Introduction to Psychology
Introduction to Psychology PSY 1013
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Mrs. Lauriane Mayert
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This 124 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Lauriane Mayert on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1013 at University of Texas at San Antonio taught by Judith Perry in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/231422/psy-1013-university-of-texas-at-san-antonio in Psychlogy at University of Texas at San Antonio.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Thoughtand Language Our personal universe 71 Language and Communication cLanguage is a system for communicating with other using signal that convey meaning and they are combined according to rules of grammar cWhy do we link language and thought Rules of grammar o The complex structure of human language 0 Phoneme smallest unit of sound a Morpheme smallest MEANINGFUL unit of language words o Phonological rules speech sounds 0 Grammar rules of how to combine and produce MEANINGFUL messages 0 morphological rules how phoneme are combined a syntactical rules rules for phrases and sentences 71 Language and Communication 0 Deep structure vs surface structure o deep meaning o surface wording 71 Language Development 555 oAt birth infants can distinguish all contrasting sounds in human language 0 6 months can only distinguish those sounds in language being spoken around them 0 Operant conditioning at work Observational learning at work 0 46 months begin to babble speech sounds o 6 10 months may understand simple words and requests Also a child can begin to learn sign language 71 Language Milestones oFast mapping oTeIegraphic speech oOvergeneralize It is interesting that children may actually seem to use correct gramar when they are younger Simply because they are imitating 0 you eated 71 Theories of Language Eggs Development 5 o Behavioristexplanations o principles of operant conditioning 0 learn to talk through reinforcement shaping and extinction o limits 1 parents don t spend much time teaching grammar 2 children generate more grammatical sentences than they hear 3 errors children make do not duplicate what they hear 71 Theories of Language 55g Development 5 o Nativist explanations 0 language acquisition device LAD o wired to learn grammar This isa wug 0 genetic dysphasia cannot grasp grammar wug test Now there is another one There are two of them There are two 71 Theories of Language 3 Development 5i 0 Interactionist explanations 0 how does innate biological capacity for language combine with environmental experience 0 parents tailor verbal interactions with children in ways that simplify language acquisition a deaf children NOT taught sign language often develop own system of hand signals 71 Theories of Language 33 Development oCan other species learn human language oWashoe taught sign language 0 learned 160 words a could construct simple sentences 0 novel constructions a can learn signs for concepts they understand not abstract How do we think 0 Concepts amp Cateqories mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects amp events 73 Decision making 0 Rational choice theory o likelihood of something happening x 0 value of that outcome oHow do we make these choices 73 Heuristics an o Availability bias o Conjunction fallacy o decreasing probability of all things being true of person a Representativeness heunshc o Framing effects a Sunkcost fallacy Linda is a bank teller Linda is a feminist Linda writes poetry I Linda has endorsed a fair housing petition 73 Decision making 0 Prospect theory 0 people simplify available information 0 choose prospect that offers best value personal Introduction to Research Methods Chapter 2 The scientific method 21 Empiricism IIIAncient Greece ldogmatists develop theories lempiricists make observations IIIMethod EIThree things make people hard to study Icomplexity Ivariability lreactivity The Scientific Method III Theory this is not a hunch A Scientific theory explains organizes and predicts III Hypotheses this is a statment about the way a thing works or why things happens the way they do III A Hypotheses MUST be testable III A hypotheses will contain variables that can be tested III Variables will have clear operational definitions III All research must be repeatable Which statement could be supportedrefuted by evidence III I like Hondas better than Fords III Hondas are better cars than Fords What makes something scientific 1 2 3 Acceptance of principle of falsifiability Reliance on empirical evidence Evidence supporting claim must be repeatable on demand replicated Theory or claim must make accurate predictions about what will happen in future Gathering Data III Population This is a COMPLETE set of people places or things that you want to test III Random Sampling It is not always possible to get a complete population Math has proven that we can use a sample of this population to ESTIMATE the population Research Designs III Description III Correlational III Experimental III Each method has a different purpose and allows you to draw different conclusions Descriptive Research III The most basic research method III With this method you COUNT get PERCENTAGES and MEANS III You are describing your participants Correlational Research III Focuses on relationships among variables III Changes in one variable are associated with changes in another variable Correlation Coefficient III Number which expresses the direction and strength of the relationship between 2 variables III Ranges from 1 to 1 III Index of the degree to which scores on one measure can be used to predict scores on a 2nd measure Direction III Indicated by or sign slope III Positive correlation I as one variable goes up so does the other III Negative correlation I As one variable goes up the other goes down Strength III Indicated by absolute value I perfect positive relationship 1 I perfect negative relationship 1 I no relationship O Causality III Correlation just tells you that 2 variables are related III Can t make causal interpretations Time spent on the internet is positively correlated with depression III Possible interpretations l