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The twice promised land shifting British policy 19171940 I A Bitter War 9142012 62300 PM a Fewer than 80000 deaths in 100 years b not very expensive in money or property c Longest conflict in modern world d At least 5 interstate wars e Conflict has repeatedly threatened world peace USsoviet f UN devotes more to it than any other world problem 9 1979 Jimmy Carter h 19905 Bill Clinton gets closer than ever before i Negotiations broke down in 2000 leading to violence j Hamas rejected Israel s right to exist k Overthrow of Mubara in Egypt Iran s rising power etc These events signal an erosion of American influence in the middle east This is extremely worrying for Israel II A Palestinian narrative a Emphasizes Jews as an aggressive alien b 1880 Jews only 6 of Palestine c 18801918 Ottoman control d 19181948 Under British control e 1939 Jews were now 30 of Palestine f European invasion of Palestine accompanied by a large Jewish land project 9 First it was merely a refuge to escape antiSemitism h Later demanded independent Jewish state i 1937 British commission suggests that Arabs leave future Jewish state j Palestinians felt a deep connection to the land culture k As Jewish number swelled and political plans matured Arabs became fearful and bitter rejected Zionist project Under Ottoman control the Arabs were able to limit Zionist immigration but under British control things weren t the same They were sympathetic to the Jews and got the UN to make a national home for the Jews Balfour declaration 1917 mArab wide scale disposition III n Palestine was a colony of British no elections and therefore no way for the Arab word to be heard 0 Arab revolt of 19361939 was a massive military uprising against British and Jews p Arabs viewed Jews as colonial conquest q Zionism succeeded because Britain had no interest in democracy or popular sovereignty r Injustice of British policy was compounded by UN division into different states 5 The west and Europe who were responsible for Holocaust agreed to put Jews in Palestine without asking t 19471949More fighting and Jews seized another 23 of Palestine originally only 55 in 1947 u The war was a pretext for expulsion of Palestinians from Jewish state v This led to Palestinian refugee problem w Jews have settlements all over Palestine most think this defies international law x Arabs are secondclass citizens in Israel discriminationracism Israeli narrative a 1922 UN obliged Britain to create a national home in Palestine b Since 1949 Israelis have been part of the UN c 156 countries recognize the state of Israel d After Holocaust Jews couldn t return home to Europe e Hajj Amin alHosani Palestinian leader worked with Hitler to exterminate Jews f Zionism was not colonialism but national liberation 9 Jews had ancient ties h Never seized land from locals bought all for high prices usually waste land with minimal Arab inhabitants i By 1945 Jews were attaching the British j Arabs are authors of their own fate i Palestinians keep rejecting good opportunities k 1939 Britain offers Palestinian state 5 year immigration policy they reject l 1947 UN partitions into two states 33 i Arabs then attack Jews who respond and take 23 more 194647 Jews remained happy with original borders 1967 Egypt and Jordan attack Israel 0 After Israeli victory they offer to return territory in exchange for quotP 0 If rr C V peace but no peace no recognition no negotiation 20002001 Israel offers to give 97 of captured territory gaza and west bank Arrafat said no and started violence again In 2008 Jews offered 100 of occupied territory back rejected again Without Arab attack would have been no refugees or war After 1947 Arab displacement of Jews was worse than Jewish displacement of Arabs Zionists believe their charge as being racist is absurd because there are so many different races in Judaism head of Israeli army was Chinese i Connected by religion not race Arabs hate Jews because their existence in the middle of the Muslim world By July 11 1967 Jews controlled 100 of mandatory Palestine IVTentative synthesis a Both sides are unwilling to accept the validity of the others arguments to avoid national suicide A Tale of Two Nationalisms Zionism 9142012 62300 PM I Zionism a Started in late 18005 in response to the deterioration of Jews b It was a form of 1900 European NATLSM c Unique because Jews lived outside of their homeland Also because built on ancient ties God promised it to Abraham YERUSHALEM II Zionism s 19th century European origins a The return of Israel needed to happen with the Messiah When the Messiah was sent the Jews would return to the Holy Land b Zionism sees the immediate gathering of Jews rather than at the end of time c Sovereignty lies with Jewish leaders rather than with God and their success was dependent upon their European practices rather than their ancient Jewish beliefs d In 1850 most Jews lived in AustriaHungary and Russia As a non Christian minority they were always despised and marginalized but were more or less protected by the throne e But with the rise of nationalism which is an exclusive concept Jews began to be excluded The idea that states should solely protect a single ethnicity Jews lost security of imperial rule f The Jews vulnerability was compounded by vast economic growth Christian peasants lost their sense of dignity and self and belonging with industrial so they clung to nationalism 9 Jews were an attractive target because i They were stigmatized religiously i39 Social tensions stemming from industrialization The Jews escaped from the ghetto into the modern marketplace this seemed to capture the worst features of the modern economy h 40 of Russian Jews relied on charity but the success and prosperity who did succeed and their visibility was salt in the wounds of Christians who were victimized by industrialism i Jews represented everything rotten with the new industrial system and they were strongly resented Bloody riots in the 18805 killed hundreds of Jews j Anti Semitism produced the DREYFUS AFFAIR Dreyfus a Jewish military leader was framed and riots went crazy and yelled death to the Jews devastating Jews sense of belonging in France k No matter how well educated patriotic loyal they would never be treated equally or could never escape their Judaism even if they converted to Christianity i Similar feeling to Blacks in America assumed that the majority despised them I Only way to fit in was to abandon the dream of European assimilation and return to a country of their own where they could reclaim their dignity and self respect mTheodore Herzel 39 AustroHungarian Jew he was not barmitzvahed did not circumcise his son and encouraged assimilation Was disillusioned by antisemitism wanted to create Jewish state ii39 In 1896 he published Judenstat the Jew State iv His goal was to create a purely Jewish state Palestine III Diplomacy and Settlement before World War I a Zionists try to get support from power They asked the Ottoman Empire the Ottomans were suspicious i He also asked Britain and Germany to no avail b Jews took different methods in buying large chunks of land ALIYAH ASCENT c This appealed to poor Jews because they had never wanted to assimilate to European culture d 18811904 first aliyah facing persecution 25000 Jews fled Russia Some to Palestine 40000 some to America IVWorld War I changes things a Many Jews nervous to leave Eastern Europe America seemed better than impoverished Palestine b Massmurders of Jews in pogroms tens of thousands Yids and Kites go back to Palestine much antiSemitism so many Jews wanted to leave after World War I but the US tightened immigration so they had nowhere to go but Palestine 00 e Britain gained control of Palestine from Ottoman The British had a mandate for Palestine it obliged the Brits to give Jews a home and support the Zionist project V The Jewish Community Develops a Pace of Zionism accelerated b Three more waves of aliyahs Driven by i Desperate poverty ii Close of US border iii Escalated Jew hatred in Europe c Poland Austria Hungary Italy Lithuania Romania all sought to restrict Jewish occupations They boycotted Jewish businesses and set quotas for Jewish students Jews must be quarantined or exterminated Antisemitism was a ferocious beast that sets the Jewish flight in motion From 193336 the Jewish population of Palestine doubled and were 30 in 1939 6 in 1880 9 Most immigrants wen to Hiafi Tel Aviv Jeru the agricultural movement was much more important the strong new Jew a deliberate repudiation of the ghetto Jew in Europe h The continuation of large land purchases in Palestine hinted at a future purely Jewish state They paid high prices for waste land never seized land This surge of capitol raised the standard of living in Palestine j Jews were displacing Arabs from their own country interlopers were taking over an Arab country k Jewish economy in 1923 was overtaking the Arab economy despite the fact that they were such a small population They had the highest growth rate of skilled workers in the world mYishuv Jewish population in Palestine n Jewish Agency official representative of the Yishuv took responsibility for education labor immigration health effectively created a national government Education from elementary school to university Hebrew was symbol of national revival preferred over Yiddish DD h 0 p q Hebrew theaters national assembly Parliament lectures newspapers myths symbols glorified Jewish heroes of the past Tried to erase the image of the ghetto Jew erase their unhappy exiled past VIZionist Goals and Psychology a b n 339 Most powerful political party was the Labour Party David Ben Gurion stages i Jews would approach 40 ii Jews would remain under the mandate They didn t discuss politics in public they didn t want to offend British or Arabs and knew that discussing a Jewish state would heighten the backlash of Arabs i Focused instead on entirely building up their strength They wanted separate Jewish and Arab institutions to grow side by side and then merge in a federal system like Switzerland and the British mandate would end They thought the Arabs would benefit from this system left wing Arabs sometimes saw Jews as socialist brothers in arms fighting against the wealthy powerful Arabs who would help them form a socialist state Palestine is not needed by the Arabs from a national point of view they are bound to other places but the Jews only have Palestine Arabs strongly resented the Jews the last thing they wanted was a permanent Jewish presence or guidance As all costs Zionists thought they had to rescue the European Jews from approaching annihilation The Jews sought to convince the British and Arabs that Jewish and Arab interests were compatible They tried to stop Arab attachments to Palestine They wanted to keep open the door to Palestine to help Jews Arab protests threated the Zionist perspective as utopian they found Arab hostility disturbing because it cast them in the role of oppressors which bred self doubt and infirmity of purpose They instinctively disliked violence a completely pacifist movement after pogroms and persecutions in Europe Minimize potential for conflict by idealizing the reaction of the Arabs VII VIII k Zionist leaders forbid ANY hatred of Arabs Preached that Palestine had plenty of room for everyone They claimed that they were colonizing only empty wilderness Zionists greatly exaggerated claims of JewishArab compatibility Shifting Attitudes in the late 19305 D Pquot n D D n Revisionist Zionists led by Vladimir Jabotinsk ridiculed the mainstream division and BenGurion denied a central conflict Jabotinski said that Arabs and Jews were incompatible Arab protests caused self doubt He concluded from a moral standpoint Jewish plight from Europe took precedence over Arab concern Mainstream Zionists were reluctant to declare for a separate state but Jabotinski saw militarism and a separate as their only option in having the Arabs recognize their existence Mainstream labor Zionists became closer to the ideas of Jabotiski This enjoyed any hope of Jewish Arab reconciliation In 1937 the British Peal of Commisions recommended that Palestine be split into two zones This hurt the idea of Jewish Arab harmony as the Jewish Agency had never advocated for a separate state or population moving Jews became desperate militant and for the first time Zionist presses realized antiArab sentiments In 1942 in direct response to Nazi extermination the Zionist Agency proposed their own state They claimed that they did not want to displace Arabs and that they would defend themselves but would never instigate violence Conclusions a D39 0 Typical and unusual expression of European political trends It represented colonial movements of nonEuropean areas patronizing attitudes to non western people and reliance on European practices It was unique in its attachment to the land and that purchased rather than seized lands and its opposition to militarism It strongly resembled European nationalism and favored the wellbeing of their own community with disregard to all other peoples HIST 244 9142012 62300 PM I ATale of 2 Nationalisms a Triggered by Zionism b German and British nationalism grew in response to French C d e f g h domination as did US in response to British nationalism Accepted European definitions of what people and a nation were about A nation were a sovereign group of people with sovereignty resting with the people The nation is distinct from all other people assumed that the nation is entitled to its own territory and its own state All people entitled to same rights laws Differences 39 Palestinian nationalism had much shallower roots than Zionism ii Jewish immigration meant that the history seemed to always be in favor of the Jews The Yishuv was stronger economically and socially iv Palestinians often rejected the compromises the Zionists offered but the Jews were also rigid their goal of a homeland was unbudging however they were more lenient in compromising v Higher birth rate So the Jews fear the Arabs will take hold of any compromise and see to the destruction of Jews II Palestine to 1918 a b c III 0039 Before 1918 people defined themselves by village occupation family location religion No one called themselves Palestinian Palestinian economy grew rapidly by exporting olives and oranges Uneducated peasants Rise of Palestinian Nationalism a World War I was great watershed in Zionism but it also worked as a catalyst for Palestinian nationalism Despite British and Palestine Weaknesses of Palestinian Nationalism i Zionism proves that is it far more powerful than the Palestinian in history length of its existence roots D D D h 339 j k IVTurn m Pquot D LID quotD 339 Jews made it a state embryo in Palestine Jewish Agency increases the percentage of Jewish in Palestine improves the overall economy NCA Arab Congress weren t that good an they allfailed to developa face Differences in military resources Idea of being Palestinian had no basis in history thought of as Syrian The Jews were more urban 80 vs Palestininans 30 more resources The Yushiv was more socially uniform more likely to act in unity All immigrants Jews many committed to Zionism Jews also wealthier to Violence The 19305 saw a flood of immigrants Arabs feared a huge influx of Jews In the 19305 Nazism and antiSemitism threatened the Jews existence and this triggered Zionism and this subsequent Jewish influx into Palestine triggered Arab Nationalism In 1929 Chevron Jerusalem Jews were attacked by Arabs Wrongly targeted though as they were antiZionist In 1936 Arabs initiated a 3 year uprising known as the Arab revolt which boycotted Jewish businesses Started with the general strike in the cities Organized Arab Higer Committee to take control of the strike By 1937 the British has suppressed the radical urban leadership Then the Rural Insurgency operated guerilla war in the countryside Peasants failed to pay their taxes Formed bands to attack Jews in the West Bank Forced all women even Christians to veil their faces Banned electricity as a tool of the west Banned upperclass from wearing Fez British has to bring in 20000 to stop insurrection received help from Jewish militias i The rebel bans began to turn on each other based on family rivalries weakening the uprising as well as the already weak Palestinian Nationalism j By the time the revolt ended in 1939 the Jews were insular and militant as they were very shaken It was unlikely for them to be able to live in peace with the Arabs they wanted an independent state The Jewish Terrorists Irgun responded by bombing random Arab buses l The British saw that their proZionist policy came at a price they could no longer afford breaking their alliance with Zionists m Many of the best Palestinian fighters were killed exiled etc which greatly weakened the Zionist resistance n The Palestinian class divide widened even more with the disintegration of the resistance Palestine lost control of any sort of policy because they had no representatives Britain looks to neighboring Arab states and this was the case until the 1960s V A Better Strategy X 0 The twice promised land shifting British policy 19171940 9142012 62300 PM I I British Strategies Overview a Consistent goal power of British empire b Would support Zionism only if it supported the empire If it impaired British security no problem with not supporting it c Their connection with Zionism was in no way emotional d Would appeal to both constituencies Arab and Zionist e In the 19205 it looked like they could placate both groups without violence but from 192939 the Arabs began attacks Jews and the British which made them realize it was impossible to do this while still protecting the British Empire 39 So they began to scale down their support of Zionism until they eventually were substantially proArab This continued until 1948 when they left Palestine ii39 Were it not for World War II there would be no Jewish state II Ambivalent Zionist Patrons 191728 a In 1915 the Brits encouraged an Arab revolt against the Ottomans in return they promised to create an independent Arab state for their provinces b The ruling family of Mecca kept the bargain by fighting against the Ottomans and the state was in agreement with President Wilson s self determination c Wanted Palestine Syria Lebanon Iraq TransJordan as Arab states but the Brits saw things differently They withdraw support for a Damascus based Arab Kingdom as the French wanted Syria i They gave independence to Saudi Arabia i The mandates for Iraq and TransJordan obliged Britain to prepare these countries for independence and they became independent in 1947 This differed in Palestine because the British denied that they d ever promised Palestine as a free Arab state d The British and the League of Nations sought to help Jewish interests along side or in preference to Arab interests e The Balfour Declaration letter written in 1917 from British foreign secretary to the British Jewish Community supporting a national home for the Jewish people 339 1 0 Having promised the Arabs a state of their own and Palestine to the Jews so clearly a contradiction in the heart of the mandate promised same land to two different people 1917 British Responded with 5 motives seriously moved by Jewish suffering and appalled by anti Semitism by restoring the Jews to their ancient home Britain calculated that they could then give their plans for Palestine a moral justification it would allow Britain to counter German France US accusations of being selfish in the mandate by diverting east European Jewish refugees to Palestine they would be kept out of Britain itself iv British leaders in 1917 Britain hoped to win support for the allies and gain support of US v By placating Jews who relied on British protection the British plans to place the Arabs and Jews against each other which would help blunt Arab opposition to European rule They followed a divide and rule policy Zionism would secure Palestine which would protect the British empire by securing the Suez canal Palestine was harshly separated from the rest of the Arab world In 1920 Britain took steps to gain power in Palestine Chiam Wetzman removed most restrictions on Jewish purchases Arab requests for a separate Arab state were denied or ignored the needs of the Jews were preferenced Britain careful to cultivate close relationships with the high ranking Palestinians Most British leaders never embraced Zionism whole heartedly Zionism was primarily an instrument to safe guard the British Empire Even as the British encouraged Zionism they wanted to cultivate ideas such as the Supreme Muslim Council by giving it lavish financial support 1922 British issue White Paper in response to serious Jewish violence in 1920 and 1921 first but not last time they respond to Arab violence against Jews tried to court Arab favor by making concessions III v39 area east of the Jordan was off limits to Jewish settlement 80 of Palestinian was not allowed to be Jewish with the rest as national Jewish home the British government would never allow the subordination of the Arab culture immigration could not succeed the economic capacity of the country met with dismay from the Zionists right wing breaks with mainstream Zionists led by Vladimir Jabotinski Jews had not alternative than hope for