Introduction to Literature
Introduction to Literature ENG 2013
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Date Created: 10/29/15
ENG 2013 Final Exam Study Guide I Terminology from Scansion Notes I Poetry vs Drama or Prose Poetry has higher degree of formality the form of poetry how is written is always important they are always metafictional and poems usually do not have a single reading I The Most Important Qualities of Poetry VERSE and RHYME I Verse is the systematic ordering of rhythmic language Can be used to focus the reader s attention and reveal further meaning in a given poem I Rhyme is a repetition of similar sound in two or more words Two words RHYME if their final stressed vowel and all following sounds are identical also when their final syllables rhyme I Classi cation of End Rhymes MASCULINE RHYME The rhymed syllables are the last syllables of the words in question as in surmount and discount FEMININE RHYME rhymed syllables are followed by identical unaccented syllables as in delightful and frightful WEAK RHYME rhymed syllables are unstressed like peaceful and capitol SLANT RHYME approximate rhymes like rover amp lover or steel amp chill I Other Rhymes ALLITERATION the use of several words or stressed syllables beginning with the same consonant ASSONANCE the repetition of the same or similar vowel sounds within a passage CONSONANCE repetition of a pattern of consonants with variation in the vowel sounds I Eye Rhymes words which look alike but sound differently I Meter I Scansz39on 7 under the Terms section I Foot I Types of Feet IAMB an unaccented syllable followed by an accented syllable Most Common ANAPEST two unaccented followed by an accented syllable TROCHEE one accented followed by one unaccented syllable DACTYL one accented followed by two unaccented syllables SPONDEE two accented syllables PYRRHIC two unaccented syllables used most often in conjunction with spondees I Lines generally come in the following lengths MONOMETER one foot PENTAMETER five feet DIMETER two feet HEXAMETER six feet TRIMETER three feet HEPTAMETER seven feet TETRAMETER four feet OCTAMETER eight feet II The Five Characteristics of quot 39 LT he Concept of the Artist Artist as prophets They believed art could save your life and make you a better person The human soul is the most powerful force on the planet and only artist have the ability to explore and articulate it which separates them from us 2Poetic Spontaneity and Freedom Rejected the idea of what an artist should be according to the traditional themes and poetic forms used in the Classicism The spontaneity and poetic freedom they insisted was integral to good poetry They wrote about inappropriate themes 3Rornantic Nature Property nature always meant something more than just plants owers and birds Artists saw the material physical world as a re ection of spiritual truths and a way to explore those universal truths 4 The Glorification of the Ordinary and the Outcast The artists attempt to disclose the beauty power and divinity hiding just under the surface of the everyday existence farmers workmen rain bugs etc 5T he Melancholic Exotic anal Aweinspiring e ect of Beauty or the sublimeBeauty for the romantics was the outward manifestation of the divine truth whether that truth was about love or hatred 111 Terms from Mid Term Studv Sheet I Get this from your past study guide N m I Scansion The act of quotscanningquot a poem to determine its meter or finding the beat of the poem What is the pattern I Meter A recognizable though varying pattern of stressed syllables alternating with syllables of less stress Compositions written in meter are said to be in verse Each unit of stress and unstressed syllables is called a quotfootquot I Stanza Group of lines within a given poem sometimes regular sometimes not Most stanzas are separated by WHITE SPACE I Syntax quotThe orderly arrangement of words into sentences to express ideasquot The standard word order and sentence structure of a language as opposed to diction I Speaker The narrative or elegiac voice in a poem such as a sonnet ode or lyric that speaks of his or her situation or feelings It is a convention in poetry that the speaker is not the same individual as the historical author of the poem I Enjarnbrnent A line having no pause or end punctuation but having uninterrupted grammatical meaning continuing into the next line The meaning continues uninterrupted into the next line I SonnetLyrical poetry of 14 lines Usually regular end rhyme patterns Traditionally the speaker is suffering for love Use serious tone and overtly arti cial diction I Lyric poetry Originally a poem meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a lyre now any relatively short poem in which the speaker expresses his or her thoughts and feelings in the first person rather than recounting a narrative or portraying a dramatic situation I Didactic poetry Writing that is quotpreachyquot or seeks overtly to convince a reader of a particular point or lesson I Classical art Classicism the general literary approach associated with clear conventional forms and an almost essaylike didacticism that is a desire to instruct readers on the proper way to live their lives I Romantic art Romanticism refers to the artistic philosophy prevalent during the rst third of the nineteenth century about 18001830 Romanticism rejected the earlier philosophy of the Enlightenment which stressed that logic and reason were the best response humans had in the face of cruelty stupidity superstition and barbarism Instead the Romantics asserted that reliance upon emotion and natural passions provided a valid and powerful means of knowing and a reliable guide to ethics and living I Logic It is the formal principals that structure a poem It s not the ideas that a poem communicates or the situation it may describe rather the Logic is the structural idea that organizes a given poem I Narrative Structure Organized like a story Events are described and there is some action I Dramatic Monologue If the speaker is presented like a single dramatic character that speaks like a character in a play I Dramatic Structure If the poem is like a drama with characters speaking back and forth and sharing the same situation I Descriptive Structure Organized around the description of some image or series of images I Reflective Structure Meditative Structure is organized by the speaker s shifting focus upon a topic or issue often without resolving that topic or issue in any explicit way They may take the form of stream of consciousness narration as they appear to be a record of a sequence of thoughts