Foundations of Health Theory
Foundations of Health Theory HTH 3503
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Mrs. Lucas Hickle
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Lucas Hickle on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HTH 3503 at University of Texas at San Antonio taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/231419/hth-3503-university-of-texas-at-san-antonio in Health Sciences at University of Texas at San Antonio.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
INTRAPERSONAL CONTINUUMTHEORIES Health Belief Model Health behavior is determined by personal beliefs or perceptions about a disease and the strategies available to decrease its occurrence A Constructs 1 Perceived Severity individual s belief about the seriousness of the disease 2 Perceived Susceptibility the greater the perceived risk the greater the likelihood of engaging in behaviors that decrease the risk 0 Perceived severity perceived susceptibility perceived threat 3 Perceived Benefits person s opinions of the value or usefulness of a new behavior in decreasing the risk of developing a disease 4 Perceived Barriers individual s own evaluation of obstacles in the way of him or her adopting a new behavior 0 Benefits of new behavior must outweigh consequences of old behavior 5 Modifiable variables 6 Cues to Action events people or things that move people to change behavior 7 Self efficacy belief in one s own ability to do something Theory of Planned Behavior39 39 39 39 beliefs 39 39 of 39 39 39 39 outcomes and attitude toward behaviors A Intention extent to which someone is ready to engage in a certain behavior B Constructs 1 Attitude a series of beliefs about something that affects the way we think and behave 2 Subjective norms behaviors we perceive important people expect of us and our desire to comply with these expectations 3 Volitional control extent to which we can decided to do something at will 4 Behavioral control extent of ease of difficulty we believe the performance of a behavior to be Behavior Belief Attitudes Evaluations of Toward Behavioral Behavior Outcomes Beliefs Subjective Behavioral Norm Intention Motivation to Comply Control Beliefs perceived Behavioral Perceived Contro Power INTRAPERSONAL STAGE TH EORIES Transtheoretical Model Processes of change how help people move through stages of change when A Constructs 1 Stages of Change when change occurs Pre contemplation people in this stage don t recognize they have a behavior needing change or are just not ready to change because they are either uninformed or under informed about the behavior or due to past experience Contemplation people recognize there is a problem and are starting to think about making a change but are hesitant o Cues to action cause people to consider change 0 Decisional balance process of weighing pros and cons of new behavior against the old Preparation begins once the decision to change behavior is made 0 Make plans obtain any tools needed learn new skills etc Action plan put to work but doesn t necessarily mean a behavior change people actively trying to modify behavior Maintenance people work to prevent relapsing to old behavior Termination time when people who have changed have zero temptation to return to old behavior 2 Self ef cacy 3 Processes of Change how change occurs Consciousness Raising process whereby people obtain information about themselves and the problem behavior become aware Dramatic Relief being able to express feelings about or react emotionally to behavior Environmental Reevaluation looking at behavior in light of its impact or effect on the physical environment Social Liberation process whereby options or alternatives are sought that support new behavior Self reevaluation process in which people look at themselves with and without the problem behavior and assess the differences in their self esteem Stimulus Control when people remove the cues or triggers for the problem behavior from their environment Helping Relationships relationships with people who act as a support system for changing bad behavior Counter Conditioning healthier behavior is substituted for unhealthy one Reinforcement management deals with rewards and punishments 0 Self liberation people choose to change behavior believe they can and commit to making the change Precaution Adoption Process Model explains how a person comes to the decision to take action and how he or she translates that decision into action A Behavior is dynamic and changes over time B Different concepts and constructs from other theories can also be applied here to help people move from one stage to the next Unaware of Unengaged Deciding Decided Acting MaIntenance the Issue by the Issue to Act to Act Deciding Not to Act Health Action Process Approach A Motivation to Change Phase preintentional processes that lead to the development of behavioral intention 1 Perceived Self efficacy 2 Outcome Expectations 3 Risk Perception High risk low probability to change behavior B Self regulatory Phase leads to actual health behavior 1 Planning 2nitiative 3 Maintenance 4 Relapse Management 5 Disengagement Perceived I Selfeffica cy Outcome r k A Intention Planning Initiative Maintenance A Risk Relapse Perception V l Disengagement INTERPERSONAL CONTINUUM THEORY Social Cognitive Theory most widely used but very complex A Reciprocal determination dynamic interplay among personal factors knowledge skills experience culture etc the environment and behavior changing one of these three parts will change them all Constructs 1 Self ef cacy 2 Observational Learning Modeling learning by watching others and copying their behaviors 3 Expectations people behave in certain ways because of the results they expect 4 Expectancies values we place on outcomes of behaviors 5 EmotionalArousal emotional reaction to a situation and its resulting behavior 6 Behavioral Capability knowledge and skills needed to engage in a particular behavior 7 Reinforcement the rewards for doing something 0 Positive give something good 0 Negative take away something bad 0 Punishment 0 Positive give something bad 0 Negative take away something good 8 Locus of Control one s beliefs regarding one s personal power over life events COMMUNITY CONTINUUM TH EORIES Diffusion oflnnovation means and rate by which a new idea is disseminated and adopted by society A Constructs 1 Innovation something new 0 Relative Advantage an innovation has a better chance of being adopted if it s better than what already out there 0 Trialability trial base of product can increase adoption 0 Complexity the more complex the innovation the less likely it will be adopted 0 Compatibility innovation must be compatible with existing values and needs to people culture and social environment 0 Observability if results of using innovation can be seen by others it s more likely to be adopted 0 Risk the higher the risk of using the innovation the less likely it will be adopted 0 Flexibility can be used in a variety of ways 0 Reversibility can go back to using old thing if not satisfied 0 Cost efficiency not to