every 3 weeks Nuva ring placed in vagina for 3 weeks delivers both estrogen and progestin mirenaIUD up to 5yrs releases progestin Paraguardreleases copper to prevent sperm from reaching uterus Diaphragm barrier flexible rubber barrier that covers the cervix and provides protection for 6 hours should be used with contraceptive jelly or cream left in place for at least 6 hours after intercourse do not wear for more than 24 hours mi abortion drug that blocks progesterone which is essential for maintaining pregnancy first few weeks after conception Athletes foot tinea pedis Most prevalent superficial infection in humans Caused by fungus Classified symptomatically as acute weeping and inflammatory lesions or sub acutechronic dry scaly skin Itching burning and stinging occur FDA approved clioquinol tolnaftate and undecylenic acid and its salts haloprogin micronzole nitrate and nystatin for safe and effective treatment 30 Obama patient protection and affordable care act Hope to control healthcare costs provide access to quality affordable health care for Americans and reduce deficit 2010 coverage for young adults smallbusiness tax credits preexisting condition insurance plan new insurance rules protection for children quotdoughnut holequot rebates preventive care payment reform workforce improvements early retirees access to care quality improvement annual review of premium increases 2011 limits on nonmedical spending by health plans quotdoughnut hole discounts physician quality reporting new payment and delivery approaches longterm care insurance program pharmaceutical manufacturer fee OTC drug reimbursement restrictions benefit disclosure 2012 hospital readmissions accountable care hospital value based purchasing program understanding health disparities 2013 administrative simplification payment reform flexible spending limits Medicare taxes preventive services in Medicaid 2014 essential benefits package independent payment advisory board insurance industry fee new rules for insurers premium subsidies shared responsibility for coverage insurance exchanges Medicaid expansion Medicare managed care plans 2018 highcost insurance plans deceptive practices common in the water purify trade companies that offer free testing of home water supplies for quotcontaminationquot are interested in selling watertreatment devices whether needed or not some in home demonstrators add chemicals to tap water to change its color or to form particles that supposedly indicate contamination
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'