British support Too enthusiastic a response to Zionism could hurt control of Palestine then Egypt then Suez canal so enthusiasm for Zionism began to cool Britain backpedals 192936 Arab violence could win concessions from the British the problem for the Palestinians is they didn t combine violence with a plan b London willing to support Zionism if there was no violence but riots raised the price a C 1 British police happy with disarmament and didn t like the idea that more forces may be needed to keep the peace New British high commissioner strong antizionist denounced the attacks against the Jews but immediately urges London to drop connection to Zionism Palestine was boiling and the government had no way to turn off the heat commission of inquiry shook Zionist camp to foundations acknowledged that as usual Arab attacks had been completely unprovoked but emphasized how fearful the Arabs were that Jewish immigration would eventually lead to Jewish domination these fears were largely justified urged government to alter policy of favoring the Jews e In 1930 London issued second White Paper Author was well known anti Zionist said no room for more immigrants Each white paper more and more sympathetic to Zionism than the previous white paper f C d e Declared Jews should abandon separatist ideals Zionist dismay was profound claiming that Britain had violated the Balfour declaration encouraging lobbying Jews succeeded in undermining White Paper the prime minister gave new support to Zionism In 1931 third Aliyah but Jews still feared shift in British policy IVBritain s About Face 19361939 a Great Depression put Britain under further economic pressure to reduce over seas economic expenditures Britain wanted to end commitments in the East b Some urged to give independence to Palestine like Iraq Arab Palestinians grew ties with Nazi Germans Arabs welcome fascist antidemocratic system pro German sentiment grew sharply uninformed understanding of Nazism throughout Arab world These threats to British interests were serious proNazism revolt in 1931 threatened British oil interests Britian needs Arab support to hold Mediterranean against Nazi German in war effort So Britain decides they need to cut ties with Zionism and prepare to cut ties with Palestine with Arab majority Arab revolt of 19361939 is catalyst for change in British policy Peel Commission of 1937 Jewish and Arab nationalism were on a collision course such deep seated hatred for Jews and fear of Jews only solution was separation iv Called for small Jewish state 75 of mandate go to Palestinian 18 Jewish state remaining for Britain Most Arabs in Jewish state should be moved to Arab state Jews were unhappy with 18 but happy with partition Arab opposition to Britain taking authority to partition land h In May 1939 London issues third White Paper Most sympathetic to Arab position Single Palestinian state within 10 years binational state for Jews and Arabs but Jewish population would never be allowed to rise above one third of the total Immigration total of 5000 was set for 5 years after that all Jewish immigration would stop iv Vastly restricted Jewish land purchases v Britain began to appoint local Arab men to government positions vi 1939 Britain ended support for Balfour declaration vii Jewish militants now turned on the British with fury claimed a surrender to Arab terrorism Jews bitterly denounced British action V Why didn t it work a British policy would be guided by 1939 White paper this offered best chance to reduce conflict to manageable portions b two necessary conditions for success i Palestinian leadership would need to accept white paper and work with British to implement it Almost did but in the end they didn t because it didn t stop immigration at once And because it didn t irrevocably guarantee Arab state And feared militants behind revolt would assassinate Housseni because they were against any concessions what so ever ii The White Paper was the best offer the Arabs ever would have gotten they probably would have had all of the territory in a few years iii Jewish sympathy worldwide weakened British resolve and postponed cataclysm for eight years H 9 quot The Impact of WWII I 9142012 62300 PM Overview a Usually war rewards the more efficient system b WW1 accelerated collapse of Ottomans while promoting Zionism and British c In 1930s Zionism made progress but by 39 it had stalled d After WWII Jewish growth resumed and became unstoppable e War weakened the Arabs and Britain f Shifted strategic balance in Palestine II Impact on Arabs III a War helped Arabs in some respect Natsashibis in Palestine both supported Britain and was grateful after the war b War left Britain dependent on Arab oil c 1945 England practically bankrupt oil was critical to Arab economy d Britain had to listen close to Arab views on Palestine in order keep oil e Also hurt Arabs because Palestine aligned itself with Germany f Hajj Amin Al Husayni spent war in Germany with Hitler g Palestinians elected him as president of Palestinian national council in 48 even though he was wanted for war crimes h 1941 pro Nazi revolt ceased power in Iraq i Politicians publically celebrated Nazi victories over the British j Pro Nazi sympathy was opportunistic Well known and weakened Arab cause in the eyes of Europeans and Americans k Fragmentations in Palestinian movement desimated in Arab revolt of 36 and 39 l Palestinians emerged from WWII considerably weak III Impact on Arabs patron UK a War also took heavy toll on British b Labor party in power in wanted to ensure good will of oil producers naturally sympathetic to Palestinian cause c Britain was also heavily dependent on US for economic support who was pro Zionist Dependent on US was greater than that on Arabs To avoid collapse got loan from US for 4 billion DD f g Forced to give up positions in eastern Mediterranean to the US Reduced to US side kick Impossible for Britain to counter US pro Zionist position Britain abstained to UN vote even though they wanted to say no IVIV Impact on Jews a D39 D D n D39LO War was unspeakable calamity on Jews 13 of world Jewry killed 34th of European Jews One could argue that without holocaust Zionism would have been even stronger because of potential masses If Hitler had persecuted but not exterminated Holocaust was a blessing in several ways Inspired novel unity and militancy for Jews around the world Before war most western Jews didn t show much care for Zionism iii All Jews rushed to Zionism with enormous passion with WWII iv It seemed that Jews could count on no one as world was so hostile v Palestine seemed to be the only hope for survivors vi With own state would come with an army to protect themselves vii Wouldn t let the Arabs execute a second holocaust in Palestine Sentiments were first said publically in new york may 1942 Biltmore hotel This conference urged allies to create Jewish state right after the war 1St time Zionist organization had never called publically for a Jewish state direct response to holocaust Zionism surged everywhere after the war most obviously in the US Largest remaining Jewish population Biltmore symbolized shift of Jewry from Europe to US Yishuv had violence against the British who had closed gates during WWII Immediate goal of anti British violence was to force them to relax the blockade and let refugees into Palestine The broader goal was the force the British to quit Palestine entirely i 44 to 47 Jews destroyed bridges and railroads attacked British things X m Kidnapped and hanged British soldiers This was carried out by Haganah and small Jewish terrorist organization Terrorism violence directed against civilians for political purposes Irgun led by Menachim Begin was head terrorist group i Blew up british military headquarters killing 91 ppl Jews britains and arabs ii British retaliated with mass arrests and executions Holocaust inspired in Jews in Palestine and around the world an unprecedented unity militancy and determination During WWII 100000 Jews in Yishuv volunteered with allied services Trained them for new Haganah Crucial in war of 48 and 49 check Greatest advantage of Jews from WWII was increase in world sympathy i Ironic considering Jews left war convinced they had no one to rely on but themselves Makes sense because most sympathy came from guilt of not helping during the Holocaust Impact on Jews patrons USSR and US a Pquot n D D n LO Similar pro Zionism appeared in Soviet Union after WWII first sign of this A lot of Russians died fighting against Nazis so now they re showing sympathy USSR emerged as strongest European power i Controlled atleast 11 of 57 UN votes Most remarkable this about with post war soviet pro Zionism is it existed with cold war tensions rising Only on Zionism they saw eye to eye Both were determined to rehabilitate the Jews Truman was a Christian Zionist and believed Jews should be returned to where bible said they belonged Truman was opposed by the US foreign policy diplomatsthey agreed with Britain on the need to maintain Arab good will Truman over rode the state department and his military advisor and he was supported by most of American public Over 3 to 1 American support for Israel as a state Truman told Britain in 46 to let in 100000 immigrates immediately even though this strained tensions US recognized Israel in UN 10 min after their independence j WWII transformed Zionist prospects i Decisiver shifted strategic balance in favor of the Jews VIUK Quits a Issue of Jewish refugees was used as a hammer to pound Britain into submission b Return to homes anywhere in Eastern Europe was out of the question c US and other countries also refused to take large amounts of refugees d Even if they had opened doors most didn t want to live in another gentile country e 1947 ship exodus was sent back from British blockade to Europe It was a dramatic episode which was reported all around the world Elicited British inhumanity f By February 1947 British ready to throw in the towel i constant criticism ii Jewish military attacks in Palestine iii rising cost of the mandate g Decided to leave after Suez canal was no longer a lifeline left India so Palestine was no longer important to British h Gave mandate to UN VII UN Decides a UN special committee on Palestine was created i Visited Palestine access situation and make recommendations to general assembly ii Majority vs Minority Report look up iii Majority said hatred was so deep that peace wasn t possibleurged partition 45 of territiory to arabs 55 to Jews and 10 was Jerusalem international zone b November 29 1947 voted on majority report and adopted general assembly resolution 181 for partition c Jews were more familiar to the westmore western support VIII 0 West didn t know as much about Arabs Pro Jewish was also supported by guilt over failing to stop holocaust f May 14 1948 Israel declared independence Was it fair Israeli view a For the great majority of Jews Palestine was their only hope or desire b Jewish entry to Palestine was legal Jews didn t steal any land c UN was legally entitled to rule on the future of Palestine d UN is the opinion of the world and still is e World decided the Jews had suffered enough f Never considered revoking the creation of Israel 9 Israel is only UN sanctioned state arguably the most legit country in World D IXWas it fair Arab View a Deny that ancient ties to Palestine give Jews right to enter and occupy the land b Only basis for control is continuous possession c Jewish tie was symbolic not practical d Jews entered Palestine after 1920 only because the British were under military controlnever asked the Arabs e Real reason Palestinians had to pay the price is that they were weak and massive Jewish immigration could be forced upon them unlike US or England f Question UN influence as it was created by western countries 9 By late 1947 it was obvious that Palestine s future would be resolved by arms not words The Impact of WWII 9142012 62300 PM I Overview a Typically war strengthens a powerful empire hastens the fall of a weak empire b This was the case after WWI with Britain and the Ottoman Empire c Zionism greatly accelerated after WWII after a standstill II Impact on Arabs a War kind of helped them b Hurt them because prominent Arabs aligned themselves with Germany i Haaj Amin AlHussani sided with Hitler ii Hussani agreed that if Germans got to Egypt he would join them and let them take over Palestine c Continuing fragmentation of the Arab world III Impact on Arabs patron UK a Britain was bankrupted by WWII b Policy towards Arabs was double edged c Desperately trying to keep oil supply so were sympathetic to Arab oil d More dependent on US than on the Arabs i Emergency loan of 50 billion e Forced to give up land in Eastern Mediterranean to US forced into position of junior partner to US f Impossible for Britain to counter US s proZionism actions IVImpact on Jews a Dramatically influenced Jew s fortunes b 13 of World Jewry and 3 European Jews unspeakable calamity death of 6 million Jews c Without the Holocaust Zionism would have been even stronger d Despite the horror the holocaust proved to be a blessing to Zionism i Inspired unity around the world ii Previously American and Western Jews looked down on Russian or Eastern Jews iii Gentile world seemed hostile could only count on themselves e They weren t going to let the Arabs execute a second holocaust in Palestine f Zionist organization meeting at the Biltmore Hotel endorsing a Jewish state direct response to the Holocaust g In 1948 alone US Zionist organization raised 100 million the largest philanthropy in US history h Yushuv developed burning hatred for the British because they rejected Jewish refugees i Jewish militants destroyed British army installations burned bridges dynamited British prisons kidnapped and hanged British soldiers robbed British banks carried out by Jewish Terrorist Organizations AND the official army Haganah Terrorism violence directed at civilians for political purposes k Terrorist group Irgun i Let by Menachin Begin blew up British military headquarters and killed 91 people British retaliated with curfews mass arrests etc o Holocaust inspired unity militancy o Benefit was military training and world sympathy V Impact on Jews Patron USSR US a Similar outlook here too this was a new development of feeling sympathy mostly because the Russians lost so many people as well b Stalin thought that having the Jews on their side would be beneficial during the Cold War c Coexist with powerful American backing surprising during Cold War because both were determined to rehabilitate the Nazi s chief victims d Harry Truman was a Christian Zionist i Supported by blacks Jews left wings ii Americans supported creation of Jewish state 3 to 1 o Americans ordered Britain to let in 10000 Jews into Palestine u immediately o Us got Britain to recognize Israel 10 minutes after it declared independence VIUK Quits a Over 90 of Jews said they would never again live in a country of Gentiles 039 VII Wmano 9 Was it fair Israeli view a b VIII C d e The ship exodus The British stopped off the shore of Palestine and they had to be taken back to Germany No longer needed access to Suez canal because they left India Palestine has nothing left to negotiate with UN Decides a UN Special committee on Palestine UNSCOP was created to visit Palestine assess the situation and make a decision and give it to the general UN They wanted to join Jews Arabs together like Switzerland Jerusalem was to be part of an international zone 45 Arab territory and 55 Jewish committee looked like the Jewish state would be reborn after 2000 years almost all states supported the law the vote was broadcasted around the world May 14 1948 Israel declared its independence Ancestral roots partition the only logical solution They didn t want any other gentile nation because they feared something would happen to them Legally unassailable all Jewish lands were usually sold by Arab landowners they never seized land UN legally entitled to rule on the future of Palestine Worlds most incontestable legitimate state because UN created IXWas it fair Arab view a Wrong for people to claim country due to ancient ties 39 Because Rome had Britain are Italians entitled to Britain NO that would bring anarchy The British forced the people of Palestine into a massive alien invasion It was sad that the Jews didn t have anywhere to go but why should the Arabs have to deal with European antisemitism iv Antizionists wondering if UN really represented world opinion Refugees Palestinian 9142012 62300 PM I Importance of refugee issue a Israeli narrative denies that they planned to displace anyone it was Palestinian effort to displace the Yishuv that started displacement b Serves 2 purposes i Shifts responsibility from Israel to those who attacked Israel ii preserves Israel s claims to be a society as more moral that the surrounding countries c Arab narrative says they expelled Arabs with predetermination and design master plan of ethnic cleansing war was just a convenient excuse d 2 purposes as well i preserves Arab self image as blameless victims ii Makes Jews the bad guys iii Both narratives are right and wrongcapture only part of a complex reality II Demographic and emotional dimensions a 150000 Arabs stayed in Israel750000 left Of them 50 fled to west bank and Transjordan both become Jordan 26 to Gaza some to Lebanon and some to Egypt b 1954 14 of Jews lived on land that was once Arab c Jordan and Syria granted citizenship to refugees both others didn t to limit job competition with locals and to say that problem didn t depend on surrounding Arab countries but with Israel d Palestinians were angry with Zionists and the world e Palestine folk culture concentrated on praise of the lost land bitterness of exile the hope for a triumphant return in the future f Long term reasons for refugees 39 Arab and Jewish communities were so close to one another that once fighting began flight was the only option Limited social and political cohesion elite had limited sense of responsibility for the lower class and they never healed from the battle of 3639 British were leaving they relied on them for education etc iv Arabs had a predisposition to fragment in the midst of Jewish attack and British withdrawal III 9 There was also an inclination of Yishuv to see population transfer as a solution to ethic tensions h Jews thought Palestine had room for both peopleJewish agency didn t want Arabs to fight and offered them full rights i UN policy didn t allow population transfer j Jewish leaders expected to live indefinitely with a large Arab minority to whom them promised equal rightsdidn t plan on expelling Arabs But did plan on opening gates to Jewish immigration lowering Arab population k If Arabs hadn t resorted to violence would have been no Palestinian exodus I By 1947 the idea of population transfer had been discussed and was widely accepted by many Jews m Peel commission had discussed transfer n By mid 1940s privately many thought transfer was a good idea force probably necessary 0 One could argue that population transfer was build into the nature of Zionism p Although official policy promised Arabs equal rights idea of transfer was in the air q Once Arab attacks showed that coexistence was impossible transfer seemed natural and desirable march 1948 on Especially after Arabs were winning and faces loss of Jerusalem US support and destruction of enterprise with looming attacks r Another background factor of exodus was fear of stereotypesfaced a holocaust at hands of Arabs Both communities by late 47 were primed for warflight Stage 1 Dec 47March 48 a Bombings by Irgun and Stern gang damaged Arab royal but wasn t chief reason for Arab flight b Haganah tried to limit attacks on Arabs that weren t in revolt c Chief reason for flight was break down of law and order in Arab places d Public services grinded to a halt e General rise in poverty and insecurity f Upper and middle class Arabs fled with their families to surrounding Arab states 75000 wealthiest and best educated IVStage 2 more massive stage April July 48 m torthOD39 3 7 3 3 O quot 0390 U rr Flee of educated created problems with pending British withdrawal Many businesses closed aggravating unemployment Flight of elite gave the rest a model to follow Spring 1948 300000 poorer Palestinians fled Jewish military attacks was key precipitant in the mass flight Flight came in anticipation or aftermath of Jewish military assaults Spring 48 Haganah switched from defense to offense in the face of collapse Also needed to survive against declared invasions from surrounding countries Haganah formulated Plan D went into effect in late march to relieve pressure on Jerusalem and other areas Expanded in May and June in respond to attacks by Arab armies Plan D sought to destroy villages and clear Arabs from strategic transportation routes Plan said that if a village resisted they were to be expelled and if not population should be left in place Didn t authorize Arab expulsion But it did give local commanders cover for whatever action they decided to take from a strategic stand point Therefore opened the door to mass expulsions June 1948 confidential IDF said atleast 55 of total exodus was caused by Hanganah actions Another 15 by Irgun and stern gang Only 30 was caused by Arab