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This 7 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Samuel Rendon on Tuesday January 20, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at University of Pittsburgh taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.
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Date Created: 01/20/15
February 16 2015 1 Review A Mossadeq I Came onto the scene in Iran at about 25 political awareness a He was a charismatic leader in a time of growing awareness b He was using secular nationalist symbols 1 One way he tapped into the symbols was that the Anglo Iranian oil company was a national asset 2 He was an active agent in precipitating change 3 He is overthrown and his process of nationalism was somewhat interrupted a Pace of change did not slow but Mossadeq sent a secular nationalist direction b That process was interrupted when he was overthrown i B ritish US and former Iranian supporters turned on him to depose him ii W hen he is overthrownsomething important happens B Clerics take control 1 Mossadeq and shah are eXiled 2 Creates legitimacy vacuum where shah now rules through utilitarian and coercion 3 25 year vacuum filling through the clergy 4 Shah is viewed as an American stooge 5 Shift towards Islamization of the political space C How did the revolution happen 1 Revolutions are rare 2 Jimmy Carter s foreign policy was one of human rights II Khomeini a First president to move human rights to the center war b What impact on the revolution 1 People viewed US as omnipotent and all powerful 2 If you were Iranian opposition you would believe that because of US backing things are inevitable a Lowers efficacy perception 3 But Carter starts to lecture the shah about human rights a For US to support a regime it has to liberalize human rights policies b Opposi tion interprets this nominal diplomatic maneuver as a signal for wavering US support i T hat is one factor 3 Economic dynamics a In the wake of the 1973 Arab Israeli 1 There is an oil embargo on the US and oil prices rise significantly 2 Iran was not a party to the con ict but now a larger portion of their national income was coming from oil a Lots of spendingjob creation 3 Economic slump occurs right before the revolution 4 Structure of shah s coerciveutilitarian begins to erode 4 Shah was not willing a Would not wage a full scale war on his own people b Mossadeq s successors as well sided with clerical power secular nationalists etc A Incredibly charismatic leader 1 Very different very austere very clear ideology 2 If you are very religious you are hearing Khomeini as someone who wants to move towards a truer nation of Islam 3 Nationalists heard Khomeini as saying that Islam would be a receptacle for nationlism a Many nationalists believed that Iran would not become a theocracy b They thought that Islam was just a brand for the revolution and that Ayatollah would become a figurehead B Khomeini worldview vs Cold War 1 US USSR a US supporting Israel b USSR supporting Syria c Puts US USSR togethers as joint hegemons 1 Both have an interest in perpetuating the status quoboth have a stake in the game 2 Worldviews can be challenged for eX a Soviet ally Iraq invaded Iran b Shouldn t the US help Iran according to Cold War logic c But both the US and USSR and all of their allies back Iraq 1 Only one country doesn t back Iraq and it s Syria 2 This affirms Khomeini s worldview d All Arab states are fearing overthrow as they are regimes similar to the shah s 1 Iran also wants to eXport the revolution e Why does Syria back Iran 1 Syria had a very difficult relationship with Iraq a Hatred between Saddam Hussein and Hafez al Assad i H afez didn t take lots of risks ii addam took a fuck ton of risks and always threatened Assad III Hostage Crisis A Confusion and turmoil after the revolution 1 Struggle for power 2 Some Iranians probably not loyal to Khomeini attacked the US embassy a Logic was it was a Den of spies b Basically saw it as CIA 3 Hostages become a political football between the factions involved 4 Released hostages as soon as Reagan was inaugurated IV Iran Iraq War A Waterway disputes between Iraq and Iran 1 Iran is traditionally much more powerful than Iran disputes were in Iran s favor 2 But then the revolution happens a Military officers were purged and equipment went into disrepair 1 No military no equipment no logistical sustainment b What do you do 1 You set up a parallel military a Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps b Kept the military in place but purged them at the top B Saddam saw this and realized that revolutionaries were not militaristic 1 He perceived the ability to take control of Khuzestan the Shatt al Arab and possibly overthrow the revolution 2 War ended in stalemate depleted both nations but Iran survived and Iraq did not achieve any of its stalemates C War preoccupied Iran for 8 years 1 Anger in Iran over US double standard on WMD use and proliferation V Since the War A What did Iranian revolution do to our United States view of our interests in the region 1 Iran Contra a Represents a complete split in the worldview of the US government 1 Efforts on the part of the US government and our possible allies against Iran 2 Part of the US government saw Islam as a containment asset against communism Mujahideen in Afg as an example 3 Some in the US government saw Iran as still being the best containment asset against the Soviets a They try to strike an arms deal with Iran using Israeli weapons b Split between those who see Iran as a containment asset and those that want to support our traditional allies B Late 1990s 1 Some more people are saying that Iran has to find its way in the international system 2 Iran can t go it alone and must find some way to connect to the rest of the world 3 Mohammed Khatami a He is elected by the Iranian youth on a reformist platform b He has religious credentials c Also believes that Iran cannot remain isolated d He is in office from 1997 2005 1 Huge shock to those who have the alternative view of an ideological Iran 2 What do the ideologues do a They try to fight Khatami along the way b Create something called the Guardian Council i I ts going to vet candidates for president and parliament a T 0 ensure they are ideologically sound 3 Khatami era leads to a reinvigoration of the old guard 4 What is Iran s governmental system a Extremely complex b Not a dictatorship even though it is certainly authoritarian c Typically not sham elections political processes reminiscent of democracy but with autocratic oligarchical elements C 2005 Election 1 Ahmadinej ad vs Rafsanj ani 2 Ahmadinej ad wins as nobody voted for Rafsanj ani s non reformist personality 3 Has ideological support from hardliners in the beginning 4 He does everything to piss off the West regime starts to strengthen its alliances with Syria Hizballah etc and also was a holocaust denier D 2009 Election 1 Reformers realized they made a mistake in not turning out for the election because they got Ahmadinejad 2 Mousavi runs against Ahmadinejad a Belief is that Mousavi will win b Belief is that he DID win but that Ahmadinejad stole the election and the Ayatollah also comes in and supports Ahmadinej ad c Supreme leader is theoretically supposed to be above the political system d Subsequent protests were brutally repressed E Issue of legitimacy 1 Iran had a legitimacy of authenticity as an independent actor a It overthrew a US backed government 2 Infighting ensued F How did we get Rouhani 1 Regime fought the hell out of itself and its people to hijack the 2009 election 2 Then a reformer is elected by 2013 wtf 3 This is not a unitary government a Khamenei realized that they could not repeat 2009 again b They got through 2009 by the skin of their teeth and their Khamenei took a huge hit to his legitimacy c There was a debate about whether there should even be a supreme leader 4 Rouhani was not supposed to win but his victory was not opposed a Believed he wasn t a true reform candidate 1 Has not proven to be b Believes that Iran cannot remain isolated VI The point were at now A Nuclear negotiations started about 15 years ago B There have been extensions C Final agreement should come by the end of June 1 Very critical moment right now D Obama knows that if its a failure on the US part 1 If Congress is viewed to be the obstructionist 2 International sanctions will crumble
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