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Sci Tech Med&Socty

by: Mr. Gabe Abshire

Sci Tech Med&Socty HISTORY 285

Mr. Gabe Abshire
GPA 3.74

John Carson

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John Carson
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Gabe Abshire on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HISTORY 285 at University of Michigan taught by John Carson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/231456/history-285-university-of-michigan in History at University of Michigan.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 3 Page 1 Lecture 3 The Bomb and WW II Recount history brie y theoretical knowledge for the bomb goes back to Einstein that it was physically possible to do this was known in 1938 the bomb was ready to be dropped in 1945 Einstein believe that small amounts of matter could be changed into large amounts of energy 7 2 eimc c 186000 milessecond so e is very large small amounts of matter gt large amounts of energy key is nding a way to release Road to the knowledge that produced the bomb the science early 20th C knew that atom had positive center electrons in orbit around 1919 Rutheford discovered the positively charged particle the proton 1932 James Chadwick discovered another particle with no charge the neutron Fermi Italian tried neutrons instead neutral particles 1938 Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann working in Berlin found out what was happening to Uranium by 1939 the concept of quot ssionquot splitting atom and quotchain reactionquot had been born The technical problems were much more difficult than at rst anticipated U235 promising but problems U238 also had problems challenges thus presented to scientists what fuel to use in the bomb if U235 how to separate U235 from U238 if U238 how to get it to break apart some other fuel possible swig Government Response January 1939 results of German work circulating in Washington DC August 2 1939 Einstein wrote to Roosevelt bringing problem of ssion to his attention October 1939 Uranium Committee set up June 1940 National Defense Research Committee under Vannevar Bush June 1941 Bush named head of Office of Scienti c Research and Development OSRD by 1942 has become Manhattan Engineering District Operation or Manhattan Project For use by students enrolled in Histon 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permission History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 3 Page 2 Intellectual Problems and their solution rst focus was on isotope separation three ways had been proposed eletromagnetic method Alfred O Nier Minnesota will become cylotron work of Lawrence Laboratory at Berkeley gaseous diffusion John R Dunning Columbia and England Centrifuge Jesse W Beams University of Virginia also begin to look at graphite to slow neutron note many questions to answer which separation method how to produce a chain reaction consequence project remains in the research and development state November 1942 report says 100 kilograms of U235 will produce a bomb 50100M to separate that much U235 Move to Production Summer 1942 agreed to put the production under a branch of the military Army Corp of Engineers choosen General Leslie R Groves eventually put as head research scientists on Sl continue to direct research military now takes over the logistics of production and most of the budget by September 1942 now called the Manhattan Project December 1942 Roosevelt gives approval for production at the level of 500M will eventually be 2B note time was so important could not nd out what worked had to pursue every possible approach also December Fermi achieved rst sustained ssion reaction in a pile under the stadium at the University of Chicago Overview ofthe scale ofthe project and its characteristics hard to imagine the size and impact of the project would construct three new towns in Tennessee New Mexico and Washington end of War Oak Ridge ve largest town in Tennessee the Clinton Engineering works consumed 17th of the nation s power 22B is over half of the total war research effort which is about 4B Clinton Engineering Works Oak Ridge Tennessee purhased 59000 acres of land population 50000 three cites Y12 for electromagnetic plant X10 for plutonium pile and K25 for gaseous diffusion Hanford Washington selected as major Plutonium production cite For use by students enrolled in Histon 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permission History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 3 Page 3 note Plutonium had been identi ed in 1941 as a ssionable material could be produced in a pile and separated chemically purchase 500000 acres of land on Columbia River population again 50000 in tents barricks etc Los Alamos third cite for atomic bomb production work continues as well at universities on parts of the projects Final design problem how do you build a bomb two models to achieve critical mass gun model re one mass into another to achieve critical mass Plutonium version called thin man after Roosevelt implosions model put mass in the middle of an explosion which will compact it plutonium version called fat man after Churchill also had a uranium gun called Little Boy Thin Man s Brother Decision to drop the bomb Roosevelt dies in April 1945 Truman is told about the Bomb status of the War German has been defeated May 8 1945 Japan is very near defeat US is bombing mainland at will March 1945 rebombing of Tokyo killed 100000 May 1945 rebombing of Tokyo killed 83000 In June Committee formed to discuss proper and future use of the bomb agree we should retain a monopoly over the bomb as long as possible Russia was through to be 310 years away from having a bomb