disorder Jews prevented their return by destroying villages June 1948 Ben Gurion said no Arab refugee should be admitted back Jews killed more Arabs because they conquered more territories Both sides had an interest in exaggerating the death tollArabs wanted to show Jewish barbarism and Irgun wanted to spread panic throughout Arabs Early collapse was mainly from British withdrawal and structural weaknesses u Then IDF had little choice but to destroy Guerilla bases because Yishuv was on the verge of collapse Needed to open the gates to Jewish state v IDF never sought complete expulsionseries of local initiatives that varied with circumstance Arabs with no military threat were generally left alone w Its obvious that complete expulsion wasn t Jews goal Israel s defenders say that Arab leaders were more committed to ethnic cleansing than they were Arabs expelled larger of Jews from lands they conquered Jews accepted partition and extended citizenship to Arabs Jews still argue that if Arabs hadn t started fighting no refugees on either side aa However no denying that in spring of 48 Jews escalated the exodus bb Final stage JulyNov 1948 i Jews became for enthusiastic about Palestinian departure ii Arabs were expelled because they were viewed as potential rather than active threat Jewish leaders wanted to minimize Arab minority and wanted Arab property to settle Jewish immigrants ccMany IDF commanders pursued more systematic expulsions than in 2nd stage dd Most local Arabs chose to flee ee In north main IDF Haganah committed atrocities too Gurion wanted to get rid of Arab population ff Even in late 1948 still no systematic of official policy of expulsion No general guidelines ever stated by cabinet gg Local commanders handled things as they saw fit haphazard and inconsistent hh Anxieties among what was left of Arabs led to further destruction of law and order ii Somewhere between 300000 and 350000 Arabs fled V Post war efforts at resolution a December 48 UN assembly established commission Resolution 194 said that refugees should be permitted to do so at the earliest gtlt N lt Pquot 32quot FLO39 D o n practicable date and compensation should be paid to those not wanting to return Arab leaders stressed for immediate implementation US and Britain expressed that Jews should take back like 250000 Israel voices several objections in taking back large numbers of refugees Israel wouldn t accept 194 until Arabs accept 181 no Arab state was willing to recognize Israel or to make peace No large scale refugee problem had ever been solved by letting them back in repatriated Israel argued that if they could absorb 100ds of thousands the rich surrounding Arab states could do the same UN recognized Israel as a peace loving nationadmitted them to the UN on may 11 1949 Arabs replied forcefully with their own logical arguments They said Israel broke 181 by seizing land outside their 55 They claim it went way beyond self defense pre planned program of territorial expansion Reflected determination to disposes Arab ppls of Palestine Expansionist mentality that they at the route of the entire conflict Arabs deny that Jewish refugees from Arab lands was comparable to Arab refugees from Jewish lands July 1949 Israel offered to take back either 100000 refugees provided Arab states sign peace treaty or they offered to incorporate the Gaza strip into Israel at that time contained 260000 Arabs Both rejected by Arab states as far too little Furthermore Egypt was unwilling to give up Gaza Arabs kept saying that Israel was illegal and would never recognize a Jewish state Refugees Jewish 9142012 62300 PM I Empires collapse into national fragments a Jews had lived all across the Arab world b They formed communities that were distinct from and legally inferior to Muslims c Arrival of Europeans changes Arab politics i created system that opposed Europeans ii unintentionally made non Muslims into targets of nationalist resentment d OttomansEuropeans operated abovetop down e Ethic minorities weren t significantly disadvantaged f New Arab nationalist movements flowed from the bottom up 9 Minorities weren t genuinely part of the nation resented by Arab nationalists i Pre modern empires were inclusive where as nationalisms were exclusive h As early as 1930 threat to Arabs of Palestine led them to threaten the Jews i 1940 anti Jewish threats turned into large scale expulsions 100s of thousands of Jews forced to leave Arab lands i Reciprocal exclusion j Collapse of ottoman and British empires into nationalist fragments i They then sought to marginalize minorities II Jewish expulsion in thought and deed in Palestine a Idea of population transfer had a definite place in Zionist thinking b Most Jews saw Palestinian exodus as desirable and inevitable c However this idea was far more prominent in Arab thinking i Palestine had been a Muslim Arab land for centuries so returning it to its all Arab character was more natural and logical then Jews converting Palestine into an all Jewish land by 1945 Jews in Palestine were only half as numerous as Arabs so from a practical standpoint expelling them was more reasonable then Arab majority multi ethnic secular nation state where different ethnic and religious ppl enjoyed same rights was a European cultural construct and Zionist leaders identified strongly with this tradition This cultural heritage explains why Zionists never III gave official support to ethnic cleansing Explains why Israel remained dedicated to equality to its citizens d Post Palestinian leaders however had little sympathy for European liberalism Thought that the state embodies divine law where Jews lacked rights comparable to Muslims e Irgun and Stern gang felt similarly to Arabs f However it was mainstream for Arabs not for Jews 9 In 48 Arabs wanted to exterminate and massacre the Jews h Arabs massacred many Jews in 48 i While Arabs could stay in Jewish parts no Jews could stay in Arab parts Had rights in Jewish areas despite social discrimination but not vice versa i However Jews displaced a lot more Wider Arab world first wave 194855 a Jewish displacement from Palestine was small part of Jewish displacement from wider Jewish world b Across Arab world Jews Greeks and Arab Christians had benefitted from European colonialism first to have European culture c Bred resentment with majority Muslim population Big gap between Arab Jews and Muslims d 19305 and 405 Arab nationalist movements became more intense and gap widened e Struggle for Palestine naturally enflamed these feelings f Job hunt during depression led to legal anti Jewish riots g Nazi appeals to Arabs only increased Arab anti Semitism h After WWII feelings got stronger to support Palestinian brothers against Jewish immigration i UN partition of 1947 triggered most passionate response In late 4748 crowds rampaged thru Jewish sectors of Jewish cities 100s of Jews murdered on the street Jewish leaders arrested legislation crippled Jewish businesses j Led to total dissolution of Jewish life across Arab world Communities disappeared k Almost all left for Israel when could I Sought to escape poverty and Muslim pogroms 0 quotP As opposed to Jews of Yemen Iraqi Jews were well educated Their leaders sought to distance themselves from Zionism in hopes of relieving tensions Gave to Muslims but ended up having to leave anyway when war broke out Began to flee in 48 and 49 like other Jews from other countries At first it was illegal for them to leave but then they could as long as they forfeited their property and took no Thru air lifts 90 left Jewish Iraqis i Those who remained in Iraq regretted it By 55 Libya Yemen and Iraq lost over 90 of Jews Lots still remained in French colonies of north Africa and Egypt IVSecond wave 195567 a Pquot n D Tht D In 56 Egypt headed by a nationalist who was anti Israel When war broke out Jews arrested and dismissed from gov employment Being Jewish became a legal offense Fled and had to leave behind all property In 10 years 90 of once flourishing community disappeared Tunisia and Morocco tried to calm Jewish anxieties and limit emigration The leaders showed good will but wasn t reflected by the lower and middle ranked officials and regular people After independence from France Tunisia and morocco began to identify with Arab world led to more Jewish feelings of isolation Wanted to move to Israel to escape discrimination and better their living standards i By 1967 almost all had gone to Israel Algeria s Jews went to France mostly Experts say 850000 Jews fled Arab countries over both waves 98 9 Only 83 of Palestinian Arabs left their homes V Differences from Palestinian displacement a b Chronology wasn t the same Primary Palestinian exodus was 4749 while Jewish exodus was 48 to mid 60s c Motivations differedPalestinians was always negative to avoid insecurity prosecution and Jewish violence Few if any wanted to leave permanently most suffered deterioration of living standards d Israel appealed to many Jews e Poor Jews wanted better living standards they achieved it f Zionist leader encouraged Jewish exodus spread propaganda about how wonderful Israel was and bribed Arab officials to let Jews leave 9 Without Arab persecution efforts never would have persuaded so many Jews to leave their homes and abandon everything they ve worked for in their entire lives h Along with it though positive appeals of Israel let Jews leave with much less heavy hearts that Palestinian counterparts i Palestinians helped to produce their own predicament by attacking Jews j Jews in Arab countries never attacked or did anything to be expelled k Fate of the two post 47 exoduses was very different I Arabs couldn t take most of the Palestinian refugees It was to avoid job competition but mostly a political statement saying it was Israel s problem m Jew immigrants to Israel were welcomed and rapidly absorbed n Explains why Israel didn t ask for reparations for the Jews while Arabs asked for reparations and to return 0 Why did Arab countries let Israel built up their strength with immigration i Many were bribed many thought disease would fall over the land some gave into pressure from international communities to allow it on humanitarian grounds and many wanted to seize their land and get wealthy VISimilarities to Palestinian displacements a Both population transfers suffered deprivation family traumas psychological anxiety lost lives work both suffered from physical brutality b Both triggered by the struggle for Palestine D ht D LO Both Israel and Arab governments encouraged the exodus to seize the property of the displaced people Both grew from hostility towards groups that were deemed outside the national community Physical attacks in the name of national security Both heirs to Ottoman and British empires multi ethnic empires tend to be inclusive protections to different groups while nationalism is exclusive After WWI and II nationalisms were strong 9142012 62300 PM I Empires Collapse into National Fragments a Arab nationalism created the Jewish exodus b Ottoman was full of ethnic and religious communities c Hundreds and thousands ofjews lived in arab world and spoke Arabic i But formed distinct communities ii Legally inferior to muslims d European models of nationalism inspired eastern Europeans to create their own forms of this e Made non muslims into targets of national resentment f Ottoman and European empires worked above society worked top down No such thing as elections and subjects had no chance to discuss political identity 9 New arab nationalist movement that was against jewish nationalism h Minorities could not fully participate in national life i Pre modern emprires were inclusive nationslism was exclusive i Which animated Zionism state forjews and non jews would be outsiders who only received civic rights Those who threatened state would be expelled Nationalism and Zionism fed on each other j 19405 anti jewish threats turned into large scale expulsions which forced hndreds of thousands ofjews to leave arab lands II Jewish Expulsion in Thought and Deed in Palestine a Idea of ethnic cleansy had place in Zionist thinking b When arab attacks showed that peaceful coexisting was impossible they adopted exodus as inevitable c Arabs thought the idea of expelling people more prominent than in Zionist thinking 39 Palestine had been muslim arab land for century so wanted to return it to all arab as natural and logical Jews only half as populous Idea of multi ethnic secular nation state with equal civic rights ie American was a european cultural construct and Zionists identified strongly with this tradition 1 This cultural heritage is why Zionist leaders never gave full support to the idea of ethnic cleansing III 2 Which is why they allowed arabs to remain in the state even though they could have easily expelled them 3 Committed to legal and social equality iv Palestinian leaders had little sympathy for European liberalism and thought that the state embodied divine law in which the jews lacked rights comparable to muslims v Anti liberal versions of European nationalism that arabs were attracted to 1 Resolution of political differences by force 2 Used mussolinis state as model HAAJ said that only a few jews could stay and that 95 or more would have to leave 1 Arabs would continue fighting until all jews are enhilated vii 10000 jews expelled more massacred viii synagogues burned Wider Arab World First Wave 194855 a As indicated across arab world jews as well as greeks and arab Christians had benefitted from European colonialism generally welcomed it as a form of liberation i Most likely to integrate into colonial economy which bred resentment in the arab population ii Gap widened between arab jews and local muslims b 19302 and 405 their relationship disintegrated further because more hostility as arabs viewed jews as lackeys to the French and british c lethal anti jewish riots swept Algeria Iraq etc i in Baghdad alone 200800 jews killed 900 homes destroyed d anti semitic texts published Mein kampf fake Zionist writings e 19405 slogan hitler is killing the jewish germs f arab coutries gained independence led to identification of arab jews with Zionist enemy 9 UN partition of 1947 triggered most impassioned response i Crowds rampaged through arab cities jewish strores and synagogues torched hundreds ofjews murdered jewish leaders arrested v39 ii Led to total disillusion ofjewish life in arab world over night these communities disappeared h 19481955 migration from Libya and countries east of Libya i demoralized by pogroms ii wrote to UN security council i almost all Jews left to Israel j virtually entire jewish population of yemen 50000 walked hundreds of miles to escape i poorest jews in the world ii 70 of those jews had eye disease iii many full grown men only weighed 80 lbs k wealthy jewish in Iraq gave money to arab cause and distanced themselves from Zionism in order to try to gain protection but this failed they too had to migrate i countries richest jew hanged outside his home I 93 IRAQI jews fled 39 abandoned 200 million in property 1 why arabs allowed this the small number who remained were brutally tortured and killed Libya yemen and Iraq lost over 90 of theirjews but colonies remained in north africa and egypt IVSecond Wave 195567 a War broke out about Egypt and Israel b To be associated with Zionism became a criminal offense c Most Egyptian jews fled to Israel abandoning their property 95 migrated d French rule constrained anti jewish expression e 98 of arab jews left their homes compared to 83 of Palestinians V Differences from Palestine Displacement a Palestinian motivation was almost negative they fled Palestine 39 To avoid insecurity i39 Avoid jewish violence They thought that their return to the promise land would be the return of messiah leaders raely encourage Palestinians to flew but jewish leaders spread propaganda telling how wonderful Israel was iv Fate if two different diaspora They both lived in camped out charities to avoid economic differences VISimilarities to Palestinian Displacement LO DDOD39QJ SUFFERED SEVERE DEPRAVATION Severe psychological anxiety Lost lives work Physical brutality Suffered family trauma Triggered by exodus of Palestine Zionist forced out arabs and made the ones that stayed into a lesser economic and social position Zionism and arab nationalism were heirs of ottoman and british empires multi national multi etnic traditions Empires inclusive nationalism exclusive Israel and Palestinian Societies 1949679142012 62300 PM Overview New state faced problems unclear if Israel could survive Hostility of surrounding Arab states Major domestic challenges Israel had to create a political system that could avoid extremes that categorized many new state had to absorb a flood of new immigrants had to reconcile its Arab minority 18 proposed potential security threat Could call on number of assets legacy of pre war Yishuv draw on high levels of external financial support benefitted from high levels of education and technology especially those of European decent By 67 Israel succeeding in meeting its main domestic challenges Palestinian Arabs couldn t share this sense of achievement While Israeli living standards rose Palestinian refugees relied on UN charity poverty Jewish populations became unified Palestinian society splintered between Palestinians in Israel in Jordan and other Arab lands Jordan largest refugee population suppressed a specifically Palestinian identity as did Israel Concept of Palestinian nation was threatened Ironically if Israel didn t seize west bank from Jordan in 67 Palestinian politics could have never survived Palestinians like Israelis raised educational level and experimented with new political institutions and ideas Generated a Palestinian movement more dynamic than ever before Israel s political system Legacy of Yishuv permitted easier transition than most new countries after WWII Jewish agency departments for health and finance education immigration that existed before war became new ministry for same stuff under independent state Pre war national assembly evolved into Israeli parliamentkineset Whoever had most votes in kineset became Prime Minister of Israel still in effect System of national votes leads to of votes in kineset o Leads to a wide representation of interests 0 Disadvantage bread instability and inefficiency Coalition of diverse often incompatible party labor party was most popular Mapai Never majority for any party so had to make coalitions with smaller ones who then requested favors like government jobs Very inefficient because money that could go to economy went to party loyalties Long term political system proved relatively successful Proportional representation let all Israelis feel they had a stake in the system Very free and open mediaexpression As educational standards rose system got even better Immigration and economic wealth Under mandate immigration 18000 a year Averaged 18000 a month in this time period Pop tripled in 8 years Law of Return in 1950 anyone of Jewish ancestry or converters an auto right to come and live in Israel Expressed more than an ideological imperativethey needed people for army settle frontiers build economy Jews around the world began clamoring for emission 0 1st was holocaust survivors then came a great influx from Arab Asian and North African lands including Afghanistan Ethiopia Founders thought all would be European Jews Ashkenazim but after Hitler killed them Asian and African Jews were central to Jewish mission they were diseased and not well educated Mizrachimeasterners Occupied a lower class Also suffered from European discrimination Responded with bitterness Israel started remedial programs to reduce the gap between the two communities They poured a lot of money into special education for Mizrachim By mid 19605 educational gap had narrowed dramatically Government abandoned idea of Ashkenazi culture to be centralIsrael was not a uniform culture but a cultural mosaic O Different communities were encouraged to maintain they re own customs However the government instilled strong Israeli patriotism through the army and schools Only language of instruction in schools was Hebrew linguistic vehicle of patriotism In army all members lived together and spoke only Hebrew internalized goal of defending the country Mizrachi people began to start successful business etc and by mid 60 s income of them was raising more rapidly than ashkenazis o By 69 20 of marriages are mixed Immigration was tied to economic growth Until mid 50 s hard to absorb them hurt economy Mid SOs education slowed to more educated people 0 Free market policies began to supplement inefficient sociality policies Same time Israel was getting more external help US German reparations By 605 economy turns the corner Pop reaches 2 million living standards rise 0 Also strong infrastructural development Rapid development of south of Israel 5265GNP grew 250 industrial output more than quadrupled One of richest countries in the world 0 Problem government still depended strongly on foreign aid Wealth distribution became more unequal than in socialist penod Earlymid 605 more Jews began leaving Israel than entering due to selfish attitude replacing Zionism that founded country By 67 it was reversed and immigration resumedprosperous and secure Arabs in Israel