IntroEnvironmental Systems I
IntroEnvironmental Systems I ES 2013
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Virginie Bernier III
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Virginie Bernier III on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ES 2013 at University of Texas at San Antonio taught by Pravin Punamiya in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/231444/es-2013-university-of-texas-at-san-antonio in Environmental Science at University of Texas at San Antonio.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Ch 1 Extreme Poverty 0 people 0 Cannot meet basic needs for food clothing Shelter and health Highly Developed Countries HDC low population growth 0 High per captia income Less Developed Countries 0 Very high fertility rate 0 High infant mortality rate 0 Low per capita income People Overpopulation 0 when too many people live in 1 geographic area 0 Problem in many developing countries Consumption Overpopulation 0 When each individual in a population consumes to much of the resources shared 0 Problem in HDC Environmental Sustainability 0 Ability to meet human needs with natural resources without affecting the needs of future generations Sustainable Development 0 Economical development that meets the needs of the present generation without affecting future generations Environmental Science 0 Study of human relationships with other organisms Ch2 Utilitarian Conservationist 0 Value natural resources for their usefulness o Roosevelt Biocentric Preservationist 0 Believe all life deserves respect llSilent Springquot the book 0 Written by CARSON National Environmental Policy ACT NEPA 0 Cornerstone of environmental law 0 quot 39 39 39 39 39 intheUS NMBY 0 Not In My Back Yard Economics and the Environment 0 Study of how people use limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants Western World View 0 Human superiority and Dominance over nature Deep Ecology World View 0 All species have an equal worth to humans Ch3 Ecology 0 Study of interactions among and between organisms in their abiotic environment Biotic 0 Living Abiotic o Nonliving Species 0 Group of similar organisms that breed 0 Caused by natural selection Population 0 Group of organisms of the same species Community 0 Population of different species Ecosystem 0 Community and its physical environment Landscape 0 Several interacting ecosystem Atmosphere 0 Air Hydrosphere o WaterH20 Lithosphere o LandSoil KSS 0 Keep It Simple Short Energy 0 Ability or capacity to DO WORK Potential Energy 0 Stored energy Kinetic Energy 0 Moving energy Thermodynamics 0 Study of energy and its transformations 1st law of Thermodynamics 0 Energy can t be created or destroyed 0 Changes from one form to another 2quotd law of Thermodynamics 0 When energy forms from one form to another some is degraded to heat Photosynthesis 0 Process when energy is transferred from the sun to earth Trophic Level 0 When energy is passed from food to an organism 4 Trophic Levels 0 Producers 0 Primary Consumers 0 Secondary Consumers o Decom posers Ch4 Evolution 0 Genetic changes that occur in a population of organisms over time Natural Selection 0 Individuals with more favorable genetic traits are more likely to survive and reproduce 0 Species Ecological Niche 0 Lifestyle to which it is fitted 0 Role in nature Symbiosis 0 Relationship between 2 or more species Mutualism 0 When both members benefit Commensalism 0 When one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefitted Parasitism 0 When one benefits and the other is harmed Community Development 0 Process when a community is formed slowly through a series of species Primary Succession o Succession that begins in a previously uninhabited environment 0 No soil is present Secondary succession o Succession that begins in an environment following destruction of all or part of the earlier community Lichen Secrete Acids o Crumble to the rock to form soil Ch5 Cycling of Materials when matter moves between ecosystems environments and organisms Biogeochemical cycling involves Biological geologic and chemical interactions Solar Radiation When the sun provides energy for life powers biogeochemical cycles and determines climate The Atmosphere Density decreases with farther the earth Shields earth from high energy radiation Atmospheric Layers Troposphere where weather occurs and temperature decreases with altitude Stratosphere where temperature increases with altitude Mesosphere when temperature decreases with altitude Surface Winds Large winds due in part to pressures caused by global circulation of air Winds blow from high to low Coriolis Effect The Earth s rotation influences the direction of the wind Patterns of Ocean Circulation Prevailing winds produce ocean currents and generate gm The circular pattern is influenced by the Coriolis Effect Weather and Climate Weather conditions of the atmosphere at a given place and time