Notes for 10/26 and 10/28
Notes for 10/26 and 10/28 BSC 116
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rani Vance on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
BSC 116 Notes for 1026 and 1028 In general the endocrine and nervous system act in coordination Signals from the nervous system initiate and maintain hormonal signaling vertebrate hypothalamus endocrine gland in brain important for nervousendocrine coordination brain gets input from all over the body hypothalamus reacts neurosecretory signals from hypothalamus travel to the pituitary stores 2 hormones from hypothalamus antidiuretic hormone regulates blood osmolarity oxytocin stimulates milk production released by suckling positive feedback anterior pituitary makes several hormones that are released upon stimulation from hypothalamus Wide variety of targets some tropic hormones those that regulate other endocrine glands Hormones respond to a Wide variety of stimuli including stress Also involved in stress behavior adrenal glands on top of kidney short term fight or ight response long term stressed for the entire semester affecting different aspects of you health adrenal cortex outer adrenal medulla neural tissue stress leads to release of 2 amines adrenal medulla epinephrine and nepinephrine prepare body for short term excitement Short term stress response 1 glycogen broken down to glucose 2 increased blood pressure 3 increased breathing rate 4 increased metabolic rate adrenal cortex long term stress mineral ocorticoids 1 retain sodiumwater 2 decrease blood volume Vertebrate not really representation of animal reproductive modes Sexual reproduction fusion of haploid n gametes sperm and egg to form diploid 2n zygote Asexual gonochoristic separate male and female internal fertilization gametes mingle in female s tract extema19 ie frogs in water asexual new individuals with out sex ie meiosiscloning fission one splits off into 2 budding one grows off another fragmentation breakage followed by regeneration parthenogenesis offspring develop from fertilized eggs Why isn t asexual reproduction more popular represents a paradox if each female produces two offspring then a population wo sex doubles every generation population with males constant asexual should quickly replace sexual population but THERE IS NO VARIATION if there was an environmental change the whole population would be wiped out because they do not have the ability to adapt alteration of asexual and sexual is a more stable solution In many taxa it is an advantage not to have separate sexes sex of an individual is determined by gonads male testes produce sperm females ovaries produce eggs vertebrates tend to be ghonochoristic External fertilization can occur in an aquatic environment spawning both sperm and egg are released in water some synchronize based on environmental cues some individual species interact more courtship and mating rituals Internal fertilization necessary in terrestrial habitats many lack specialized organs ie spiders pass sperm bundles by legs and insert sperm into themselves Female reproduction is costly and highly regulated Productions of gametes gametogenesis lots of energy gt sperm spermatogenesis of sperm simple lots at 1 time sperm relatively small DNA Spermatogenesis from oogenesis in 3 ways 1 of gametes formed by meiosis a all four products become gametes b oogenesis only a single meiotic egg produced 2 timing of meiotic divisions a spermatogenesis occurs continuously throughout b oogenesis much of process completed before birth 3 pace of meiotic division a spermatogenesis sperm produced continuously throughout b oogenesis there are long pauses during development Male Penis9 urethra and erectile tissue scrotum9 contains testes spermatogenesis Internal sex organs testes composed of highly controlled somniferous tubules produce sperm leydig cells testosterone epididymis highly controlled tubes sperm take 3 weeks to mature ejaculation process of getting sperm outside form epididymis to muscular vas deferens ej aculatory duct opens to urethra sperm mixed With products of 3 glands to make 25 mL of semen 70l30 million sperm per mL seminal vesticles Spermatogenesis lots of sperm at one time spermatogonium diploid 2n stem cells Wtestes primary spermatocyte 2n secondary spermatocytes n X 2 products of meiosis I spermatids n X 4 products of meiosis II sperm cell 11 X 4 mature in seminiferous tubule become motile in epididymus ejaculation must know circulatory digestive diagrams be able to label 1028 Gametogenesis in both male and female are under hormonal control hormones come from hypothalamus anterior pituitary and the gonads themselves GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates anterior pituitary gland to secrete FSHamp LH FSH amp LH from pituitary tropic hormones target gonads and regulate seX hormones male androgens like testosterone female estrogen and progesterone Hormonal control of spermatogenesis is based on negative feedback GnRH in hypothalamus leads to release of FSH and LH FSH acts on sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules nourish developing sperm LH acts on Leydig cells between seminiferous tubules secrete testosterone which promotes spermatogenesis Female reproductive has gonads and endocrine Eutherian females must have organs to produce gametes and carry a developing fetus paired ovaries are the female gonads outer layer of follicles oocytes partially developed eggs surrounded by support cells 12 million follicles at birth after ovulation only 500 mature between puberty and menopause follicle becomes corpus luteum makes estrogen degrades wo fertilization menstrual cycle Oviducts fallopian tubes lead to uterus connects to vagina via cervix uterus lining by endometrium many blood vessels to support fetus mammalian females also have mammary glands that produce milk Oogenesis produces a few big cells rather than many small cells as in spermatogenesis oogonium diploid 2n stem cell win follicle of ovary primary oocyte 2n present at birth secondary oocyte n polar body fertilized body 2n polar body ovulation and sperm initiates meiosis II 2n zygote follicle becomes corpus luteum Ovarian cycle is one of two reproductive cycles Ovarian cycle produces ovum 28 days under control of same hormones as spermatogenesis 1 GnRH from hypothalamus 2 FSHampLH from anterior pituitary 3 FSH stimulates follicle growth 4 growing follicle secretes estradiol slowly increases during follicular phase low estradiol inhibits anterior pituitary 5 BUT increasing estradiol stimulates hypothalamus 6 spike in FSH ampLH leads to more The Uterine cycle menstrual 7 after ovulation estrogen stimulate development of uterine lining including arteries and glands secretory phase 8 when corpus luteum disintegrates hormone levels drop and endometrium degrades releasing blood menstrual ow phase coordination of ovaries and uterine cycles until menopause Fertilization leads to pregnancy and disrupts cycle Conception sperm fuses with mature oocyte in oviduct 24 hr first cleavage 23 days zygote reaches uterus 1 week blastocyst implants in endometrium develops into fetus embryo produces HGC keeps corpus luteum from degrading produce progesterone Human gestational period 38 weeks 1st 23 weeks embryo gets nutrients directly from endometrium placenta forms from embryonic and material tissue blood vessels from both exchange nutrients gas waste umbilical extended circulatory system after 8 weeks embryo fetus organogenesis ADH AND OXYTOCIN PRODUCED BY POSTERIOR PITUITARY Birth labor is induced by estradiol and oxytocin l dialation of the cervix 2 contraction of the uterus to push fetus out of vagina 3 more contraction to deliver placenta