Israel s non Jewish minority what happened to them 0 By some measure their situation was good Enjoyed political benefits of Israeli democracy only one in the middle east O O O O O O O O IsraelArab voters could choose from a variety of parties in open and free elections They could and did organize their own political parties sat as members of Knesset Enjoyed more rights than Jews in Arab lands where there was no security rational for restriction Treated better than most minorities in newly independent countries Arabic remained a language of instruction in school Zionist propaganda noticeably absent in Arab text books of Israeli Arab schools shot up Most of them attended school by 505 Arab villages and towns had better living standards and money They had better healthcare led to large population growth rate Ironic Jewish health care of Arabs eventually led to them threatening Jewish political control o However they were still treated badly compared to the Jews 0 O O O O O O O Israel defined as a Jewish state celebrated independence around the catastrophe Army flag national anthem were not only Jewish but reminders of a painful past for Arabs Israel s law of return didn t apply to the Palestinians who had been expelled Until 66 persistent guerilla attacks of the frontier led to high security There was also some violence between Israeli army and Israeli Arabs Marshal law was gradually implemented less strictly and ended in 66 Arabs were marginalized and isolated in Jewish society Land ownership was also bitterthey were forbidden to reclaim property they had been kicked out of before Ever smaller portion of Israeli Arabs could farm their own fields so they sought work in Israeli cities o Raised living standards but they still remained at the bottom of the heap relative to the Jews Druze Arabs 9 served in Israeli army in 47 and considered themselves Zionist Most Arabs voted for Jewish political groups mostly Mapai Palestinians outside Israel Experienced same loss of autonomy as Israeli Arabs 4950 Transjordan annexed the west bank became Jordan them and Israel split the land set aside by the UN for Israeli Arab state K Husseins Jordan sympathy for Palestinian feelings was only rhetorical 0 He wanted to suppress a Palestinian identity Government schools in east and west bank stressed Jordanian nationalism 0 Jordan banned public use of the world Palestine 0 Didn t want Palestinians to have a strong identity Palestinians weren t in control of army or police in Jordan 0 Some did accept the system and identify as Jordanian 1967 when Jordan lost west bank to Israel Jordanians integrative process was very incomplete Therefore Palestinians remained politically marginal lower class People in west bank refugee camps become societies frozen in time 0 Living standards were very bad Life was more difficult In Gaza tiny sliver of land 0 Gaza s income was limited to UNRA charity and gov help 0 Urged to resettle in the Sinai peninsula o Refused any attempt to make exile permanent Help onto dreams of returning to their land in Israel Gaza remained the poorest of all refugee centers Hatred of Israel is more intense than any other center today it is the base for Hamas After 49 all countries neutered Palestinian politics Palestinians also had limited opportunities in Libya Syria and Iraq Intra marriage with host Arab societies was extremely rare 0 O O O o Palestinians became increasingly well educated in their worlds o Refugees knew it offered the only vehicle for advancement o UNRA gave them primary school system but many went to secondary school in Jordan and other places 0 Widening education increased Palestinian self confidence and options o Second development was their mobile international orientation 0 1948 scattered them far and wide and search for education scattered them more Eventually fewer than half of Palestinians remained in what had been mandatory Palestine c From ranks of educated mobile elite new political leadership came in the 50s humble backgrounds 0 Far more sympathetic than pre war notables to the poor society They were far more radical and experimented with many beliefs and created many political organizations Most important was FATAH captured imagination of the youth Said that Palestinians stop relying on Palestinian benefactors choose the path or armed struggle O O O 0 Conclusion o 194967 in some ways went in opposite directions o Israel went from being all over the world to one cohesive nation o Help from abroad and skillful leadership Israel became politically secure o Contrast Palestinians came from 1 territory and disbursed all around the world o But a novel emphasis on education and national employment set stage for political movement Israel and Arab States 19491967 I 9142012 62300 PM Overview a Palestinians temporarily disappeared b Israeli relations within the Arab world were largely restricted c Hope that states might make peace i Fear feelings of injustice bred belligerence on both sides ii 6 day war of 1967 d Israel and the arab states were very similar both sought to maximize local gains both sought to intimidate the enemy both adopted persistently belligerent policies e Long term strategies different i Israel defensive wanted to prevent fresh attacks goal was to preserve status quo of 1949 ii Arabs subvert status quo wanted to destroy the jewish state 1 States said Israel was fundamentally illegitimate 2 Hostility triggered by occupation of west bank f Arabs muslims Palestinians were hostile just because of the existence of Jews Jordanians did not have this mentality They wouldn t recognize Jews or Israel which scare them and made a vicious cycle of anger and fear II Possibility of Peace III a UN pressured in April of 1949 to discuss refugees and other issues i Both had incentives b Israel wanted to be accepted by its borders so it would stop worrying c Made tentative deal divide Jordan river between three countries d US envoy in 19505 thought that they reconcile their differences Israel Intransigence a Optimistic hopes came to nothing both sides began to deadlock fears overwhelmed hope Israel was prey to deep insecurities they thought the Arabs were trying to destroy the Jewish state In 1954 3 Jews lived on land that used to be Arabs Truman warned Israel that they had to give compensation to refugees or the US would reconsider their position Israel couldn t give land back to Arabs or Israel would be destroyed and they argued that Jewish refugees never got compensation D39 00 D n X Without the Jewish entry into Palestine there would never have been tensions Israel was a robber state Zionism into the promised land is where it all began 194748 they were only defending themselves 1949 armistice lines with Lebanon Jordan Syria made lots of movement by Palestinians Some people went over to go back home Surrounding government secretly supported guerrilla attacks and raids on Israel killing and wounding thousands Israeli leaders became convinced that the Arabs were planning a second round of war In violation of the 1949armistive agreement Israel also occupied a demilitarized zone on the Egyptian border near gaza Israel repeatedly attacked by Syria All this increased the angst and tension IVArab Intransigence a 0039 D n j If the arab states had agreed to make peace Israel would have signed and agreed to demands on borders No arab state was willing to end the state of war Arabs starting the fighting but Jews provoked and invaded their land initially so they should have to pay their price Western values were rejected in the way of Arab self strengthening this limited dissent and intensified militancy against Israel Future lay with strong secular military messiahs who would prevail victory over the Jews 39 Wanted to get rid of corrupt officials wealthy land owners anyone who aligned themselves with the west Wanted to help the poor Wanted to encourage socialism and crush Israel Any leader that advocated for Israel was attacked or assassinated i Lebanon s prime minister was assassinated Egypt s president also killed 19505 Arabs forbade all travel to Israel became island of sorts 1952 economic boycott of Israel by arab world any business that dealt with Israel was boycotted by the arab world Egypt banned Israeli and Israeli bound ships from the suez canal Egypt simply ignored UN actions that they didn t like k Military attacked increased more towards western powers V Israel s Strategy to 1956 Pursued strategy of defense only tactical short term solution Long term build army that combined resilience with first strike capacity and cultivate ties with the west Had to be able to resist attack but couldn t keep large army without crippling economy similar to Swedish army Great bulk of army consists of reserves civilians called for emergencies Almost all Israelis serve as soldiers Israel only 9 miles wide at thinnest point If Arabs struck first Israel would be cut and half and likely wouldn t survive so developed first strike doctrine if Arab attack seemed likely an attack was planned on Arab soil Israel also developed strategic ties to Europe and the US Israel did succeed in developing ties with west Germany VI1956 Sinai Campaign what finally allowed Israel to get advanced arms was its connection to france The left loved Israel because it was socialist and because the jews had been the Nazi s first target also the right liked them because they were trying to stop the antifrench rebels in Nigeria Israel France and Britain wanted to get revenge on Egypt s president they decided to invade Egypt 39 US and USSR mad because this disregarded international law Britain and France had to remove from the suez before they could get anything done Israel had to withdraw from all of Sinai that they had seized VII Israel s International Position to 1967 a Israel sought to expand its diplomatic circle US stepped up its aid to Israel including arms for the first time Israel devoted its chief attention to Europe and the third world Helped Israel develop air craft industry and nuclear research with nuclear weapons e German reparations for the holocaust continued German banks invested heavily in Israel Um n D D D h r 0 Pquot 000quot n LO 339 Germany sought moral rehabilitation received Israel s forgiveness for the Nazis Generally germans had been reluctant to discuss the holocaust with their children so young germans were uninformed With the the Adolph Eichmann thousands of young germans and scandanavians and dutch traveled to Israel to work for the sins of their fathers Israel wanted to reach out to Asia and Black Africa Israel offrec them expertice in irrigation education public health and military security Focused on black Africa so that they would have more localized allies also they identified because of racism Established Israel as formidable military power developed economy and expanded diplomatic circle The 6 Day War 9142012 62300 PM I Signifigance a Soviet Union helped push the Arabs into war b Turning point in several respects i Transformed geo politics of the mid east repeated event of 194748 Israel content to stay in borders but Arab attacks allow Israeli justification to seize more land ii After wars third clear cut Israeli victory in 20 years again confirmed superiority of IDF height of Israeli superiority Transformed Palestinian prospects Palestinians came under Israeli control West Bank Palestinians could be Jordanians would have to stand on their own Arab states who they had relied on collapsed II Tensions to 1967 a Egypt most powerful Arab state exercised considerable caution while dealing with Israel b After 1956 let Israeli ships use gulf of Nashaba c Nassar wanted to annul Israel s existence d Arab states experienced 20 successful coups Syria alone had 11 violent changes to government in 17 years e Arab leaders felt very vulnerable to domestic challenges due to uprisings f Many Syrians in Suni majority deeply resented their rule the regime then became eager to pursue foreign policy to change their shaky claims of representing all people 9 Syria sponsored guerrilla attacks on Israel in northern part of country h 19631969 led by Levi Eshkol led him to overreact frequently to Syrians to prove aggression often provoked Syrians for opportunity to return attack harshly i full scale war between Israel and Syria seemed likely j Nassar coward hiding behind UN Hussein dared Nassar to close Gulf of Aqaba again III Soviet Role and Drift to War a If the Arabs won it would prove the value of Soviet weapons and boost Russian prestige if they lost it would increase their dependence on Soviets b The Soviets hoped to provide pretext to attack Israel to destroy their nuclear weapons to shift balance c Feared that Israeli weapons could threaten southern Russia d To advance plans the Soviets told Syria and Egypt that Israel has amassed 20000 troops on Syrian border to attack goal was to relieve Israeli pressure on Syria so Israel would shift troops form Syria i This statement was a total lie ii Still war happened because Nassar had to act or force humiliation by the rest of the Arab world e Nassar moved bulk of army into Sinai peninsula facing Israel Israel had been greatly demilitarized since 1956 f Closing of waterway leads to declaration of war 9 Sinai wanted to get rid of 56 olympics close gulf of Aqaba h In face of common enemy Egypt and Jordan joined joint military command boosting Arab confidence due to great inbalance on paper IVIsrael Decides to Strike a Irony is that although Nassar helped push region to brink of war refused to strike Israel first because 39 Hoped to gain propaganda victory His soviet allies warned him not to strike the first blowcentral to their strategy of branding Israel as the aggressor and providing them with excuse to attack Israel s nuclear facilities ii39 Nassar thought Abu Aghela held key to Sinai b For Egypt high unemployment plus large standing army meant that long term mobilization carried very low economic cost that plus their great strategic depth in Sinai meant that they could afford to be patient c Israel s main strength was their civilian army being mobilized but they couldn t stay mobilized without wrecking their economy d Israel were convinced they faced another war of annihilation e After US diplomatic efforts to solve this crisis failed Israel decided to strike the first blow f Israel would counter that closing the Gulf of Aqaba was actually the first attack breaking International law 9 Israel chose war reluctantly Existential Threat V War in Sinai Um n D D n D39LO Israel campaign began on June 1967 Rather than fly in from east like expected entered from Mediterranean far from the west then east towards the Nile These attacked were timed precisely at 945 am when Egyptian pilots went on their coffee break With air superiority Israel began air brigades night time attacks on Abu Agala Israelis had extremely detailed knowledge of Abu Agala built exact replica By June 6 Israelis probably could find way through fort blind folded Israel blew open loss to Sinai 2000 Egyptians died fighting 10000 died in retreat in three days entire Sinai peninsula was in Israeli hands Egyptian head of staff tried to commit suicide VIWar with Jordan 0 Pquot 00 D n LO Egypt refused to admit defeat despite losses Radio Cairo declared success Nassar wanted to convince Hussein to issue attack Israel failed to issue any information regarding the war but this deception led Hussein to enter the war with fateful longterm results for him and Arab World Israelis warned Jordan not to enter war Jordanian army began shelling Tel Aviv and west Jerusalem Israel retaliated as soon as they had eliminated Egyptian air power completely surprising Jordan as Jordan had no idea that Israel s air force was still intact destroying all of Jordan s air force and half of rest or army Arab legion fought heroically for two days but lacked air support thus Hussein lost the richest half of his kingdom near fatal blow For the Jews a sense of deliverance from a nightmare was powerful elation historic triumph return to the sacred places of Jerusalem Israelis met the western wall the holiest site in Jerusalem They didn t know what to do with Syria Syria stopped attacking Jordan asked Syria for help Syria was like sorryyyyyyyyy VII VIII h Volunteers began pouring into the north after fighting ended with Jordan and Egypt the turned to Syria At first Syrian troops fought stubbornly killing leaders but in the end resistance was bound to crumble because Israel had total air superiority Revenge on the Golan A New Mideast a Easy reach of arab artilary Israeli troops and artilary in easy access to Damacus 30000 Arab dead Israel lost 80 tanks vs 1000 enemy tanks Soviet weapons just as good if not better than Israel s French and 391 DQOD39 LO 339 Israel now controlled 88000 sq kilometers US weapons more Soviets Israel better because almost all literate whereas Arabs weren t lowering technical knowledge also Arab officers usually fled leaving little leadership Socialist regimes Military inbalance no longer remains Israel no longer superior over Arab armies No less decisive Arab armies failed because they never produced unified battle plan three separate campaigns concentrate three separate times Israeli determination born of desperation constant Arab threats memory of the Holocaust victory or inihilation Israeli sympathy across western Europe non Jewish volunteers lined up The Temporary Empire 196777 9142012 62300 PM Overview o Start of 6 day war Israel was relatively homogeneous nation state 85 Jewish o Gain 4 times their territory in 4 days 0 Also gained 100000 more Arabs now only 65 Jewish o If Israel kept new lands would local Arabs become citizen of Israel o Who would govern lands if Israel relinquished them c We still don t know the answer to these questions o Today we will examine policy of Labor governments on these issues o Labor originally thought that Israel s control of most of the territory would be temporary o 10 years later exchange of land for peace became very unlikely o Land began to acquire a sense of permanence Territories Sinai Gaza West Bank East Jerusalem Golan Heights o Sinai captured from Egypt was by far the largest but tiny population o Sinai potentially had great strategic significance buffer between Israel and Egyptian heartland o Israel was willing to surrender Sinai to neutralize its most powerful neighbor Egypt o Israel also had little ties to Israel and would be able to easily give it up o Other four territories differed from Sinai because they were closely entangled with Israel strategically or emotionally o Gaza was the opposite of Sinai tiny and densely populated o Gaza s refugees were hostile to Israel and had close proximity to Israel s population o Gaza had much greater strategic danger to Israel harder to give it up o Relinquishing the West Bank posed greater problems 0 Deeply hostile to Israel and potential threat 0 Israel had intimate religious ties to the west bank Jewish history was centered 0 Holds Judaism s holiest sights 0 West Bank also critical to Israel in strategic ways Israel s narrow waist was subject to attack from west banks highlands It also surrounds Jerusalem from 3 sides East Jerusalem was also part of Jordan until 67 o Separated EJ from the rest of the west bank and quickly declared it part of Israel 0 Temple was heart of Jewish emotional ties Golan Heights had been part of Syria 0 Because most residents had fled it was surprisingly empty 0 No religious ties to the Golan heights but great strategic help because its elevation 0 Also controls part of Jordan river Israel s chief water source UN Security council resolution 242 International committee decided the time had come to solve Arab Israeli conflict Broad agreement in UN that Israel would have to give up most if not all of the 5 territories Also agreed that Arab countries would have to make peace and recognize the Jewish state How much land would Israel have to give up Pro Arab drafts by soviet union emphasized need for full Israeli withdrawal Argued Israel had attacked Egypt first on June 5 and opened hostilities Also emphasized that taking land by force didn t apply with charter of the UN Israel and some western countries argued that Egypt opened legal need for war by closing Gulf of Aqaba Israel also asked why they needed to respect boarders that others had gotten by force in 49 o Compromise strength lay in its deliberate ambiguity Each side could interpret the resolution as it saw fit 0 242 was adopted unanimously Israeli withdrawal from territories occupied in the recent conflict 0 Therefore refrained from insisting on full Jewish withdrawal La bo r s Israel interpreted it as having to withdrawal only from some lands while Arabs thought it said they needed to leave all territories taken in 67 242 also called for free navigation in international waters a just settlement to the refugee problem and appointed a representative to start peace negotiations After 2 years nothing was accomplished and Israel withdrew from N0 territories calculations Negotiations failed because neither side had confidence in the others intentions 0 Neither side was willing to make the first step Only rhetoric In Israel split between right Menachim begin and left and middle labor Right wanted to keep everything and Jewish settlements all across territories After election of 77 that