demonstration bombing discussed and rejected might be a dud Japanese might kill prisoners of war etc recommendation attack and drop without warning committee of scientists were not sure but were rejected July 16 Trinity Test Truman was in Potsdam and peace conference with Stalin and allied leaders July 25 Stimson Sec of Def gives order to drop the bomb The bomb is dropped August 6 1945 Enola Gay piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets ies mission Little Boy detonated at 1900 ft above city uranium gun bomb had not been tried before 70000 killed instantly another 70000 died the rst year total reached 200000 in ve years For use by students enrolled in Histon 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permission History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 29 Page 1 Lecture 29 Regulation of Science Lecture 23 Regulation of Science 1 Public support for science Public concern about integrity of science 2 3 Growth of research regulation 1 Public Support IIINational Income 2002 III Income tax social security 83 III Corporate tax 2 10 National expenditures 2002 III65 nondiscretionary III35 discretionary III 19 non military III 16 military Public commitment to research 2002 n264B total IZI Industry IZI Federal government IZI Other sources nTypes IZI Basic IZI Applied IZI Development nPublic commitment IZI 1 in 4 discretionary Types of research IIIBasic primarily at universities IIIDevelopment primarily in industry Charts IIIUS RampD funding by source IIITotal RampD as a percentage of GDP IIIFederal RampD by budget function IIICurrent priorities 2 Public Concerns n Humane use of animals in research IZl Anti Vivisection begin in 19th century Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 29 Page 2 III Gains support in US 1950s III 1965 Animal Welfare Act III Remains controversial with groups such as PETA People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Human experiments IIITuskegee syphilis study III 1932 long term effects of syphilis IZI 1943 44 penicillin IZI 1940s continue research IZI 1950s withhold treatment III 1972 widely reported III 1997 Clinton apology for Nation Radiation studies IIIpost WW II exposed troops to bomb blasts IIIclinical studies on effects of radiation III1978 human subjects protection regulation Research Misconduct 1970s nSummerline case 1974 III Faked experiments IIIVJ Soman IZI Plagiarized over 50 articles IIIJohn Darsee IZI Faked experiments III19805 David Baltimore amp Robert Gallo IZI Accused of misconduct but not convicted Misleading scienti c discoveries IIICold fusion 1989 III Fleishman and Ponds Utah IZI experiment palladium electrodes in heavy water run electric current through get out more energy than put in H collects on electrode is packed so tightly together fuses gives of energy IZI replication proved very difficult III Discovery of life on Mars Research regulation IIIFunding comes with strings IZI Research priorities IZI Spending rules Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 29 Page 3 III Appropriate amp inappropriate behavior IIIRules are complicated IIIResearchers sometimes unaware of rules Use of animals III1963 Guide for Care amp Use III1966 Animal Welfare Act III1985 Health Research Act IIIRules IZI Institutional Animal Care amp Use Committee IACUC IZI Humane care 0 Replace Reduce Re ne Use of Humans IIIUnethical research during WW II III Nuremberg Code 1947 III Declaration of Helsinki 1967 IIIUnethical research in US IZI Tuskegee experiment syphilis study begun in I930s IZI Willowbrook experiment IZI Radiation testing IIIMinimum government rules late 1960s III1974 Congressional mandate for reform Government action III1974 National Research Act Congress IZI National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects in Biomedical and Behavioral Research IZI Issues Report Belmont Report 1979 IIIRecommendations turned into rules IZI Common Rule 45 CFR 46 1981 Rules for HS research nProper review IZI Institutional Review Board IRB nFollow basic principles IZI Beneficence IZI Respect IZI Justice nInformed consent nCa 18000000 research subjects in US nProtections Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictlmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 29 Page 4 Research Misconduct III1981 government hearings III1985 Congress now mandates actions III1987 NSF set up investigative proceedings under Inspector General reports to Director of NSF nPHS put in interim policies and procedures in 1989 immediately challenged in court III1990 set up an advisory committee on misconduct in research Consequences n Rules and Procedures required IZl Definitions of misconduct Fabrication Falsificatian Plagiarism IZl Procedures for investigation IZl Offices to handle IZl Misconduct officers amp comm1ttees Other R amp R IIIData management IIICon ict of interest IIIAuthorship IIIPeer review IIICollaboration IIIMentoring IIIand Research as an activity IIIDone by individuals or teams IIIUsually requires financial support IIIPart of larger institutions IZl Universities IZl Industry IZl Government laboratories IZl Private laboratories IIIPlays important roles in society IZl Crucial to decision making Steps to becoming a scientist IIIundergraduate science major IIIgraduate level PhD or professional degree Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictlmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History of M odern Science rpostdoc researcher nuntenured faculty nrtenured faculty nlaboratory director mprogram department head Hrnational committees Major laboratory Itlab assistants and technicians rpost docs Itjunior researchers Hrsenior researchers mlaboratory head or director State of integrity in