expensive 2 Communication Channel how word of innovation spreads 0 Mass media is most rapid way to communicate 3 m 0 Innovation Decision Process 0 Knowledge of innovation starts communication channel 0 Persuasion people develop an attitude about innovation 0 Decision people engage in activities that results in a decision to adopt or reject the innovation 0 Implementation occurs when innovation is tried or tested 0 Confirmation when decision is to adopt people need reinforcement that they decision they made was good 0 Adoption Curve sorts people based on when they will accept innovation 0 Innovators risk takers first to try innovation educated reached through mass media 0 Early Adopters opinion leaders in community role models reached through mass media state regional 0 Early Majority greatly influenced by opinion leaders and mass media reached through demonstrated adoption patterns of innovators and early adopters local channels 0 Late Majority question change choose to wait until innovation is an established norm most ready if required by law o Laggards conservative and traditions last to adopt innovation if ever low education reached through oneonone communication channel 4 Social System individuals or groups that are engaged in solving a joint problem to accomplish a goal group structure into which innovation is being introduced COMMUNITY STAGE THEORY Community Readiness Model deals with group processes and organizations A Nine Stages 1 No Awareness problem not recognized by community or leaders 2 Denial little or no recognition or nothing can be done about issue 3 Vague Awareness there is a problem but no motivation to do something 4 Prepanning clear recognition of issue 5 Preparation planning but not based on collected data must gather information 6 Initiation information available to justify and begin efforts little resistance community involvement 7 Stabilization programs are running smoothly and supported by community 8 Con rmation and Expansion enhance services 9 Professionalism maintain momentum and continue growth PLANNING MODELS Change process theories specify the relationships among casual processes operating both within and across levels of analysis explain how change takes place PRECEDEPROCEED Model A PRECEDE Predisposing Reinforcing and Enabling Constructs in Educational Ecological Diagnosis and Evaluation consists of a series of planed assessments that generate information that will be used to guide subsequent decisions B PROCEED Policy Regulatory and Organizational Constructs in Educational and Environmental Development marked by the strategic implementation of multiple actions based on what was learned from the assessments in the initial phase begins with the final consequences and works backwards to causes MATCH Multilevel Approach To Community Health ecological planning perspective that recognizes that intervention activities can and should be aimed at a variety of objectives and individuals Intervention Mapping based on importance of planning programs that are based on theory or evidence A Six Steps 1 Needs Assessment an effort to get to know and understand the character of the priority population 0 Scientific epidemiologic behavioral and social analysis of a priority 2 Matrices of Change Objectives specifies who and what will change as a result of the intervention planners create a matrix of change objectives for intervention 3 Theory Based Methods and Practical Strategies planners work to identify strategies that hold the greatest promise to change health behaviors of individuals 4 Program planners create details for intervention and materials needed for the implementation of the program based on methods and strategies 5 Adoption and Implementation development on matrices that focus on adoption and implementation performance objectives focus on what will be done by whom amongst the planners 6 Evaluation Planning planners decide if determinants were well specified and whether or not implementation was complete and executed as planned IV CDCynergy developed specifically for health professionals A Six Phases 1 Describe Problem identify and define problems that may be addressed by your program interventions conduct research 2 Analyze Problem list causes develop goals select intervention 3 Plan Intervention decide if communication is needed as dominant intervention and or as support for other interventions 4 Develop Intervention 5 Plan Evaluation 6 Implement Plan V SMART Social Marketing and Assessment and Response Tool the application of commercial marketing technologies to analysis planning execution and evaluation of programs designed to influence voluntary behaviors of target audience to improve their personal welfare in that society A Seven Phases Preliminary Planning identify problem and develop goals ConsumerAnaIysis wants needs preferences of priority populations MarketAnalysis identify competitors allies and partners in market Channel Analysis how to communicate message Develop Interventions Material and Pretest Implementation NUWP IPS JEquot Evaluation INTRAPERSONAL INTERPERSONAL CONTINUUM Health Belief Model Health behavior determined by personal beliefs or perceptions about a disease and strategies available to decrease its occurance Constructs Perceived Severity Perceived Susceptibility Perceived Benefits Perceived Barriers Other Variables Modifiable variables cues to action selfefficacy Social Cognitive Theom Reciprocal Determination changing one factor will change all Constructs Selfefficacy Observational Learning Expectations Expectancies Emotional Arousal Behavioral Capability Reinforcement Locus of Control Theog of Planned Behavior Intention extent to which someone is ready to engage in a certain behavior Constructs Attitude Subjective Norms Volitional Control Behavioral Control STAGE Health Action Process Approach Constructs Motivation to change phase Perceived Selfefficacy Outcome r I Risk Perception Intention Self Regulatory Phase Planning Initiation Maintenance Relape Management Disengagement Transtheoretical Model Constructs Stages of Change Pre contemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Termination Self efficacy Processes of change Consciousness Raising Dramatic Relief Environmental ReevaIuation Social liberation Selfreevaluation Stimulus Control Helping Relationships Counter Conditioning Reinforcement Management Selfliberation Precaution Adoption Process Model explains how a person comes to a decision to take action and how they translate that decision into action Constructs Unaware of Issue Unengaged by Issue Deciding to Act Deciding Not to Act Decided to Act Acting Maintenance COMMUNITY Diffusion of Innovation Means by which a new idea is disseminated and adopted by society Constructs Innovation Relative Advantage Trialability Complexity Compatibility Observability Communication Channel Time Innovation Decision Process Knowledge Persuasion Decision Implementation Confirmation Adoption Curve Innovators Early Adopters Early Majority Late Majority Laagards Social System
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