put right into power this became official policy 0 Until then it was a minority opinion In 69 it was labor party who called the shots They wanted to trade most the lands for Arab recognition and peace Even they ruled out a complete return to pre June 67 borders Declared that east Jerusalem was a permanent part of Israel Labor also wanted important changes in west bank Allon Plan became semi official labor doctrine Envisioned permanent Israeli defensive perimeter across Jordan valley Still refused right wing desire to annex Arab population blocks in west bank Also refused large scale Jewish settlement in the west bank thought heartland of west bank should be returned to Jordan Wanted to return all of Golan Heights Sinai and Gaza if they could be demilitarized June 19 Israel offered that deal to Cairo and Damascus O O O O O o Labor felt that holding onto lands would increases the likelihood of future wars o Wanted to give up most territories due to a moral objection Israel couldn t maintain both its Jewish and democratic character if it annexed great population blocks of West Bank and Gaza o If they became citizens who could vote they would be 40 of people hostile to Zionism o Giving citizenship seemed like a recipe for certain Zionist collapse o ON the other hand withholding citizenship wasn t much more attractive o Denying them the vote would mean that a million people would be unrepresented in the Knesset from which they were governed This wasn t okay with Israelis who agreed with democracy 0 Also invited criticism from Europe and US o Israel had no choice but to relinquish most of the territories providing a partner for peace could be found Arab and Israeli Views o Couldn t simply hand back the lands and face the same military threat as before 0 Arab states would need to agree to end their belligerency 0 Labor agencies hoped this would be possible Radical Arab states were led by Syria and Egypt Iraq and Algeria They opposed any concession that would reward Israel for their aggression They wanted to intensify armed struggle until Israel was forced to relinquish all of its gains Damascus and Cairo rejected Israel s proposal to get back land if they were demilitarized In Arab Summit meeting all the heads of state agreed on an official declaration with 3 famous no s No recognition No negotiation No peace Arabs felt Israel had no right to annex claim their own lands they acquired through aggression O O Policies Arabs argued that Israel had to relinquish territories before the Arabs would recognize their attempts at peace In Israeli view they had same right as other countries to live without constant fear of annihilation 0 Again claimed Egypt had started aggression Jordan and Syria first fired on Israel In Israel s view 67 was 47 all over again Arabs started war with goal of destroying the Jewish state To summarize impasse most Arabs were convinced that Jews preferred expansion to peaceno negotiations were possible until Israel surrendered lands it had seized by force Arab view Israelis thought that surrendering lands to people who attacked them would be stupid peace had to proceed with drawal and opposite for Arabs Neither side was willing to make the first move in the Territories Policies to govern territories on temporary basis until states agreed to end the conflict Labor was convinced that the change in policy was only a matter of time 0 Was holding lands in trust when a fair bargain was available 0 Provisional temporary context in which Labor created policies Labors long term vision for the West Bank approximated the Allon Plan 0 General outline of the plan was known since 67 Israel would retain Jordan valley and the Judeon desert south of the valley Areas would be fortified to protect Israel against an attack from the east 0 Also would annex areas around Jerusalem Other West bank areas would be returned to Jordan as part of settlement Palestinians in west bank wouldn t be allowed to be citizens of Israel most wanted to keep Jordanian citizens anyways 0 Could vote in local elections but not national elections in the Knesset Arabs in East Jerusalem became permanent residents of Israel but not citizens Israel didn t want more Arab voters and few EJ Arabs wanted to be Israeli citizens Received government money for social welfare activities could vote for city council only Differed from Arab Israelis who had same legal rights of Jewish Israelis Israel worked hard to separate EJ from rest of the west bank Jewish neighborhoods were build and Israel sought to give EJ a more Jewish character Israel argued that 4th Geneva convention didn t apply to Israel or new lands wasn t recognized sovereign power Most governments argued that Israeli policies broke spirit of Geneva convention Gaza in 70 Israel cracked down on anti Israel activities and sent many people back to Jordan Wanted to stabilize areas in preparation to return them Israel opened bridges across Jordan river to Jordankeep close ties to Jordan and encouraged economic exchange between Jordan and west bank Israel arranged for west bank civil servants and teachers to continue receiving their salaries from Jordan Also Jordanian not Israeli laws applied everywhere in West Bank other than in EJ To cultivate support Israel had liberal policies in west bank and Gaza Common market arose with free trade in all directions Jobs in Israel meant that Arab unemployment disappeared in west bank and Gaza 0 Israel made electricity available to these areas 0 Poured money into Arab education and health care 0 Maternal and infant mortality plummeted leading to large scale population growth that was a surprise and not welcomed Income in west bank and Gaza rose as quickly as population 0 Israel invested little in local industry or training for Arab population o Arabs had nothing to bring to the market except for unskilled labor Got horrible jobs in Israel 4th tear in social pyramid underneath Arab Israelis o They usually couldn t stay in Israel and had to have long commutes 0 Until 77 west bank and Gaza appeared to be normal and quiet o In 72 Israel sponsored elections in the west bank PLO called for boycott of elections but most Arabs defied the boycott o Hussain of Jordan destroy PLO in Jordan 0 Also publically indicated he might go along with some aspects of the Allon Plan To Labor government things were going their way Labor believed temporary empire still made perfect sense and thought soon land would be traded for peace Labor s hopes DashedPreview o Hopes collapsed in mid 70 s o Three factors 0 right wing party took labor out of power for 1St time in Israeli history Replaced temporary commitment to permanent occupation Rapid large scale Jewish settlement in areas 0 international developments grew less not more favorable o 3 within west bank conservative leadership of early 70s was pushed aside by a younger more militant PLO under Yassir Arafat Rejected both pillars of Labor policy Wouldn t accept Israeli control even on a temporary basis Demanded independent Arab state 0 O The PLO and Palestinian Resistance to 19779142012 62300 PM I Overview Palestinian Nationalism Revives D Pquot n D D h LO 339 F Conflict had primarily been between Zionists and Arabs of Palestine but with defeat of Arab revolt Britain began looking to Arab states not Palestinians for advice Palestinian society collapsed completely and Jordan and Egypt took over all mandate lands not seized by Israel With Nakba looked like Palestinian identity might disappear completely Arab state humiliated weakened confused so political vacuum dawned and Palestinian groups began to fill it particularly with the Palestinian Liberation Organization PLO led by the Fatah movement Succeeded in creating a successful movement that operated more or less independently from Arab states also redefined struggle Until 1967 world had seen Palestinians as charity cases now they insisted that they were a nation kept from their homeland but that they deserved the same rights as any other state No conflict seen as a conflict between two nationalities rather than inter state conflict PLO definition is now universal because now even Israelis see core of problem PLO never posed military threat to Israel but reframing of political debate wanted ever more sympathy around the world remarkable considering the bad hand that history had dealt them Israel dominated everything but only 8 years later PLO put them on the defensive PLO undermined Israeli labor party along with its policy of temporary empire government wanted temporary control over territories PLO postponed negotiated settlement with Israel by many years II The Movement to 1967 a D39 In 1964 Arab league created the PLO to serve as the official voice of the Palestinian people in creating the PLO they gave lip service to Palestinian self determination Chief concern of Arab states was to prevent them from being brought into war with Israel before they were ready III c SHUQAYRI first leader appointed to PLO also had a 15 member executive committee elected by the PNC also created small military units d Until 1967 PLO totally ineffective e Several independent guerilla groups had formed and began to attack Israel most promising group of these was Fatah founded by students in the Palestinian diaspora f Leader of Fatah was YASSER ARAFAT carried our over 100 small attacks against Israel little attention was paid Fatah remakes the PLO a Provided opportunity with 6 day war until 1967 Nassarism was the most popular Palestinian ideology b Unity of Arab states had to proceed Palestinian liberation also required that Egypt take the lead as the most powerful state c With Nassar the Arab states discredited him opening up room for new initiatives d Palestinian leaders declared that Palestinian liberation had to proceed Arab unity and liberation depended on Palestinians themselves not the Arab states e To decrease reliance on Arab states Fatah began asking Palestinians and Arabs for money creating social service and social support organizations focusing on refugee banks in the West Bank Gaza Jordan and Lebanon 39 Unions for women peasants teachers students etc Network of health clinics ii39 Provided welcome services iv Sense of solidarity f Fatah sought to mobilize people based on primal mobile identities be it teachers women workers whatever to build powerful national movement 9 Fatah also stepped up armed attacks on Israel on Lebanon Syria etc h Fatah remained negligible militarily but had symbolic victory Israeli troops tried to shut down Fatah camps but Fatah fought them off giving pride to the movement and attracting many recruits i Fatah began to fill the gap left by the collapse of Nassarism and sought to control the PLO itself Succeeded in installing Arafat head of Fatah as head of PLO PLO with Fatah became more powerful than anything in Palestinian history I Arafat sought to include as many groups as possible under a broad PLO umbrella not a centralized organization but rather a loose multi party confederation m Fatah was the principle but by no means the only party each group retained its on militias weapons and power structure this ultimately led to weakness undermining the organization as a whole n Nonetheless Arafat s achievement was dramatic and unprecedented also unified military structure organized by various military groups IVIdeological Shifts a Before 1967 the UN world powers Arab states saw Palestine as charity receipiants but now insisted that they were a nation driven out of their own country with aspirations for statehood not humanitarian problem but a political problem requiring Palestine regain their national territory Palestine is the indivisible home of the Palestinian people through military struggle Palestinians will destroy Israel and reclaim all of Palestine Highly influenced by secular arguments Islamic fatalism had crippled Arab society Islam prevented Arabs from embracing science and modernity breeding passivity needed less culture conservatism PLO adopted secular approach to politics contrasts with current trends across the Muslim world Appeal of secularism for PLO was actually threefold i Promised to tap power of science and socialism and the modern world thus producing more creative and confident men and women Promised to bridge gap between Christian and Muslim citizens Christians only 12 but large percentage of educated people 7 Pquot n D D iii Palestinians believed the secularism gave them an advantage over Zionism believing that Zionism was racist rejected secular democracy f PLO promised unified secular state where Jews Christians and Muslims would live in harmony liberating the Jews from their own outdated past Israelis found claim of racism absurd racially one of the most diverse populations of the world what Israeli Jews had in common was not race but religion no different from Arab countries where Muslim was the official religion Israelis complained that the PLO s claim of respect was actually going to repel 95 of Israeli Jews i Palestinians now seen as a nation fighting for self determination assimilated to world wide struggle of oppressed people by colonialism j Inspired new dignity among young Palestinians themselves would willingly sacrifice self for their nation V PLO Success West Bank and Gaza a In early and mid 70s PLO s growing evident became evident in three arenas i West Bank and Gaza ii Jordan and Lebanon iii UN and other international bodies Collapse of old class of notables who were tied to Jordan and who were willing to work with Israel notables yielded to young proPLO leaders more educated more militant more committed to Palestinian identity rather than Jordanian c Disaster of 1967 old ways old leaders outlived usefulness time for new to take charge PLO created new occupations and age and gender specific organizations e New employment opportunities in Israel made them less dependent on notable land owners for their livelihood Pro PLO leadership supported by West Bank elections of 1976 new mayors declared firm support for PLO VIPLO Success Jordan and Lebanon LO 339 D39 D n 0039 D D n LO 339 PLO sought to develop bases beyond Israel s control in Jordan and Lebanon enjoyed success but setback in Jordan in 1970 39 After 6 day war Jordan became center for military occupations against Israel Concentrated on Jordan for geographic regions kept PLO at safe distance large buffer zone left only Jordan and Lebanon as staging areas Jordan appealed to PLO because it was largely Palestinian country 45 of East Bank Jordanians were Palestinians Poor Palestinians formed impoverished underclass in Jordan Fatah groups appealed to Palestinian groups in Jordan that were alienated by the regime Fatah built a state within a state kicking out royal officials taking control of refugee camps began challenging Jordanian army organizational weakness of PLO became apparent In 1970 Jordanian forces killed more Palestinians BLACK SEPTEMBER end of PLO PLO in Lebanon stronger than ever before 39 Jordan closed Sinai far only country bordering Israel that was open to PLO Although Palestinian population was smaller still sizable and legal restrictions receptive to PLO messages Lebanon was attracted to PLO because Lebanese government too weak to smash PLO no central government more patch work of religious communities PLO skillfully plays Lebanese communities off each other while growing their power in south Lebanon becoming known as Fatah Land conducting 200 raids of Israel every year Lebanese Christians wanted to crack down on PLO but would be thwarted by Shiites who wanted to protect the PLO PLO supported by Egypt forced government to make major concessions Fatah land no longer Lebanon now independent territory with right to attack whenever they wanted Fatah land became a state within a state with PLO exercising power and pushing the country towards civil war which broke out in 1975 VII k In Jordan government destroyed PLO in Lebanon PLO destroyed the government PLO wanted to expand military power by 1976 had thousands of equipped soldiers not withstanding black September PLO grew powerfully in the mid 19705 PLO Success Internationally a D n D39LO X PLO gained unprecedented international legitimacy Israel on the defensive IN 1973 an Arab summit recognized PLO as sole representative as Palestinian people IN 1974 Islamic conference accorded the PLO the same honor as did the nonaligned conference of Asian and African states made the same decision urging its country to break relations with Israel In 1975 UN passed resolution 3379 saying Zionism is a form of racism passing 9318 Israel only supported by US and western Europe almost succeeded in ejecting Israel from UN entirely PLO pledged to Israel s destruction replaced Hussein as spokesman of Palestinians In 1977 Israel voted out labor party Israelis were shocked and embittered because 3379 seemed unfair as they were based on religion not race 35 self declared Muslims states never accused of being racist The very body that sanctioned Israel the UN had now turned on them In large part this was due to an upsurge of anti western and colonial regimes especially in Africa Cuba Vietnam etc Saw growing solidarity in Asian and African countries and the countries in UN rose dramatically influence of Europe and US declined Africa and Asia cared nothing for Jewish suffering viewed through lens of colonial suffering and because Israel was allies with Britain and France they connected Israel negatively As long as Israel faced inhiliation it enjoyed widespread sympathy and good will but once they won the war people began to identify with opponent especially in leftwing circles Palestinian weakness and misery became their greatest asset n Palestinians began hijacking of international airlines VIII Conclusion a The PLO had extensive support Israel found itself increasingly isolated amazing success of PLO gave hope to Palestinians Peace with Egypt War with Lebanon 1973909142012 62300 PlV I Overviewvirtue a Violence cost more than it was worth mutual exhaustion led to deadlock peace agreement in 1979 b Egypt agreed to leave Sinai as long as Sinai was demilitarized n D D n LO 339 For the first time since 1948 Israel didn t have to worry about a two front war Would Israel pursue more compromise Trade land for peace in the east as they had done in the southwest OR would Israel use new freedom from Egypt to pursue unilateral land In 1977 labor party was defeated for the first time Likud party took power attempted to destroy Palestinian nationalism by invaded Lebanon and incorporating the west bank and gaza into Israel i These were policies for 15 years By early 1990 obvious that Likud had failed Israel couldn t impose will on West Bank Gaza or Lebanon At the same time Palestinians came to see that their policy was also wrong could never forcibly remove Jews from West Bank or Gaza let alone Israel proper Deadlock had developed in east as has been with Egypt in the 19705 i Violence not working for either side In 19905 Israel an the PPL negotiated peace talks i Hopes crashed II Sadat Shifts Course a D ht D Egyptian army had been beaten in 1967 but didn t lose appetite to fight back By 1969 their army was stronger than ever allowing them to counter Israeli air superiority From not 19681970 Egypt pursues war of attrition against Israeli forces Protected by Soviets Egyptian opens on Israeli forces in East bank i Egyptian strategy destroy with small casualties Same time Israel wanted to ruin Egyptian economy Israel created row of forts on line of Israel Bar Lev line Devastating Israeli counter measures produced cease fire until 1973 Israel paid heavy price for cease fire in planes i Growing sense of demoralization Maintaining Bar Lev line became burden on Israeli economy i Army took 10 of army GDP in 1979 took 26 ii Israeli economy sputtering Israelis feared they had an Egyptian tiger by the tale confidence began to fade Anwar Sadat succeeds Nassar as president 39 Large scale offensive planned want all out war to reclaim all of Sinai at first but USSR won t supply them with long range arms Plans to reoccupy East Bank symbolic partial victory quot Would aggravate Israel s weariness iv Recognizes that a long term war would also bankrupt Egypt s economy v So wants negotiates peace with America supervising v39 Wants to show Israel that they re not invinsible and the price of holding Sinai is too high American s would influence vii Want to join Israel as client of US viii USSR could give arms but not too things Sadat wanted 1 Peace 2 Economic development ix Only US could push Israel towards negotiation x Sadat planned to use Soviet arms to switch from Soviet to American camp in cold war III 1973 War a Egypt s battle plan was to move armor divisions across canal at widest possible front cover of soviet stamps 39 Necessary that Syria join attack if to work so Israel has to fight two front war Thus Arabs would avoid lack of coordination of 1948 and 1967 ii39 Necessary to recognize previous mistakes Hafex AlAssad agreed to coordinate b Israel intelligence knew attack but not when it was coming D39LO H F i Discounted warning from King Hussein of Jordan that they were going to attack Relying on aid in Sadat s inner circle they thought he was a spy but they didn t know he was a double agent mislead by this c O Oct 6 1972 Syria and Egypt launch attacks on Golan Attacks Yom Kippur War