Spending lots of time on internet causes depression I Being depressed causes you to spend lots of time on internet I Some third variable such as living by one s self causes both True Experiment IIIResearcher manipulates changes one variable IVindependent variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether there are changes in a second variable DV dependent variable as a result of the manipulation ElImportance of random assignment to condition ElAllows causal interpretations Variables III Independent variable Aspect of the environment that is manipulated or changed I Must involve at least two conditions III Example Violent show nonviolent show III Dependent variable Behavior that is measured or observed l Example Aggressive behavior Hypothesis tested by observing effect of manipulating independent variable Operational definitions III In order for a variable to be testable it must have an operational definition I This means that it must be measurable III Passion III Intelligence III Anger III Happiness III Compassion Central Tendencies III Mean Arithmetic average of a set of scores I Summarizes observations into a single representative number III Mode Most frequently occurring score in a set of scores III Median Middle point in a set of scores III Median mode less affected by extreme scores than the mean is Variability III Variability How much the scores in a set differ from one another I Example Two classes might have the same average exam score but one set of scores might be much more spread out III Standard deviation Average distance of scores from the mean III Range Difference between the lowest score and the highest score Experimental Control and Causality III Experimental group and control group must be similar except with regard to independent variable III There must be no confounding variables I Confounding variables Uncontrolled variables that change systematically with the independent variable III Random assignment Each participant has equal chance of ending up in any group Expectancies and Biases III Participants may guess what the researcher expects to find and change their behavior III Ways of reducing this problem I Mislead Placebo Control group Single blind studies I I I I Double blind studies Generalizing Conclusions III Would participants behave the same way in the quotreal worldquot I This concern is called external validitv Ethical Principles III Informed consent III Debriefing III Confidentiality III Animal research Memory What s it For Remembering and Forgetting III Remembering Over the Short Term III Storing Information for the Long Term III Recovering Information with Cues III Updating Memory Memory Overview III Memory The capacity to preserve and recover information III Involves several important processes I Encoding How memories are formed l Storage How memories are kept over time I Retrieval How memories are recovered and translated into performance Memory III Memory as Information Processing l similar to a computer III write to file input III save to disk process and stored III read from disk retrieved III Encoding l the processing of information into the memory system Memory III Sensory Memory l immediate initial recording of sensory information in the memory system III Shortterm memory I activated memory that holds a few items briefly III Longterm memory I the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system Sensory Memory III Exact replica of an environmental message which usually lasts for a second or less I Iconic memory vision I Echoic memory audition III Sperling s procedure for measuring it Show visual array very brie y ask for partial report just one row I Partial report much better than full report III Efron s observation Sounds seem to linger ShortTerm Memory III A system we use to temporarily store think about reason with information III The inner voicequot I We tend to recode translate information into inner speech III The inner eyequot I We can also code information visually using images Evidence for the inner voice andinnereye III Inner voice I Mistakes made during shortterm recall tend to sound like but not look like the correct items III Example Might mistake B for V III Inner eye I Judgments made based on mental images are similar to those based on actual pictures ShortTerm Forgetting III Can prolong shortterm memories indefinitely through rehearsal internal repetition III Without rehearsal memories disappear after 12 seconds What s the capacity of short term memory III Memory span Number of items that can be recalled from shortterm memory in order on half of the tested memory trials l It s about 7 plus or minus 2 items III Not absolute also depends on I How quickly items can be rehearsed l Chunking III Rearranging incoming information into meaningful or familiar patterns Throwing keeps balls up 2006 Wadsqu Thomson Gravity pulls balls down Rehearsal keeps memory allve G Decay causes loss of memory Chunks are easily rehearsed Experiment DNLCPWXMO Experiment DVNYBL FB IT WA CI AI RS Chunking FBI TWA CIA IRS 014194862971 Chunking 01 419 486 2971 Serial position effect Primacv effect high recall for the beginning of a list Recency effect high recall for the information at the end of a list Flashbulb Memories III Rich records of the circumstances surrounding emotionally significant and surprising events III Example events that could produce flashbulb memories Kennedy assassination Challenger disaster attacks of 91101 III Surprisingly these can be inaccurate I We tend to incorporate later experiences into our memories What s Stored in LongTerm Memory III Episodic memory Memory of a particular event or episode that happened to you personally III Semantic memory Knowledge about the world stored as facts that make littleno reference to one s personal experiences III Procedural memory Knowledge about how to do things I Includes athletic skills everyday skills such as bike riding shoe tying Encoding Encoding III Automatic Processing l unconscious encoding of incidental information such as space time frequency and welllearned information such as word meanings III Effortful Processing l encoding that requires attention and conscious effort Elaboration III An