Introduction to Psychology
Introduction to Psychology PSY 1013
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Mrs. Lauriane Mayert
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Lauriane Mayert on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1013 at University of Texas at San Antonio taught by Lisa Silver in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/231421/psy-1013-university-of-texas-at-san-antonio in Psychlogy at University of Texas at San Antonio.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
9 Equot PPE J N E9 9 l l l O H N l l Pm H U39I 9 H l H 00 Psychology the scientific study of the mind and behavior Mind our private inner experience of perceptions thoughts memories and feelings Behavior observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals Plato a Nativism the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn Aristotle a Tabula rasa blank slate b Philosophical empiricism the philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience Rene Descartes a Dualism how mental activity can be reconciled and coordinated with physical behavior Thomas Hobbes a The mind is what the body does Franz Joseph Gall a Phrenology specific mental abilities and characteristics are localized in specific regions of the brain Paul Broca a Broca s area damage to this location causes impairments in language production but not comprehension William James applied scientific approach to psychology Herman von Helmholtz a Physiology the study of biological processes especially in the human body b Stimulus sensory input from the environment c Reaction time the amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory a Consciousness a person s subjective experience of the world and the mind b Structuralism the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind c Introspection the subjective observation of one s own experience Edward Titchener 44000 elemental qualities of conscious experience Functionalism the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment Charles Darwin a Natural selection the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations Illusions errors of perception memory or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality Max Wertheimer illusion of motion a Gestalt psychology a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts JeanMarie Charcot Pierre Janet a Hysteria a temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 i Multiple conscious quotselvesquot Sigmund Freud a Unconscious the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious thoughts feelings and actions b Psychoanalytic theory an approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings thoughts and behaviors c Psychoanalysis a therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers a Humanistic psychology an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings b Therapist and client are equal John Watson a Behaviorism an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior Margaret Floy Washburn a b van Pavlov Nonhuman animals have conscious experience First female PhD in psychology a Response an action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus b Stimulus 9 response BF Skinner a Animals learn by interacting with their environment b Conditioning chamber quotSkinner boxquot c Reinforcement the consequences of behavior determine whether it will be more or less likely to occur again d llteaching machines e Questioned freewill Sir Frederic Bartlett a Memory is influenced by our knowledge beliefs hopes aspirations and desires Jean Piaget a Studied development of child cognition Kurt Lewin a A person s construal of a stimulus is what determines their subsequent behavior b Topology model of person s subjective experience Advent of computers a Model for human mind both register store and retrieve information b Information processing systems Cognitive psychology the scientific study of mental processes including perception thought memory and reasoning Noam Chomsky Schacter Wegner Gilbert H Language Thought and Intelligence anaes prd by Melissa S Terlecki Cabrini College 71 Language And Communication Nothing s More Personal 0 Language a system for communicating with others using signals that convey meaning and are combined according to rules of grammar o The complex structure of human language distinguishes it from simpler signaling systems humans use words to refer to intangible things and to name categorize and describe things to ourselves when we think The Neurological Specialization That Allows Lan ua e to Develo o o Broca s area responsible for production of sequential patterns in vocal and sign languages left frontal lobe o Wernicke s area responsible for comprehension of vocal and sign languages left temporal lobe o Aphasia disorder involving the difficulty in producing or comprehending Klanguage Fiure 72 Broca s and Broca s area Wernicke s k area 72 Concepts And Categories How We Think or categorizes shared features of related objects events or other stimuli o Categoryspecific deficit a neurological objects outside the category undisturbed depends on where the brain is damaged 0 Concept a mental representation that groups syndrome that is characterized by an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category