Ramadan War 39 Attacks took Israel totally by surprise i39 Major early victories Egyptians opened their campaign with 175 artillery shells per second iv Line collapsed quickly v Egyptians crossed line quickly holding East Bank of Suez canal quickly vi In Golan Heights tons of Syrians provided almost broke into Israel proper vii Unconfirmed reports that Israel loaded nuclear bombs onto planes to intimidate Syria viii Syrians executed over 300 Israeli prisoners torturing them and violating Geneva convention ix Unlike 56 and 67 because attacked first still in civilian mode x Fought in manic desperation 45 Israeli tanks held off 600 Syrian tanks for two days while waiting for supplies but when they arrived Israelis quickly pulled ahead 1 better trained better materials more desperate 2 successful in stopping Syrian attacks 3 terrible price for scare Oct 14 IDF had overtaken entire Golan began shelling subarbs of Damascus 4 largest tank battle in the world since WWII 5 US and Soviets demanded cease fire but by then IDF had surrounded two massive Egyptian armies only two miles from Cairo IVEgyptianIsrael Peace a Bloody events turning point Sadat s forces did less well in the end but broke stalemate with Israel since 1967 X39 0 DD h LO 339 Military record on both sides was nixed war forced each side to confront seriously both enemy strengths and its own vulnerabilities Forced both sides to compromise Early victories restored honor and pride to Egypt with sense of greater equality and military achievement but Israel s ultimate victory showed it unlikely that Israel could ever be defeated militarily iv Israel s awakening before wars one sided but 1973 Israel s entire existence threatened v Came out of painful war of attrition Many Israelis gripped by selfdoubt war too dangerous uncertain to prolong indefinitely US wanted peace i Arabs imposed oil embargo on US to punish for support of Israel needed this lifted needed peace ii US brokered peace agreement was Egypt s price for ditching Soviets for Arab camp 1 Historic opportunity for US obviously they had to seize 2 Continued until 2011 US brokered disengagement that started in 1974 was result Israeli and Syrian forces also disengaged but Syria refused to make peace with Israel When President Sadat made historic visit in Jerusalem first time Arab leader recognized its existence Jimmy Carter Sadat and Israeli prime minister Began worked on treaty embodying these points CAMP DAVID ACCORDS i Israel would return Sinai Sinai would be demilitarized ii Israel and Egypt would have full diplomatic relationships iii Gulf of Aqaba and Suez Canal would be opened iv Irsrael gave up all of Sinai but Egypt made more concessions Pessimism enforced by Israeli reaction to Egyptian peace immediately Egypt accused of treason expelled from Arab league i Within Egypt people originally pleased with economic help but then stoked inflation without increasing wages helping Muslim Brotherhood ii Sadat assassinated by fundamentalists in army V Israel Moves Right a 039 Despite cold relations with Egypt Israel was finally secure on western flank question now what would Israel do in east with PLO Syria Lebanon Labor s policy was territorial compromise but swept out of power by right wing coalition under new prime minister Began i First time Labor party ever lost election ii Likud would remain dominate party until 1992 iii 1977 is earthquake election now right not left Menachim Began shaped by anti sematism Family killed by Nazis ii Put in Soviet prison fights ii39 Territorial maximist like Jabotinsky iv Monomeniachal Carter referred to him as a psycho Began put into power because Security issues intelligence scare of 1973 Labor Party no longer trusted Increase in PLO influence around the world seemed foolhardy to return West Bank to Jordan Demilitarized Sinai was no threat because enormous region but risking PLO control so close to Israel s heartland was dangerous 1 Enforced by Syrian hostility iv UN s 1975 decision that Zionism is racism further scares Israelis UN hypocrisy sense that they couldn t trust anybody but themselves v Likud emphasized self sufficiency vi Drew strength from Israeli revolt from Mizrachim resented patronizing attitude of Achkazim Began anti labor in 1977 vii VIIsrael s Invasion of Lebanon 1982 a b Once in power Likud wasted little time implementing its new vision i Relentless pressure against PLO Syria in Lebanon ii Tight control of Palestinians in West Bank and Gaza West Beirut PLO s new headquarters c Fatah Land attacks against Northern Israel d PLO undeterred struck back repeatedly e Began appointed Israel s most aggressive Ariel Sharon i Began and Sharon decided that it was time to destroy Fatah Land and PLO s power in Lebanon 1 Invade Lebanon also pursued three more ambitious n goals a D39 0 Wanted to destroy PLO political credibility in addition to military force PLO to quit Lebanon Then build new Palestinian leadership that was willing to work with Israel quiet on the west bank requires destruction of the PLO in Lebanon Wanted to destroy Syrian influence in Lebanon Syria regards Lebanon as within their sphere Israel fears that Syria might menace them goal of pushing Syria out of Lebanon Began and Sharon want to form alliance with Maronite Christians and Lebanons wealthy numerous tended to fight against Muslims who were supported by PLO Began and Sharon thought that if they helped Christian take power in Lebanon they would help Israel Want Lebanon to be Israeli client state not Syrian client state 2 Unrealistic plans but Began resisted 3 Arafat sent cautionary message to Began Egypt June 1982 Began assembles huge invasion force at first everything goes according to plan Israeli forces brushed aside PLO forces joined Christian forces encircling the city i Also attacked Syrian army in Eastern Lebanon ii Shot down 90 planes without losing one But went south from there i Thought they had deal with Maronite Christians but they weren t going to send forces for house to house combat VII 339 X Instead had bloody embargo cutting off electricity food and water Subjected PLO aread to bombardment with many civilians casualties Seige finally resulted in most PLO fighters going Tunisia but generated horrible world opinion even in prominent American Jewish leaders In Aug 1982 Syrian or PLO agent blew away Lebanon president BASHIR GEMAYAL Sabra and Shekila Christians attacked them massacre of mostly women and children Israel turned blind eye World opinion against Israel Giant protests demanded withdrawal from Lebanon many Israeli soldiers refused to serve in unjust war in Lebanon Likud party stays in power but Began forced to fire Sharon Israel s Position Crumbles Um n D D n D39LO Military position in Lebanon begins to crumble Syrian troops pummeled but after licking wounds introduced USSR techniques attacked Christians and Israeli forces Drews Militias fought whatever local advantage was Also armed Shiite militia in south Guerrilla groups were hard to contain Israel began to pull south to defeat guerrillas but pro Syrian guerrillas defeated Christians much greater deaths but hidden from public view Station western troops in Beirut entered to supervise PLO withdrawal Suicide bomber blew up killed American troops Israeli Christian and American forces all in retreat i Syrian promptly filled military vacuum Lebanese Christians felt they had more in common with fellow Arabs than Israelis i Began and Sharon s plan unrealistic War of attrition waged against Israeli forces to prevent more attacks Hezbollah won support of locals as presenting themselves as protectors k Hezbollah use road side bombers suicide bombers attacks against VIII 0 339 Israel Israel helpless against onslaught i Hundreds attacks Israel exhausted decided to pull out of most of Lebanon By June 1985 Syria and Hezbollah had won Conclusion a b Began told Israel they would be secure they weren t Invasion of Lebanon wasn t a total failure i Destroyed PLO s main military units ii And destroyed PLO s power within state as well as their prestige More serious reverses i PLO was not destroyed as organization forced to have more moderate and effective political strategy enhancing their stature ii Possibility of PLO state Brutal massacres tarnished Israel s claims of being more civilized than Arab neighbors Israel had succeeded in alienating almost everyone Christian allies weakened and they blamed Israel i39 Israel s siege of Beirut antagonized all Lebanese iii Shiites began to give support to Hezbollah another enemy iv Hezbollah more dangerous opponent than PLO could ever be v Invasion also strengthened Syrian power in Lebanon Syrian puppet state Long term context Lebanon invasion had same effect on Israel as it did on PLO more moderate realistic military strategy opened door for negotiations Began s ultimate goal was to crippled Palestinian nationalism but Lebanon forced Israel to scale down its objectives obliged to move towards compromise Deadlock is 19805 paved way for compromise in the East as deadlock in the 19705 paved way for compromise in west Before negotiations Likud had to recognize objectives as impractical Greater Israel and the First Intifada 197519929142012 62300 I Overview Deadlock in the East a b C d e Plan to incorporate within Israel the West Bank and Gaza the greater Israel project Project pursued enthusiastically for 17 years Project involved systematic Jewish settlement in the territories territories integration into Palestinian proper and efforts to suppress Palestinian nationalism First Intifada directed against Israeli rule by Palestinians i Convinced Israelis that the cots of greater Israeli succeeded the benefits ii Would have to abandon west bank and Gaza Intifada created compromise II Likud s Greater Israel Vision a b e 9 h Labor Party lost to center party led by Likud From 197792 Likud was pretty much able to set national agenda at the top of the agenda was the effective obliteration of the armistice line green line between west bank and gaza Mix of ideology and military strategy Leaders believed passionately that the Jewish national home included the entire British mandate In Likud s view Jews were entitled to settle wherever they wanted in their historic home In the long term some believed that the 1967 borders were unable to be defendable too thin of area Only Jordan river valley offered a defensible border the Likud was convinced Likud leaders made three basic assumptions i In east no partner for peace because unlike Egypt the PLO and Syria were committed to Israel s destruction Likud assumed that integration with Israel would improve living conditions in the West Bank and Gaza making citizens content to remain under Israeli rule Israel s occupation of Gaza and the West Bank would be essentially cost free because there would be little opposition to keeping control III j Second and third assumptions were terribly nai39ve Likud feared that a future labor party government might try to withdraw from the West Bank and Gaza the Likud tried to tie the hands of any future government so settlement could not easily be uprooted i Opposing new demographic realities eliminate the possibility of any future Palestinian settlement or state Likud leaders saw a unique opportunity to claim all of land Implementing Likud s Vision a 0039 339 Most obviously Likud wanted settlement across West Bank and Gaza Previously populations limited to Jordan Valley Heavy Jewish populations Labor party prohibited any major Jewish settlements i But now made into the chief place of settlement in the highlands to thicken narrow waste Likud was an independent party but was greatly supported by the religious right across much of the west bank Appeals to religious emotion were inadequate to plant hundreds of thousands of settlers in the west bank Likud therefore also appealed to economic self interest 39 Created bedroom communities within commuting distance of Tel Aviv and Jerusalem Also very low mortgages ii39 Family could buy four bedroom villa with spacious land than how much a tiny apartment would cost in crowded downtown Tel Aviv Were these settlements legal Fourth Geneva conventions forbids an occupying power from transferring its people into a new territory Violates sovereignty of state ii39 Everyone ruled that the fourth Geneva convention does in fact apply to this iv Israeli officials replied that neither the West Bank or Gaza had a recognized sovereign before 1967 Water supply effort to ruin arab farmers And encourage them to sell their land to jews i IN economic terms Israel wanted to tie the west bank and gaza to central insrael j Workers from the west bank and gaza entered labor hungry Israel proper k These policies produced higher Palestinian living standards 39 Essential to Likud efforts to win Palestinian acceptance 1967 80 per capita income ii39 1987 1700 per capita income iv 89 of Gaza households have electricity in 1987 vs 18 in 1967 l Israel also invested in education and health built first universities in Palestinian history m Israel failed to invest in local job training or industrial development so Palestinians had few skills that could earn high wages n Palestinians resented their dependency on Jews and Israel 39 Had to endure security searches deeply humiliating People working in Israel proper were often forbidden to stay overnight ii39 Sometimes cheated by employers but had no redress iv Political oppression 0 NO need to pay any attention to Palestinian politics p Labor Party came Palestinian municipalities more power than Jordan ever had but since Likud wants to keep them they have tight censorship q Village leagues appointed by Israel representing common Palestinians IVPalestinian Resistance to 1987 a How did Palestinians respond Israeli efforts to institute village leagues bombed completely i 98 of Palestinians favored independent Palestinian state 2 supported village leagues b Outbreak of protests starting in 1982 continuing for much of 805 i Not as sustained as first Intifada ii Showed a growing anger iii Spread of patriotic Palestinian songs iv Outpouring of fiction glorifying Palestinian resistance v Palestinian flag flown everywhere despite being banned vi Motto death to the jews c Seven universities created by Israel for Palestinian harbored this preotest d PLO based in Tunisia in Tunis stepped up diplomatic activity in 19805 i Now proposed more moderate approach e Why more moderate 39 No longer had credible military option Some leaders in west bank demanded less extreme policy saw that destroying Israel was completely unrealistic iii Began to argue for two state resolution at least on a temporary basis iv Two state solution really two stage solution v Immediate concern was to stop likud s annexation drive f President Reagan s support as a back channel to Israel i Possible to recognize Israel if Israel and US would recognize independent Palestinian state rather than state in Jordan ii But Reagan feared that it would seek to conquer Israel iii Israelis refused to even talk to PLO not Labor or Likud 1 In their view sweet words covered genocidal intent g PLO in Tunis continued to support terrorism i Arafat refused to condemn attack on US cruise ship in which an old jewish man was shot in his wheelchair and thrown overboard ii PLO s fragmented structure h If Arafat began to equivocate it would be attacked by other groups in PLO and gain support threatening Fatah i IN mid 1980s PLO s radical history and radical rhetoric combined to insure that talking didn t happen V The Intifada 1987 1992 a Given frustrations Palestinians in West Bank and Gaza saw encroachment by Jewish settlers b Any hope that Arab states might help evaporated c Arab summit meeting essentially ignored Palestinians as they were in the middle of the Iran Iraq War D D D h 339 F By 1987 economic downturn taking toll on Palestinian livelihood entered period of stagflation Large scale Russian immigration Russian jews taking jobs of Palestinians 6 out of 10 Palestinians don t have jobs Traffic accident in Gaza causes uprising Israeli car collided with Arab car killing four Arabs Gaza claimed it was intentional and they began attacking Israeli soldiers with stones and burning tires 39 Spread to West Bank as well NO match for Palestinians they showed amazing flexibility Choose not to use guns because that would give Israel an excuse to use brute force iv Stopped short of lethal attacks Intifada showed remarkable durability continued at high level until 1990 not called off until 1993 i Dense local organization UNLU United National Leadership of the Uprising 39 Leadership remained essentially local essentially anonymous easily replaced if individual was arrested so highly effective and durable movement Issued demands to Israel withdrawal of IDF wanted release of detainees wanted an end to jewish settlements wanted new elections in the West Bank and Gaza Fatah and left wing parties avoided antisemitism but Hamas reveled in this and also used guns unlike UNLU i Curfews imposed began to replace ammunition with plastic Israeli oppression took a growing toll poverty and mobilization sapped moral Rival groups within PLO began to quarrel attacking one another increasingly deadly VIMessages of the Intifada a b Greater Israel Project became too costly to continue In early 19905 i Deadlock began to cohere in east as it had in west ii No peace until demands accomplished 0 DD n D39LO Struggle to control narrative and pictorial image Whichever side appears more vulnerable captures world sympathy Jews great strength from 19391967 As long as Arab states advocated violence and Israel s destruction and refused compromise they played into that image ii39 But then that image shifted intifada showed Israeli brutality iv UN security council tried to condemn Israeli use of force v Shift cause radical rethinking of priorities in Israel Deport all arabs from territories NO Most common Israeli reaction was to consider the territories as zones of insecurity with substantial withdrawal necessary High ranking generals considered areas a burden not an asset Idea of operations lowered army moral impeded effectiveness Intifada spoke to i Arab regimes ii US iii UN The Oslo Process 9142012 62300 PM I Big Picture a Palestinians and Arabs refused to accept UN decision of Jewish state b Israel received constant calls for its destruction along with several military attacks to do just that c Every Israeli conquest simply responded to attempt to destroy Jewish state d Fear as been the chief Israeli emotion e Chief Palestinian emotion is profound injustice i Arabs had never done anything to harm Jews before the Zionist onslaught ii Antisemitism was basically a European problem f Arabs saw the Jews gradually trying to steal Palestine 9 After 1947 Israel s aggressive instincts allowed it to expand in all directions h Israeli fortunes met high point in 6 day war after that led a retreat and stabilization i Israel came up against more effective Arab opposition saw peace as only way forward i Began in southwest with Egypt in 19705 ii Had also met stalemate on eastern side j Palestinians were obliged to scale down their ambitions as well k This phase is still in motion it has yet to climax it may never will II A Golden Moment a What made compromise possible was Israeli exhaustion and Egyptian exhaustion i For both sides compromise was the only way forward ii Same general moment came in the east in the 1990s b Five Factors weakened the PLO early 19905 i Intifada may have shown Israelis that colonizing all of the west bank was impossible wants to keep area close to green line In Likud s last year in power population grew by 50 in two years Massive Jewish immigration from Russia also pushed PLO as USSR collapsed 175000 Jews from Russia entered Israel initially then a million also incredibly well educated populace III C USSR collapse could no longer defend on diplomatic support or weapons iv Gulf War of 19901991 Palestinians supported Saddam Hussein but he collapsed in Kuwait and they couldn t depend on him either they scrambled to regain US support only one superpower v The rise of Hamas Hamas began to play a large role in the first intifada inspired by Iranian revolution of 1989 violence necessary compromise a waste of time But PLO wanted to show that strategy of negotiations was not bankrupt PLO needed to negotiate seriously with Israelis Israelis recognized that they could not compromise with Hamas ever Israel and PLO scared of Hamas but Labor Party s victory in 1992 secured the idea of peace and compromise Likud didn t want negotiations and this beat them in the election Negotiations to 1995 The New Optimism a 0039 D In short the hour for negotiations in the east was perfect US helped by organizing international conference on the middle east in Oct 1991 i Practically produced little but symbolically a success because for the first time Israeli reps sat down with reps of the PLO PLO started secret negotiations in Oslo achieved real progress In Aug 1993 Israel and PLO stunned the world by proclaiming that they had agreed on a declaration of principles i Signed on September 13 1993 ii Arafat and Rabin shook hands stiffly Clinton beaming Peace deferred for the future all difficult matters declaration of principles set up framework for negotiations in which other issues could be addressed i Final agreement