encoding process that involves forming connections between toberemembered input and other information in memory I Helps you retrieve the information later III Ways to promote elaboration I Think about meaning I Notice relationships I Notice differences III Tends to produce distinctive memories which are easier to retrieve Other Ways to Achieve Elaboration III Form mental pictures I Forces you to think about details III Space repetitions l Distributed practice Practice material at intervals do something else in between III Consider sequence position I Memory for items in a list is best for those at the beginning primacy and end recency Encoding III Rehearsal l conscious repetition of information IIIto maintain it in consciousness IIIto encode it for storage Encoding III Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables I TUV ZOF GEK WAV l the more times practiced on Day 1 the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2 III Spacing Effect l distributed practice yields better long term retention than massed practice Encoding Strategies III Encoding Meaning l including meaning of words III Acoustic Encoding I encoding of sound I especially sound of words III Visual Encoding l encoding of picture images Encoding III Imagery I mental pictures I a powerful aid to effortful processing especially when combined with semantic encoding III Mnemonics I memory aids I especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices Encoding III Chunking l organizing items into familiar manageable units III like horizontal organization 1776149218121941 I often occurs automatically I use of acronyms III HOMES Huron Ontario Michigan Erie Supe or Retrieval III Free Recall I Essay Test III Cuecl Recall l as on a fillintheblank test III Recognition l a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned I as on a multiplechoice test The Importance of Retrieval Cues III Compare these testing conditions I Free recall Remember information without explicit retrieval cues l Cued recall Remember based on a cue III Cued recall produces substantially better performance III Conclusion Cues play a critical role in recaH Remembering Without Awareness Implicit Memory El Remembering that occurs in the absence of conscious awareness or willful intent I Contrast to explicit memory Conscious willful remembering I Example implicit memory test Completing a fragment of a word or picture I Encodingretrieval match matters here too I But Elaboration has a much reduced effect on implicit memory StorageLongTerm Memory Subsystems Forgetting III Forgetting as encoding failure Attention External events Encoding failure leads to forgetting Reconstructive Remembering III We tend to fill inquot parts of our memories based on past experience expectations III Schemas Organized knowledge structure in longterm memory I Or Clusters of related facts I We sometimes distort memories to fit schemas Memory Failures III Transience forgetting what occurs with the passage of time I How quickly do your memories fade l Storage failure failure I Interference Retroactive amp proactive III Absentmindedness lapse in attention FaHures III Blocking tip of the tongue temporary inability to retrieve information III Memgrv Misattribution assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source I One of the grimary causes of I False recognition FaHures III Suggestibilitry tendency to incorporate Information rom external sources to personal recollection El Loftus and Palmer 1974 Speed estimates for a witnessed car crash are affected by wording of the question I Example Smashed versus contacted El False memory paradigm l Example bed rest awake tired dream leads to falsely remembering sleep I Reconstruction is probably adaptive but can result in memory errors Recall lnstrucllons Response quotHow fast were the cars going when quotAbout 42 mphquot they amashlad into each otherquot quotHow fast Were the cars going whan About 32 mphquot they contacted each otherquot 2006 Wadswunh Thurman Learning Why we do the things we do Learning 3 Cassical Conditioning 3 Operant Conditioning S Learning by observation Learning 3 Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Association Event 1 Event 2 I 1 7 r E l a Learning to associate two events Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock v 39 2 a 1 Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics Learning as Behaviorism Promoted by John B Watson View that psychology should be an objective science studies behavior without reference to mental processes Habituation and Sensitization 3 Orienting response Turn toward new event S After repeated exposure Habituation Decline in the tendency to respond to an event that has become familiar through repeated presentation Sensitization Increased responding to an event that has been repeated Classical or Pavlovian Two related events 3 We learn to associate two stimuli Result after repetition Classical or Pavlovian selvan Pavlov 18491936 Russian physician neurophysiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 studied digestive secretions Classical or Pavlovian Conditionin S Classical Conditioning organism comes to associate two stimuli lightning and thunder tone and food begins with a reflex a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes the reflex neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the reflex Classical or Pavlovian Conditionin 3 Unconditioned Stimulus UCS effective stimulus that unconditionally naturally and automatically triggers a response 3 Unconditioned Response UCR unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus salivation when food is in the mouth Classical or Pavlovian Conditionin 8 Conditioned Stimulus CS originally neutral stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response 8 Conditioned Response CR learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus Classical or Pavlovian Conditionin a Acquisition the initial stage of learning during which a response is established and gradually strengthened the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response Pavlov s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning quotf x WW Neutral UCR stlmulus No salivation tone salivation UCS food