research in 2003 urNational Income 2002 IZIIncome tax social security 83 IZICorporate tax 2 10 II3 4 l10 l33 II Individual Income Taxes l Social Insurance Receipts l corporate Income Taxes Other I Excise Taxes Lecture 29 Page 5 Fnr quot390 In whirlpan pnrnleI in Hicfnrv 794 Mm nnfp hp quotInfoI nr IlnnlinnfpI withinf normiccinn History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 29 Page 6 National exp endi ides WZ nus65 non discretionary nus35 discretionary IZI 19 nonmilitary IZI 16 military 7 l16 12 i 19 D Social Security I National Defense l NonDefense Discretionary I Medicare m Medicaid l Net Interest l Other Entitlements El Other Mandatory Huhlie commitment to es earer 2424 H Types IZI Basic n 264B total IZI Applied IZI Industry IZI Development IZI Federal government n Public commitment El Other sources IZI 1 in 4 discretionary 5 I Industry 26 0 a El Federal 0 Other 69 Fnr quot390 In whirlpan pnrnleI in Hicfnrv QR Mm nnfp hp quotInfoI nr InnlinnfpI withquotIf normiccinn History 285 History 0fM0dern Science Emma fl resemrelli nB asic primarily at universities nusDevelopment primarily in industry 18 61 21 I Basic I Applied i Development Lecture 29 Page 7 Fnr quot390 In whirlpan pnrnleI in Hicfnrv QR Mm nnfp hp quotInfoI nr InnlinnfpI withquotIf normiccinn History 285 History 0fM0dern Science Percent 35 39 9 9 25 L5 1E0 15 D I 45199 US 39 ill quot 1 lg Hl39gmumgml Iquot IEIQIHUIDEQII it 99quot 39 Q quot CEHIEIIEIE 39ll Russia i mh In I If I I 1 I I 1I a a I Frerree II 39 quotquot 39 1991 I993 I995 I997 I999 I991 Billierle er eenetant 1996 de lere 13 39 5g efeI39Iee 119 4D 39 24 I 11ea11 t111aiifjfir i i 39 I I I I I I I I 12 1931 1933 1935 193939 1992 1995 1953 2001 113 Space j A K I I i I I I I I m Tim1 NH HIlll39uil15r Iiilining Dthle rlxlil i l 9 it I III 4 1 quotquot39quotquotquotquot39 General eerenee Fli quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot 9999 3939 I I l39 I I L C 1 1 n I I I I I I I 1 193121 1 933 1 585 1 BBQ 1 9 92 1 9 95 1 593 213011 MCITE The 1998 increase in general eeienee and deereaee rl energy resulted rem 9 reeleeei eet ee 1993 1995 1997 1999 Lecture 29 Page 8 Fnr quot390 In whirlpan pnrnleI in Hicfnrv QR Mm nnfp hp quotInfoI nr InnlinnfpI withInf normiccinn History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 9 Page 1 Lecture 09 The emergence of biotechnology DNA and Polio Introduction the rst time we will look at 203911 scienti c breakthroughs did not start to see inside human body to see what is going on until the 20th C Genetics to 1950 with Darwin and evolution 1860 know there must be some mechanism that allows for both the transmission and change of the characteristics of living things Gregor Mendel 1866 rediscovered in 1900 establish the rules for transmission and change 1902 American Sutton links genes to chromosomes chromosomes could be seen knew we essential parts of cell nucleus by early 20th C also were gathering information about the chemistry of cells nucleic acids discovered in the 19th C early 20th C had isolated four base components gt adenine gt guanine gt cyctosine gt thymine also had distinguished between deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acid discovery of transforming principle early 1940s Avery bacteriophage experiments key one 1952 St Louis Phage group phage discovered in 1919 not seen until 1940 1952 experiment one other related strand in 1951 Linus Pauling discovered the protiens are chains of amino acids in a helical band key method was Xray crystallography For use by students enrolled in Histon 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permission History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 9 Page 2 The Double Helix 1952 James Watson who had been working with St Louis phage group decides to go to England to work on DNA structure worked mostly with Francis Crick PhD student at Cambridge gathered data from many sources perhaps not in strictly ethical ways especially from the crystallographer Rosalind Franklin put data on bases etc together to come up with double helix theory published results in Nature in March 1953 solution DNA is made up ofpaired bases gt adeninethymine gt guaninecytosin For use by students enrolled in Histon 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permission History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 9 Page 3 Introduction The Conquest of Polio The de ning event in 1954 The conquest of Polio Jan 1954 Salk and Francis begin eld tried on 15 M children Spring of 1955 announced the results in Rackham within a year we were inoculated the number of cases declined Impact of the disease and announcement of cure is hard to imagine childhood disease vaccine changed all of this literally wiped out the disease as far as public in US was concerned second great medical miracle the first being penicillin during the war Early history of Polio discovery and early history recognized in Europe early nineteenth C first US epidemic 1894 17 epidemics over next decade first systematic studies begun in 1907 by Simon Flexner Rockefeller Institute NY Flexner s solution the basis of a Nobel Prize 1908 Swedish scientist used emulsion of spinal cord of Victim to transfer disease between 1909 and 1914 Flexner received Nobel prize set pattern for next 25 years of research period of no progress follows were not sure what a Virus was gt first Virus not crystallized until 1935 tobacco Virus isolated by Wendell Stanley needed new equipment to study New patterns of private funding Franklin D Roosevelt support of polio research For use by students enrolled in Histon 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permission


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