while leaving the ability to recognize Fiure 73 Brain Areas Involved In Cateor s ecific Processin Temporal N 39 lobe 1 E 39 F I J 39 7 1 L I 1 Temporal lobe 39 quot Temporal Visual cortex Visual cortex Obe Psychological Theories of 0 Family resemblance theory members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member 0 Prototype theory we make categorical judgments by comparing new instances to a category s prototype a prototype the best or most typical member of a category 0 Exemplar theory we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with Kstored memories for other instances of the J category Fiure 74 Family Resemblance 6m Domestic Generic bird Wren Blue heron Golden eagle goose Penguin Flies regularly J J Lays eggs Nests in trees Questions 0 How do prototypes and exemplars relate to each other j 73 Judging Valuing and Deciding Sometimes We re Logical Sometimes Not Decision Making a Rational choice theory we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen judging the value of the outcome and then multiplying the two 0 We are worse using probability versus frequency information in decision making 0 Conjunction fallacy when people think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event Fiure 76 The Conjunction L V I Linda is a bank teller I Linda is a feminist Linda writes poetry I Linda has endorsed a fairhousing petition Decision Making 0 Framing effects when people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased or framed a sunkcost fallacy when people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation 0 Prospect theory people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains a simplify available information a choose prospect with greatest value 74 Intelligence Intelligence 0 Intelligence a mental ability that enables people to direct their thinking adapt to their circumstances and learn from their experiences 0 Intelligence testing of immigrants 0 Difference between aptitude and achievement 0 Ratio IQ a statistic obtained by dividing a person s mental age by their physical age and then multiplying by 100 0 Deviation IQ a statistic obtained by dividing a person s test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying by 100 3 gwmg g Fiure 77 The Normal Curve 0 Percentage of individuals scoring in each interval 2 01 40 55 70 85 100 115 130 145 160 The Logic of Intelligence 0 Intelligence is a hypothetical property that enables people to perform a wide variety of consequential behaviors intelligence tests are an easily administered set of tasks that correlate with these behaviors c Intelligence tests predict success on a wide variety of behaviors o The StanfordBinet and the WAIS are examples of today s intelligence tests Fiure 78 The Logic of Grades in school Questions and tasks Job performance Income K Health etc Fiur Life Outcomes and Population Percentages Total population distribution 5 20 50 20 5 out of labor force more than 1 month 22 19 15 14 10 out of year men Unemployed more than 1 month out of year men 12 10 7 7 2 Divorced in 5 years 21 22 23 15 9 Had children outside 32 17 8 4 2 of marrlage women Lives in poverty 30 16 6 3 2 Ever incarcerated men 7 7 3 1 0 Chronic welfare recipient mothers 31 17 8 2 0 High school dropout 55 35 6 04 0 The Real World Look Smart 0 Ordinary people are relatively good judges of others intelligence 0 Research shows that intelligent people hold the gaze of their conversation partners both when speaking and listening Women tend to be better observers and intelligence in men is more easy to detect General and Specific Abilities o Spearman used factor analysis a statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors a most measures are positively correlated a twofactor theory of intelligence every task requires a combination of a general ability 9 and skills that are specific to the K task 8 General and Specific Abilities o Thurstone described primary mental abilities o More recently accepted is a threelevel hierarchy a general factor high level ability specific factors low level abilities and group factors middle level abilities Fiure 710 A Threelevel A C A L Questions 0 Why is the threelevel hierarchy of abilities a useful way to think about intelligence J Middlelevel Abilities 0 Carroll identified 8 independent middlelevel abilities a memory amp learning visual perception auditory perception retrieval ability cognitive speediness processing speed crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence 0 Fluid intelligence the ability to process information o Crystallized intelligence the accuracy and Kamount of information available for processing Questions 0 Is fluid intelligence like a processing system or like data What about crystallized intelligence J Middlelevel Abilities o Sternberg proposed 3 kinds of intelligence a analytic creative and practical intelligence 0 Gardner s studies of people including prodigies normal intelligence with an extraordinary ability and savants low intelligence with an extraordinary ability led him to propose 8 kinds of intelligence a linguistic logicalmathematical spatial musical bodilykinesthetic interpersonal intrapersonal and naturalistic intelligences a stresses cultural differences
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