Introduction to Psychology
Introduction to Psychology PSY 1013
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Mrs. Lauriane Mayert
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Lauriane Mayert on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1013 at University of Texas at San Antonio taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/231424/psy-1013-university-of-texas-at-san-antonio in Psychlogy at University of Texas at San Antonio.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Attitudes What are they How are they measured Some Questions III Humane Society or PETA III Psychology or Biology III Republicans or Democrats III Capitalism or Socialism III Dolphins or Elephants III Snakes or Cockroaches III MampMs or Skittles Attitudes III Attitudes are lasting general evaluations of people objects or issues III They organize information and guide behavior III They can be positive or negative The ABC Model of Attitudes III Attitudes have three components I Affect I Behavior or behavioral intent l Cognition Reactions to Attitude Objects F I G U R E 6 1 Four Possible Reactions to Attitude Objects As shown people evaluate objects along both posi ve and negative dimensions As a result our atti tudes can be positivenegativeambivalentor indifferent Cacioppo stat 1997 AinbiiuiengeV N e i39e altitude Positive reaction Low a p High Low gt High Negative reaction How do we measure attitudes III Selfreports III Attitude scales III EMGs III IAT EMG F I G U R E 6 2 The Facial EMG A Covert Measure of Attitudes The facial EMG makes it possible to detect differences between posi tive and negative attitudes Notice the major facial muscles and record ing sites for electrodesWhen people hear a message with which they agree rather than disagreethere is a relative increase in EMG activity in the depressor and zygomatic muscles but a relative decrease in the corrugator and frontalis musclesThese changes cannot be seen with the naked eye Cacioppo amp Petty 1981 if K 25 7 Zygomaiic Depressor D Fronialis Corrugoior Implicit Attitude Association Test III wwwyaleeduimpicit How are attitudes formed III Classical Conditioning III Instrumental Conditioning III Observational Learning III Social Comparison III Genetics Classical Conditioning III Staats amp Staats 1958 Initial Situation Members of minority group Example of Classical Conditioning of Attitudes Signs of emotional upset on part oi parent I Prd words with ethnicities After repeated pairing of minority group members and signs of upset on part of parent Signs of emotional upset on part of Members of minority group parent Child becomes upset Child becomes upset Instrumental Conditioning III Personal experiences III Reinforcement III Punishment Observational Learning III Parents attitudes I Religion I Prejudice I Eating habits Social Comparison III What do my friends think III How do I compare to others Genech III Identical twins may share similar attitudes more than fraternal even if reared apart I Sexual promiscuity I Death penalty I Religion III May be related to predisposition of highly reactivity Olson et al 2001 Do Attitudes Predict Behavior III Overall the correlation between attitudes and behavior is surprisingly small about 30 This means that attitudes appear to account for less than 10 of variability in behavior III Why isn t the relation stronger A number of things moderate the strength of the attitudebehavior relation Aspects of the Situation III Sometimes features of the situation prevent us from expressing our attitudes l Situational norms I Time pressure Aspects of the Attitudes III Sometimes features of the attitudes determine the strength of the attitudebehavior link III Origin of the attitude direct expedence III Attitude strength knowledge self interest accessibility III Specificity Specificity Specific Attitudes Are Better Predictors of Behavior Different groups of women were asked about their attitudes toward birth control The more specific the question the better it predicted their actuai use of birth control Note If a borreiatton is ciose to 0 it means that there is no teiationship between the two uariabies The closer the ourrelatiun is to 1 the stronger the reiationship between attitudes and behavior Adapted from Davidson 3 Jaocard IQFQJ AiI39TITlIDE MEASURE ATTITllillEBEHAUWB BURREMTIW Attitude toward birth control 08 Attitude toward birth control piiis 32 Attitude toward using birth controi p iils 53 Attitude toward using birth control piiis during the next two years 57 Aspects of the Individual III Some people exhibit more attitudebehavior consistency El Self Monitoring FIG u R E 6 s Informational and ImageOriented AdsThe Role of SelfMonitoring High and low selfvmonitors estimated how much they would pay for products presented in imageoriented or informational magazine ads As shown high imageorlented selfmonitors preferred products depicted in imageoriented ads leftwhile low selfmonitors preferred r those depicted in informational ads right Adapted from Snyder 84 DeBona I985 15 14 313 T 72 39 11 ll 1 quot Amounl parllcipanls would pay For the advertised producls 70 ii i Imogerorienled lnFormollonorienied udverlisemenls odver semenls u High selfmonitors II Low selfmonitors Attitude Functions III Knowledge function organize information III Selfidentity function value expressive III Selfesteem function egodefensive III Accomplish goals utilitarian
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