in mouth During Conditioning ml After Conditioning I Neutral 4quot CS stimulus U033 tone salivation tone Classical or Pavlovian Conditio niing ucgs passionate ki srs UCS passionate Kiss Classical or Pavlovian Conditionin 3 Extinction diminishing of a conditioned response in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus Classical or Pavlovian Conditionin 3 Spontaneous recovery reappearance after a rest period of an extinguished conditioned response 3 Generalization tendency once a response has been established for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses Classical or Pavlovian Conditionin 8 Discrimination in classical conditioning the ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus Nausea Conditioning amion Cancer Patients UCS drug UCS d rug Operant Conditioning 38We learn to associate a response and its consequence Response Pushing vending machine button ConsequenceReceiving a candy bar Operantnconditioning 3 Operant Conditioning type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment 3 Law of Effect Thorndike s principle that rewarded behavior is likely to recur Operant Conditioning 8 Operant Behavior complex or voluntary behaviors push button perform complex task operates acts on environment produces consequences 8 Respondent Behavior occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Operant Conditioning BF Skinner 1904 1990 elaborated Thorndike s Law of Effect developed behavioral technology Operant Conditioning 380perant Chamber Skinner Boxquot soundproof chamber with a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer contains a device to record responses Operant Conditioning 3 Reinforcer any event that strengthens the behavior it follows 3 Shaping operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal Principles of Reinforcement a 3 Primary Reinforcer an innate reinforcer satisfies a biological need 8 Secondary Reinforcer a conditioned reinforcer an event that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer Schedules of Reinforcement a 3 Continuous Reinforcement reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs learning occurs rapidly extinction occurs rapidly Partial Reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time results in slower acquisition greater resistance to extinction Schedules of Reinforcement a 8 Fixed Ratio FR schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses the faster you respond the more rewards you get different ratios very high rate of responding like piecework pay Schedules of Reinforcement a 38Variable Ratio VR schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses like gambling fishing very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability Schedules of Reinforcement a 8 Fixed Interval FI a schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near Schedules of Reinforcement a 3 Variable Interval VI schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals produces slow steady responding like pop quiz Reinforcement S Response consequences that increase likelihood of responding in a similar way again S Positive reinforcement Event that when presented after a response increases likelihood of that response occurring again S Negative reinforcement Event that when removed after a response increases likelihood of that response occurring again Positive Reinforcement 3 Usually involves an appetitive stimulus something the organism needs likes wants However what matters in defining it as positive is the effect on behavior not subjective qualities 3 Response deprivation Event is reinforcing if it allows you to engage in something that you re deprived of Example Eating when you are very hungry Negative Reinforcement 3 Response leads to removal of some stimulus Example Shutting off a loud alarm clock 3 Escape conditioning Response ends the stimulus Example Animal escaping ongoing shock 3 Avoidance conditioning Response prevents the stimulus Example Animal escaping before shock Punishment f 8 Punishment aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows powerful controller of unwanted behavior Punishmenti 8 Consequences that decrease the likelihood of responding in a similar way again 8 Positive punishment Presentation of an event after responding lowers likelihood of that response Example Scolding 8 Negative punishment Removal of an event after responding lowers likelihood Example Taking away allowance Punishment Practical Considerations 3 Does effectively suppress behavior Example A child fighting with a sibling 3 Limitation Does not promote better alternative behavior Example Does not teach a child to cooperate with sibling Better Reinforce an alternative response 3 May also increase aggression Problems with Punishment 38 Punished behavior is not forgotten it39s suppressedbehavior returns when punishment is no longer eminent 8 Causes increased aggression shows that aggression is a way to cope with problems explains why aggressive delinquents and abusive parents come from abusive homes Problems with Punishment 8 Creates fear that can generalize to undesirable behaviors eg fear of school learned helplessness depression 8 Does not necessarily guide toward desired behaviorreinforcement tells you what to dopunishment tells you what not to do combination of punishment and reward can be more effective than punishment alone 8 Punishment teaches how to avoid it Bandura and Observational Learning 3 Observationa Learning learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others 8 Modeing process of observing and imitating behavior Observational Learning Overview 8 Learning that occurs as a result of observing the experiences of others Consider What would life be like if you could only learn through your own trial and error Adaptive to learn from others 3 Observationa learning occurs in many species including chimpanzees rhesus monkeys and some birds Modeling 3 Natural tendency to imitate behavior of significant others 3 Strongest when Model is viewed positively Model is rewarded for the behavior 3 Bandura Showed kids a film of an adult hitting a Bobo doll Kids imitated behavior especially when the adult was praised for the aggression
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