could not be reached until small incremental agreements had been made on both sides Produced the following arrangement i PLO accepted Israel s right to exist ii Israel accepted PLO as the representative of Palestine iii PA PLO s elected council would be by led by elected legislative council n D39LO F iv PLO would take over West Bank and Jericho v PA would create security forces vi Both sides would reach agreement by 1999 Arafat and Rabin signed second set of agreements Oslo 2 i Three territorial categories were divided on the west bank 1 A major cities PA has civil and military control 2 B smaller towns and villages PA has authority control Israel has security control 3 C Jewish towns Israel has full control 4 A and B 27 of land 97 of Palestinian population Fatah party won 6888 sets in Palestinian election Arab states ended economic boycott of Israel struck multimillion dollar deals 1994 Israel and Jordan signed a peace treaty second Arab state after Egypt to make peace warmer ties European news coverage to Israel much more favorable also many tourists flocked 1994 Arafat and Rabin shared Nobel peace prize new age had dawned IVDestroying Goodwill Israeli Actions a D39 D ht D Despite optimism grounds for concern Both sides deeply suspicious of one another 1995 poll 81 of Palestinians did not trust Israel 58 of Israelis didn t trust Palestine Israelis assumed that in any deal only a minimal number of Palestinian refugees would return in order to not threaten the Jewish character of the state wanted to keep parts of Israel close to West Bank Palestinians thought that a fair deal would allow all refugees who wanted to be able to return and all lands taken in 1967 should be returned Each side continued to fantasize that all their goals would be given Neither side prepared its people for compromise ESPECIALLY not the Palestinians With peace talks faltering both sides of skeptics could support their skepticism Most bitter Palestinian concern was the increase in Israeli settlement i Number of settlements did not grow but the number of Israelis living in settlements rose by 40 from 19931997 alone i Boundaries exceptionally large j Oslo never obliged that immigrants couldn t move to existing settlements only that new settlements couldn t be made 39 Rabin s policy greatly antagonized the Palestinians ii Rabin was yielding to blackmail by the settler lobby last thing he wanted to do was hand his enemies a stick to hit him on the head but settlers wanted to end peace process Many Palestinians began to blame Arafat called him a weakling Excluded East Jerusalem from any kind of settlement m IDF failed to protect civilians from Palestinian attacks V Destroying Goodwill Palestinian Actions a Palestinians regarded Jewish settlements as a grave threat to the spirit of Oslo b Main threat not Israeli actions but Palestinian violence 39 PA s enclaves provided safe haven for Hamas Jews saw the only change with Oslo was an increase in Jewish deaths ii39 19941996 hay day of suicide bombers 80 civilian victims iv Arafat bound to suppress this violence c PA never monopolized violence so never in control of state d Arafat vacillated trying to please moderate Palestinians and Hamas e Arafat never publically support Israel s legitimacy despite with Oslo i When he spoke in Arabic he said that all he wanted was peace and then he would destroy the Jewish state ii Israelis now turned to Rabin angrily f Both societies had irreconsilables reduced the ability of leaders on both sides to make concessions 9 Until 1990s extremists had been kept at bay VITurning Point Rabin s Assassination a 27 yr old Jewish law student fired two shots into Rabin s back b When Rabin spoke at Knesset black umbrellas were opened illusion to Neville Chamberlin who appeased Hitler 339 VII c Assassin was a right wing nationalist tried to save country from Arabs Rabin still had had the support of most people most decorated Israeli general in Israeli history didn t mince words Israelis trusted him to protect them e If he hadn t been killed a backlash against the right would have occurred and peace would have been reached Succeeded by Shimon Peres but lost reelection to Likud leader Benjamin NetanYahm g NetanYahm s victory was an upset expected pity votes to labor party Attacks on Israel designed to stop peace process IDF to attack from Lebanon did not succeed in stopping attacks i IDF artillery killed lots of Lebanonese by accident i Israeli Arabs stayed home on election day to avoid attacks 0 n 339 j NetanYahm won by less than 1 of the vote peace process derailed Off a Cliff 19961999 a NetanYahm dragged his feet in negotiations promised to respect earlier agreements but also signed new agreements with Arafat 39 Agreed to enlarge category A land i39 To further withdraw troops in West Bank But also said he opposed Oslo in principle and said that peace was unlikely Arafat had never been in a society where law and institutions trumped personal ties i Lived in world of guerilla movement ii Arafat monopolized power in PA ignored legislative council iii Egocentric and jealous of rivals Arafat was growing weaker In 1999 both sides of leaders decided to pull back give Oslo another chance 039 00 The Missing Peace 9142012 62300 PM I Stepping Back from the Abyss a b n D Tht D D39LO X m 1999 many people predicted the fall of Oslo The PA neglected to crack down on Hamas because this would make them look like Israel s policemen Arafat realized that this excessive violence could push Jews to not consider negotiating at all Arafat cracked down on the latter part of Netanyhu s tenure in order to keep things from getting out of hand PA s capacity to control Hamas also increased Daniel Ross of US said that Palestinians were working diligently to stop terror and violence and tried to keep peace PA was still willing to work with Israel Question was could PA find Israeli partner for peace that was not like Netanyhu as he was making that impossible May 1999 new elections for Israel Dislike of Netanyhu i Clinton refused to meet with Netanyhu ii Troops withdraw iii His hostility of Oslo annoyed with left of Israel Ehud Barak head of labor party most decorated soldier in Israeli history i He had no problem at all with independent Palestinian state as long as there was no harm for Israel ii He promsed to have peace talks with Syria Promised to withdraw troops from Lebanon within a year Won a decisive victory By 1999 Israelis and Palestinians had some of the optimism they had with Oslo in 1993 i 6 years had taken atoll both sides were suspicious Fatah was weaker and Hamas was stronger Oslo was alive both sides had stepped back from the abyss II Syria and Lebanon a b One challenge Barak faced was Syria 1994 Syria and Lebanon seemed on the verge of an agreement of the Golan Issue of Sea of Galilee so they could not negotiate 0 III In Lebanon Barak decided to work unilaterally he simply withdrew all his forces in a single night so forces could not attack forces Barak hailed this as an example of bold leadership most Israelis gave him credit Most Israelis happy but also made the Jewish state look weak i Hezbola said it was the first Arab movement ever to beat Israel new model don t negotiate don t compromise but use violence and eventually Israel will grow weary and retreat Negotiations to mid20005 a Barak focused rather on the West Bank and Gaza b Needed to make peace with the Palestinians first then everything else would fall in place Arafat and Barak signed new agreement with a time table for fresh Israeli withdrawals agreed to shift C to B and B to A C 41 of West Bank came under full Palestinian control contained 97 of Palestinians living in the West Bank Steps towards fully independent Palestine Both sides pledged to reach final agreement within a year of September 2000 But by March of 2000 no progress had been made in these official talks Also engaged in secret negotiations in Sweden but both sides remained far apart Barak best hope for a breakthrough met with Clinton Arafat this to be Clinton s historic legacy Barak under much pressure very eager for success coalition collapsing in part because right wing was scared he was preparing for a sell out Arafat was not enthusiastic he felt that hadn t had enough time to work through issues supported by Madeline Albright 1 Two weeks that Clinton allocated were not long enough to solve all the outstanding issues 2 Arafat felt like he was being drawn into a trap in which Clinton and Barak would force him into an agreement but ultimately impossible to turn down invitation from the president of the US v Camp David Summit many people hoped would end 100 year struggle Arafat Barak Clinton met H 9 quot p Pquot Fquot 30009 Israel first proposed giving up all of Gaza but keeping 14 of the West Bank Including areas near the Green Line This would break up continuity of Palestinian territory Israel wanted a lease part of West Bank in strategic area near the Jordan valley a Keep 24 of West Bank Arafat refused to consider these negotiations as Israel took 78 of Palestine in 1948 also this would cut Palestine in half Israeli proposals thought unfair but Israel thought that it was unrealistic to have a complete return of 1967 territories Clinton proposed compromise a Israel gets 9 of West Bank with 1 land swap b No continuity of West bank no east west corridors Israel could keep small army in Jordan valley for 12 years then they had to leave 0 Israel accepted compromise PA rejected it But Palestine proposed 4 instead of 9 Israel initially wanted an undivided city but Palestine would have holy sites in East Jerusalem a Muslims would have custodianship over holy sites but Israel had authoritative control Within east Jerusalem Jews would have access to their holy sites but not control Clinton has compromise swiss cheese arrangement Aran neighborhoods under Palestinian sovereignty Jewish neighborhoods under Israeli sovereignty each state would establish a capital Barak accepted compromise a HUGE concession Arafat refused and made no counter offer Pquot n D 10 Refugees a Israel was responsible for displacement of 5 million refugees so Israel should allow all people to return to their homes they also should have to pay reparations Barak offered to take back 100000 refugees as humanitarian effort but he didn t want to take back all because he blamed Palestine for fighting Clinton did not make any bridging agreement for the topic 039 n IVFalling into the Abyss a After camp David no process had been made except for refugees b Summer and fall of 2000 Israelis and Palestinians discussed regularly to go over these issues people were hopeful Erption of popular passion and turn to violence killed the chance of an agreement Sep 28 2000 Aron Sharon was given permission to visit the Dome of the Rock and he did he was asserting Jewish sovereignty over the Palestinians PA officials warned Barak not to let Sharon but others said it would not be a problem 39 So he went protected by police did not enter mosques quoted saying it was a peaceful visit Palestinians stoned Israel police they responded with tear gas and rubber bullets Sep 29 Palestinians began stoning Israel security forces and praying Jews Israelis responded with rubber bullets iv Violence now spread like wild fire crowds began attacking Israeli soldiers who fired back Each funeral gave birth to new attacks v Rather than stop violence PA urged people to start holy war urged for march on Jerusalem v39 All Hamas prisoners released e How Second Intifada began Sep 29 2000 until mid 2002 when Israel crushed it i Spontaneous expression of deep anger ii But also had unique characteristics 0 D H N LA 4 U1 lO 8 Rather than rocks and bottles turned to hand grenades and rifles IDF troops and tanks quickly surrounded PA in west bank began assassinating Palestinian military leaders Palestinian fatalities much higher Second Intifada poisoned relations to the point where negotiations became impossible First intifada increased sympathy to Palestinians for Israelis led to Labor party victory and Oslo process Convinced Israelis that Palestinians were filled with hatred and would move to violence whenever possible Thought Barak was a fool too much for peace Palestinians also angered Israel refused to honor resolution 194 Bitterness of both sides captured on tv images f Frantic efforts by US to halt violence Clinton invited Israel to white house and laid down terms for the final deal In favor of Palestinians Israel only gets 3 of West Bank PA would get sovereignty of Noble Sanctuary Refugees could return but not unlimited return to Israel iv Barak accepted Clinton s terms Arafat s reply was regarded as rejection V What Went Wrong A Determinist Explanation a Failed not because of poor timing poor leadership poor personality chemistry but rather because of the emotional orientation of the two sides completely incompatible b Israelis obsessed with security tiny people in hostile Arab universe although they claimed two state solution most Israelis were convinced that Palestinians prayed for their disappearance c 1996closed meeting of Arabs Jews found out and were scared i Palestine would return to their own state ii Then infiltrate and cut off their water iii A terrorist campaign would spur Jewish emigration d Very few Arabs accepted Israel s legitimacy would turn and destroy it at any cost opportunity D n LO r 1 Likud voters could secure Israel s security they stationed forces in the west bank and planted settlements in the West Bank They confiscated Palestinian land built bypass roads and imposed 101 daily restraints Palestinians humiliated Palestinians saw themselves as victim of grave injustices obsessed with recovering their historic rights and defending historic dignity 39 Had already conceded so 78 of their territory why should they be expected to yield more land or abandon their right of return as sanctioned by UN Also did not want to cede sovereignty to Muslim holy sites to Jews They came to Camp David not to relinquish their rights but to see their rights honored and they saw Israeli demands as insulting To compensate for powerlessness Palestinians compensated with violence and Hamas Both sides so resentful of each other Working agreement would require a painful sacrifice that neither side was ready to make Chief failure labor party under Rabin and Barak to stand up to the settlers which demanded more money and infrastructure and military protection in the West Bank During th 905 almost 200000 settlers The settlers antagonized more so than any other issue Oslo became a cloak for further Israeli expansion Israelis simply opposed themselves on Palestinians rather than compromise and agreement Arabs resented Zionism because of the continued seizure of what they considered their land asked if Israelis are serious about peace why not stop construction until borders are agreed upon i Palestinians argued that although settlers were only 5 of populace they held Israel to ransom because prosettlers policies had so much power because they protected Jerusalem and the narrow waist had wide spread support throughout society o In the long run the settlers actually reduced Israel s security because they reduced the change for peace If Rabin and Barak had been more courageous and had demanded and explained the situation the 95 could have resisted the demands of the 5 settlers Besides this abject failure to halt settlers Barak was guilty of four other major blunders VIPalestinian Explanation VII Israeli Explanation 39D Wars of 20062012 9142012 62300 PM I Overview a 0039 d II State a b 00 D n LO 339 After Oslo collapsed both sides resumed unilateralism Israel crushed Second Intifada Hezbola and Hamas moved to armed struggle in lieu of negotiation Unilateralism produced wars vs NonState Factors Each of these war pitted Israel a state against nonstate actors A state is an organization with internationally recognized authority over a given territory States have conventional army members wear uniforms A nonstate actor lacks a territorial authority feel malicious no uniforms blend with civility With the rise of the PLO with the prominence of Hezbola and Hamas nonsymetric war has become the norm army fighting guerilla Weakness of nonstate actors limited power no planes armor rarely inflict serious damage 39 Cant easily change the strategic location cant easily protect the civilian base But also need fewer supplies have greater staying power Ensure that their opponents will kill civilians ensuring world sympathy Much more difficult to isolate and defeat than an army Often messier outcomes than symmetrical warfare Critical difference two sides have radically different attitudes to the status quo 39 Objective of Hamas and Hezbola destroy status quo status quo favors dominant party destroy all of Jewish state Hezbola and Hamas refuse to accept any Jewish state will continue to attack as long as state exists Tension burst open after second intifada because of strong opposition Self interest of Israel leads it to maintain the status quo whereas Hezbola and Hamas will not accept this III j k If the belligerency would stop and they would recognize the 1960 borders Israel would recognize diplomatic ties to Hamas and Hezbola Likewise if belligerency would stop and no massive return of refugees Israel would return to its 1967 borders 2006 Lebanon War In 0039 D h D LO Q I F By withdrawing from south Lebanon in 2000 Israel sought to establish north frontier Hezbola not interested to talk Hassan Nasrallah opposed any reconciliation with Israel resented the presence of the state Hezbola s militance reflected pragmatic factors i Wanted to force Israel to release four prisoners in Israeli jails ii Hezbola responding to domestic pressures 1 Suni and Christian Lebanese insisted that Hezbola give up their arms iii Hezbola publically taunted Israel s defeat in 2000 Claimed that Israel still occupies Lebanon territory in Shebat Farms which had never been considered Lebanese territory by the UN By early 2000s both sides looking for a fight produced full scale war eventually Hezbola rocketed Israeli towns inside Israel ambushed and killed five soldiers Israel responded with massive force many argued they over reacted i Reflected insecurity of prime minister Ehud Olmert ii He was worried about being seen as a weak leader Israel s goals i Restore credibility of their deterance ii Force Lebanese government to bring in Hezbola Hezbola s goal always to destroy Israel 400000 residents in north Israel forced to flee because of attacks i Israel tried to stop attacks entirely from the air ii Transformed Lebanon s highways into moonscape iii Israelis forced twice as many Lebanese to flee Air campaign is very ineffective achieves very little m In Aug Israel launched full scale ground invasion but too late international sympathy had soured against Israel IVAssessing the War a Clearly Israel had blundered failed to anticipate Hezbola s persistence overvalued air power failed to convince world that their response was proportionate b Hezbola left war with reputation in hands Hasan now a folk hero c Many sunis and Christians wanted to know salvation was necessary in the first place d 1200 deaths 610 billion in infrastructure damage billions more in lost income 15 years of post civil war construction destroyed e Israel recognized their disproportioned fight what they planned f Border is now quiet which is what they hoped for but Hezbola is preparing for round two Israel is two 9 Unlikely that HEzbola will respond soon too much to lose h Hezbola achieved upper hand in conflict V 20082009 Gaza War a unilateral Israeli withdrawal produced not peace but an asymmetric military conflict i victory at the cost of worldwide criticism b Israel turned over to PA but PA failed to suppress rocket fire into Israel i PA security forces still weak had limited ability ii Also because they didn t want to Hamas was really popular in Gaza PA didn t want to play role of Israel s policeman c Hamas viewed payback time wanted to show that military confrontations not negotiations was superior d Hamas fired 2000 rockets chiefly against Sderot at unpredictable times made every day life unbearable e Rockets kept coming small ones from Hezbola f IN order to keep things from coming out of hand Mubarak of Egypt arranged for 6 month truce i But in December citing Israeli provocations Hamas refused to renew the truce that Mubarak had brokered ii Hamas now launched larger rockets supplied by Iran 9 Resembled war against Hezbola i Israeli withdrawal intensified actions ii Israeli sought to restore detterance iii Israeli foes used asymmetrical warfare against Israel Hamas places war rooms under Gaza s main hospital i Differences between wars 39 More cohesive battle plan Unlike Hezbola Hamas ground forces were immediately immobilized far weaker iii Hamas lost no more than 750 soldiers succeeded in killing only 10 Israeli soldiers iv IDF went to greater lengths to avoid civilian casualties in Gaza v Israel also dropped leaflets and made phone calls urging civilians to leave UN noted that unlike Hamas the IDF did not target civilians Economy weak Israel along with Egypt tightened economic blockade of Gaza m Most consumer good had to be smuggled through tunnels most Gazians reliant on UN relief for survival n Conditions in West Bank improved because US