Climate average weather conditions that occur in a place over a period of years 2 most important factors temperature and precipitation Tornadoes Powerful funnel of air caused by thunderstorms Tropical Cyclone Giant rotating tropical storms Layers of the Earth Lithosphere outermost rigid rock layer composed of plates Asthenosphere Lower mantle comprised of hot soft rock Plate Tectonics When the Lithospheric plates move over the Asthenosphere Earthquakes Release of built up energy of rocks in the lithosphere shift or break moving plates Tsunami Giant undersea wave caused by an earthquake volcanic eruption or landslide Ch6 Biome Large area that has the same type of climate soil plants and animals regardless where it occurs in the world Location of each biome is 39 39 39 by and r 9 Major Biomes Tundra treeless biome in the far north with harsh cold winters and short summers Boreal Forest coniferous forests in the northern hemisphere Temperate Rain Forest coniferous biome with cool weather dense fog and high precipitation Temperature Deciduous Forest forest biome that has a good amount of precipitation Grass Land hot summers cold winters and little precipitation to support trees Chaparral AKA Mediterranean Climate that has hot dry summers California Deserts biome where lack of precipitation limits plant growth Savanna tropical grassland with widely scattered trees Tropical Rainforest climate is warm and moist throughout the year Vertical Zonation Increasing of elevation travels to higher latitudes Aquatic Ecosystem Freshwater and Saltwater Has 3 main organisms Plankton Free Floating Nekton Strong Swimming and Benthos Bottom dwelling Freshwater Ecosystems Includes rivers streams lakes ponds marshes and swamps 2 of earth s surface Lakes and Ponds 3 zones Littoral Zone shallow water along the shore Limnetic Zone open water beyond the littoral zone Profound Zone beneath the Limnetic zone of deep lakes Thermo cline Temperature transition between warmer surface water and colder water at depth Estuaries Where freshwater and saltwater mix Marine Ecosystems Subdivided into life zones Intertidal Zone area of shoreline between low and high tides Benthic Zone ocean floor extending from tidal zone to deep sea trenches Pelagic Environment all of the open ocean water Ch7 Two indicators of human health Life Expectancy how long people are expected to live Infant Mortality how many children die before age of 1 year Health in Highly Developed Countries Health is good Average life of men 75 years Average life of women 80 years Leading cause of death US is cardiovascular disease cancer and lung disease Premature deaths are caused by poor diet lack of exercise smoking and obesity Health in Developed Countries Biggest problems malnutrition unsafe water poor sanitation Life expectancy overall 65 years low 45 years High childhood mortality Emerging and Reemerging Diseases Emerging Disease not previously observed in humans jumps from animal host Reemerging Disease existed in the past and came back malaria Persistence Synthetic fake chemicals those not found in nature Bioaccumulation The Mp of persistent toxic substance in an organism s body fatty tissues Biomagnification Increase concentration of toxic chemicals in tissues of organisms Endocrine Disrupters Chemicals that mimics or interferes with the actions of the endocrine system in humans and wildlife Toxicology Study of the effect of toxicants on the human body Toxicant chemical that affects human health Acute toxicity effects that occur within a short period of time Chronic toxicity effects that occur a long time after taking the toxin w lethal dose to 50 of the test organisms w effective dose to 50 of the test organisms Chemical Mixtures Humans tend to be exposed to chemical mixtures Interact by Additivity Synergy and Antagonism Ecotoxicology Study of contaminants and their harmful effects on earth Risk Assessment Probability that an affect will result from being exposed to toxic Ch 8 Population Ecology Study of population and why their numbers change overtime Population Group of individuals of same species living in the same area at the same time Population Density The number of individuals per unit area or volume at a given time Calculations Population Change Growth Rate r Birth Rate b Death Rate d Immigration Rate i Emigration Rate e rb d i e Environmental Limits Prevent reproduction Carrying Capacity K Maximum number of individuals an environment can support Population Crash Going over carrying capacity K can lead to a population crash decline in population density Density dependent Factor Factors that affect population changes as population density changes Predation Disease Density Independent Factors Factors that affect population size but not influenced by changes in population density Demography Science of population structure and growth J shaped
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