and Europe gave large scale aid 0 War brought hamas few if any benefits 39 Lost most of their arsenal i39 Lacked easy resupply iii Hamas sharply curtailed rocket attacks in 2009 and 2010 iv Massive retaliation v Hamas had reason to regret conflict But victory in long term strategy of sabotaging negotiations p In 2002 Arab League offered Peace Plan i Second peace plan to fall victim to the intifada q Omar made offer to Abbas i Jerusalem would be divided serve as capital for both ii Holy sites would be jointly administered iii Symbolic return of refugees but no wholesale right of return VIResults of 20082009 VII Latest War a Gaza War of 2011 339 S 000quot D Overthrow of Mubarak opened up tunnels Rocketfire resumed against Israel IN 2009 only 200 rockets from Gaza hit 2011 600 rockets targeted Israeli citizens first 6 months of 2012 800 rockets Hamas said that the purpose of attacks was to force them to relax land and sea blockade 39 But this is untrue ii Hamas s real goal was to enhance its reputation among Palestinians as leaders of the resistance ii39 To show up Fatah as ineffective and weak iv Wanted to spark further Israeli actions that would trigger international criticisms US Israel Relations 9142012 62300 PM US Support for Israel One Explanation Israel Lobby American s alliance with Israel incites Arab hostility weakening their influence throughout the Middle east making them a liability rather than an asset Coalition of individiuals trying to steer US policy pro Israeli o Lobby by no means exclusively Jewish nor are all American Jews part of the lobby o 36 of American Jews not attached to Israel population probably growing 0 Lobby funded mainly by prominent Jews party synonymous with Jewish Lobby o APAC American Public Affairs Committee American Jewish Congress o Nothing unpatriotic about lobby works like other interest groups o The Israel lobby different because it is exceptionally good at what they do 0 APAC 3rd most effective party behind AARP and NRA 0 Seek to influence congress and the executive branch by supporting proIsrael candidates challenging candidates who are hostile to Israel 0 Jews only 2 of population but provide 6070 of all donations to democratic candidates 0 Try to influence public opinion media traditionally proIsrael o Israel Lobby has controlled many policy decisions 0 Oslo process 1972 o 2002 Bush initially opposed idea 0 2003 Israel Lobby tried to start war in Iraq to secure Israel Strategic Influences on Policy c Without doubt critical of US Israel relationship o No question that Jews play central role in organizing and financing proIsrael role in America o Thesis deficient because emphasizes domestic factors to the exclusion of external strategic factors c To explain relationship consider 0 Jewish lobby 0 American strategic self interest 0 ProIsrael sentiment among nonJews o Strategic factors refer to America s standing in the world chiefly military and economic factors o Mideast contains most of the world s oil reserves o Since world war II US chief goal is to keep any other outside power from dominating the reason and minimizing power that could threaten US power and trade o After initial enthusiasm President Truman backpeddled o Policy began to chance into being more favorable because democratic party became more powerful in the 19605 c Soviet penestration into the Middle East showed Israel as prominent power 0 US decided they could be a proxy of them 0 Began to supply arms in 1967 until 1989 when USSR stopped being a threat o In promoting Oslo US goal wasn t to do them a favor but to promote their own self interest 0 911 reinforced this thinking o Heavy pressure by Obama to revive the peace process hoped to strengthen the antiIran coalition US Interests Trump Israeli o America s attitude towards Israel as instrumental as much sentimental 0 US tends to use Israel as an instrument of their own strategic purposes 0 Usually no conflict between the two but Ameican interests always trump Israeli interests o US decided likud would undermining peace process tried to get rid of Likud o Likud victory unhelpful for peace process 0 1992 1996 swayed gov to labor party o 1977 present Israeli has asked for approval for West Bank settements they disagreed o Obamas opposition has much less to do with israeli s needs NonJewish Support In 1948 when Truman supported the creation of Israel this was wildly popular across all major segments of the population Since then proJewish sentiment has increased Israeli support outnumbers Palestinian support of a margin of at least 4 to 1 Ultimate source lies outside Washington beltway outside jewish community 0 This explains why executives are proIsraeli for support of constituents George W Bush possibly the strongest supporter of Israel ever to be in the white house Strong tradition of Christian Zionism Protestantism 0 Many pioneering Americans saw similarities between themselves and the Jews in the old testament 0 John Adams in the 17005 was quoted supporting the Jews return home Also guilt by how Jews had poorly been treated by Christians in the past long before World War II o In 1891 400 od Americans leading politicians businessman urging The Ottoman Empire to return Palestine to the Jews 0 US Congress unanamously passed Balfour Declaration To many Americans Israel society seems more familiar than middles eastern societies 0 More civil liberties 0 Gender equality 0 Gay equality 0 Dress behavior consumerism all similar to US 0 Ally in war on terror communism Can we quanitify support that these factors have led to American support to Israel 0 63 of Americans said that identified more with Israel 0 15 identified more with Palestinians Gaza War 60 sided with Israel 13 sided with Palestine 85 of Republicans support Israel 60 of independents 48 of Democrats 0 0 Support for Israel stronger among whiter older socially conservative christian Americans 0 Nonorthodox Jews who support Israel are socially liberal vote democratic 0 Republicans often more supportive of Israel than Jews Often more influential o America s bible belt has become Israel s safety belt o Support fading o Holocaust memory fading 0 Hispanic and Asian American population rising these people often know less about the Jewish state than European Americans 0 Jewish American population not growing as rapidly as the Muslim American population 0 May point to future shifts in American policy 0 Anti Israel sentiment relatively weak however o American Support for Israel three factors 0 Well organized proIsrael lobby very active 0 Since 1967 national security strategists have seen Israel as a valuable ally o Sizeable majority of nonJewish Americans are sympathetic to Israel Victimization ancl Demonization 9142012 62300 PM I Two Aggrieved Peoples a Two most justifiably aggrieved people of the world b Victims of intolerable injustice c Deeply resent double standards to which the rest of the world subjects them II Palestinian Sense of Victimization a Most see themselves as grave historic injustices b Bear no responsibility for the holocaust or Jewish suffering but paid the price 0 Monumentally unfair 19201948 protested against Zionist immigration pleaded with the British boycotted wrote letters and editorials demonstrated resorted to arms iv 0 nothing worked because they lacked physical power story of violent conquest against an innocent population violent British suppression of Arab resistance violent expulsion of Palestinian population In 1920 most Palestinians did not think of themselves as Palestinians identity and nationalism was still beginning to adhere D LOT Still found severe culture gap between themselves and the European Jews No one wanted to see a largely prominent Jewish population or to see the land of their forefathers transformed Mistakes Repeatedly rejected compromise for maximum demands weakening their long term strength offer no long on the table when they were willing to compromise Strategic miscalculations not the same as moral failure justice of their claims in no way weakened 1 In no way did this justify Israel s existence By 1948 Jewish intruders had seized 78 of mandatory Palestine After 1967 Israel began to encroach on the remaining 22 gobbling land violently repressing opposition seizing water rights 339 In 1948 Jewish lands were small islands in a Palestinian sea now it s opposite III i No content to steal Palestinian land it is now advocated to steal and intimidate Palestinian property Rather than crack down on settler violence the government often turns a blind one this is encouraged in Netanyahu s coalition Officially approved settlements are continuing at a steady pace UN Security Council and essentially every country has condemned Israel s actions as illegal as violating fourth Geneva Convention But because of US support and unwillingness to act Israel doesn t have to change Israel has been able to assassinate persecute and humiliate the Palestinians k The world at large has been unable to force Israel to retreat Because the world has sat passively Palestinians felt bitter isolated and abandoned Hezbola and Hamas and Iran s popularity has increased because of their unwavering support of Palestinian demands Expressing Palestinian Anguish a Can only represent themselves b Think that the only way to combat force is by force c Zionist project is an expansionist one d Futile to seek to make peace with Zionist movement e Punished for seeking justice IVPalestinian Responses a Recurrent refusal to recognize Jewish state b Refused to recognize right to exist c PLO recognizes Israel but also insists on right of return unclear what recognition really entails d Hamas claims that they will reclaim land destroy Israel expel all Jews e Insistence on right of return for all refugees children grand children great grand children site UN resolution assembly 194 194 didn t say anything about descendants inheriting also UN resolutions have no legal validity but is opinion of the world n 339 X Even at height of Oslo process Palestinians never hinted at giving up the right to return Right of return unshakeable because defining symbol of their identity will mean that injustice will finally be redressed i Steadfastness and courage will finally be rewarded ii Suffering will be redeemed iii Israel would become an Arab state overnight iv 510 million Palestinians 58 Jews Giving up the right of return would mean defeat Resorting to violence i Often heedless of the short term costs ii Not to claim that Palestinians have been the only ones to use violence iii Israel s violence is for more massive far more Palestinian deaths 41 in the intifadas Palestinians repeatedly initiated the violence in periods of relative calm because they thought violence was the most promising way to halt Jewish encroachments or to halt negotiations Jews retaliated with their own violence often much more effective worsening Palestinians material and political positions 39 20002002 Second Intifada led Israel to reoccupy West Bank from which it had just withdrawn ii 2005present Hamas rocket power from Gaza forced Israel to wreck Gaza s economy Violence stop if border control is lessened but logic is circular because without Hamas violence no border control would be necessary iv Oslo negotiations produced only substantial Israeli withdrawal in 1990 May be that ideas are shifting and Hamas policy will pay off in the long term may produce cataclysmic showdown that would lead to Israel s collapse 39 More likely that Hamas violence will produce more violence and misery with no changes ii Hamas rocket power campaign has been psychological and symbolic enforcing violence Explain why second intifada employed most frightening form of self sacrifice suicide bombers iv Suicide bombers completely counter productive because reoccupied but inflicted comparable emotional pain to Israelis m Hamas says violence was a mistake and remains a mistake but is default position i Stolen by sword can only be taken back by sword V Israeli Sense of Victimization a Root of Jewsh anguish was centuries of persecution culminating in the holocaust b Widespread doom c Nothing can be done now about the holocaust so ancient history i Now what infuriates Israel is the demonization that much of the world hurls at the Jewish state ii Lens of holocausts but attacks are contemporary d Double standards of UN i Condemned Zionism as a form of racism although Israel is one of the most racially diverse country of the world ii Religious but Arab Muslim states never condemned for racism iii Subjected only Israel to agenda item iv 2001 world conference on racism US withdrew because of targeting of Israel v Human Rights Council replaced because of hostility to Israel 1 Nine resolutions passed against Israeli oppression 2 Not a single resolution passed against China North Korea Burma etc vi Human Rights organizations often spend more time attacking Israel than all other middle eastern countries combined vii Israel fears attempts to delegitimize it by comparisons to apartheid South Africa VIHypocrisy as Seen by Israel a After 60 years of sovereignty still not accepted b Attacks unfair to the point of complete irrationality c Charges of aggression completely distort the historic lesson d Happy to stay within borders until Arab state armies attacked them with the intent of destroying the state D n LO r F 1 O Until June of 1967 Israelis were content within borders no settlements of occupied within the West Bank although hatred of Israel was just as strong After 6 day war Israel offered to return all territories for peace but Palestine refused to negotiate In 2000 Israel offered to return 97 of territories only to be met with second intifada In 2005 Israel left Gaza only to be met with Hamas rockets In 2008 100 of Gaza and West Bank offered but met with more rockets Again and again offered with more and more violence Israel offers peace Palestine refuses to compromise 1948 Palestinians expelled for economic reasons Israel project started in defiance of world decision Netanyahu avoiding all compromise right now Palestinian complaints about settlements illogical because then the logical response would be to accept offer of 100 of land rejection of this offer shows to Israelis is that they don t just want to the West Bank but Israel s destruction which Hamas openly declares IDF s behavior during warfare as propaganda guerrillas hiding among civilians i IDF succeeds Gaza War of 20089 IDF killed about 700 civilians 700 militants intifada was 12 much better ratio than typical i Criticism of IDF not an issue with human rights South African analogy beyond absurd Racial separation and dictatorship separated in all aspects of life Israel although faces security threats has the best civil liberties in the middle east or asia ii39 Insolently totally free press totally free political system Arab Israelis vote hold office serve on supreme court v In 2011 female Arab judge one of three judges who sent Israeli president to jail for rape 20 of Israeli university students are Arab Equal access to schools universities hospitals S VII p Analogy more similar in most Asian and African countries in fact analogy most similar between men and women in some Arab countries i Can t drive without permission have to wear special clothing separate schools hospitals ii No interest evoked from UN because no political benefit iii This tells Israelis that human rights attacks driven by different motives q Israeli criticism comes to groups with agendas i Muslim countries are instinctively unsympathetic ii Asian and African countries identify with Palestine with anti colonialism iii Scandanavia Europe cloak for antisemitism Israeli Responses a The more rockets the more Israelis are tempted to tell the rest of the world to go to hell nothing they do will ever win world favor b In some cases they respond by invoking divine sanction for their behavior moving to the right c Potentially self defeating because they intensify the country s self isolation i Primarily a response to threats from the outside world ii Also reflects long term internal changes in Israeli itself namely groups that don t support democracy particularly Russian Jews many African and Asian Jews who were expelled by Arabs ultra religious Jews who don t understand secular westernism d Religious parties in both countries get their orders directly from god both societies increasingly supportive of one state solution always opinion of Hamas 39 Israel also taking steps that might kill two state solution Israelis may be duplicating self destructive power of Palestinians Rejecting two state solution may be suicide of Israel jews will be submerged in one state e Israeli and Palestinian societies are running parallel because they strengthen each other both collaberate to destroy modern center destroy moderates tendency towards polarization Solutions 9142012 62300 PM I One State Solution a Everything belong to one political union like British mandate b Some people argue that the people are so intertwined that this is the only solution c Greater Israel 39 Everyone should live together under greater Jewish sovereignty Only Jews get citizenship others encouraged to leave Ideal of Israeli right 1015 of Israelis iv Netanyahu claims he prefers two state solution but perpetuating greater Israel arrangement d Hamas 39 Palestine was given by God as a sacred trust for eternity but not for the Jews Hamas will expel all Jews from Palestine that s families arrived after 1914 99 the rest would be protected but would never have full rights as Palestinians Hamas 4550 supported iv Believe in ethnic supremacy v Inspire hostility from their intended victims can only be obtained by brute force Binational 39 Promises to end the conflict because it rejects ethnic supremacy Same legal and political rights and all positions would be made with universal democratic suffrage 60 support of Palestinians iv Goes against the ideal of independent nation states an ideal of both Zionism and Palestinian nationalism v No Palestinian political organization supports it v39 Not even 1 of Jews support this binational state They fear the demographic trends would make them a minority in a single state It also destroys the idea of a single Jewish state which God wanted them to have Also they fear that Palestinians wouldn t follow the rules as Fatah and Hamas don t follow principles like free speech and press II Formal 2 State Solution Outline D III a Two independent states Israel and Palestine Gaza and West Bank b Lay at the heart of the Oslo process road map to peace c Outline det forth in Clinton proposal includes i Territory Israel would give up 100 of Gaza and 9575 of West Bank They would have to give up places of comparable size in Israel Sovereignty of holy sites shared Security Palestine would want its own armed forces But Israel is scared by this International peace keepers would be in Jordan valley no American troops iv Refugees All descendants of refugees would be allowed to go back Compromise Israeli expression of regret for 194701949 a return of 50000 Formal 2 State Solution Barriers a Everyone exhausted from struggle b Westbank Israel has a partner opposed to violence Abas and Salaam Fayaas they work with the IDF and they are both personally honest They don t condemn violence they reduce corruption in the Palestinian government Fayyad also improved the West Bank s economy by modernizing it PA officially supports the two state solution c Netanyu and Obama both came into office in 2005 Obama supports Middle East peace HE asked Israel to freeze all settlement construction they agreed to 10 month freeze When that freeze expired he did not renew it because Abas refused to negotiate d Netanyahu responding to problems i Buying time for shield against rockets e Netanyahu not military hero lacks Likud defectors to form coalition can t satisfy Obama f During Oslo Israelis were willing to accept Palestinian state in exchange for acceptance of Israeli state but they didn t so Jews don t trust Palestinian leaders 9 Abas did not accept peace proposal with Gaza and West Bank etc because it did not include right of return h Hamas brands any flexibility or concession as a betrayal of Palestinian cause i Abas unwilling to compromise that Israelis think would insure survival of Jewish state polite version of claims of Hamas j Many doubt that a two state deal would stick because there is still little agreement with what should be done with refugees and the long term to halt violence IVInterim 2 State Solution a Two scholars argue that the best solution is interim two state solution because unable to reach solution both sides should set sights lower Aiming at small interim agreements for every 510 years not final arrangements This would give cooling off period IDF should withdraw from West Bank Both sides should agree to refrain from violence for ten years Defer tough issues until interim period is over If Jordanian troops are allowed in west bank to replace IDF they would have a better chance of maintaining calm and repressing Hamas f Interim agreement would influence final agreement so sies wouldn t want to make concessions V De Facto 3 State Solution a Hamas in Gaza Fatah PA in West Bank Israel b De facto insinuation of the status quo c PA and Hamas have said to form unity government four times in past few years but fail napo