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Sci Tech Med&Socty

by: Mr. Gabe Abshire

Sci Tech Med&Socty HISTORY 285

Mr. Gabe Abshire
GPA 3.74


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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Gabe Abshire on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HISTORY 285 at University of Michigan taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/231459/history-285-university-of-michigan in History at University of Michigan.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 19 Page 1 Lecture 19 Legislative response to the Environmental Revolution Legislative responses 0 Clean Air Act Coastal Zone Management Act Endangered Species Act several Energy Bills several Highway Bills Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act Marine Mammals Protection Act National Hist01ic Preservation Act Radiation Control Act Renewable Resources Planning Act Toxic Substances Control Act Water Pollution Control Act Wild and Scenic Rivers Act 0 Wildemess Act Radiation protection ncern over ionizing radiation 39 Congressional bills beginning 1967 39 Johnson 1968 state of the Union address 39 1968 Radiation Control act passed public Will not be injured by radiation Nixon Executive takes action 39 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act Congress sets a general course 39 identify problems 39 tend to the needs of the Nation 39 highly subjected to shifts in politics Areas of government activity 39 Abortion 39 Aged 39 Ainculture 39 Air pollution 39 Animals 39 Budgets 39 Business 39 Children 39 Civil liberties 39 Civil rights Areas of government activity Communications Congress Constitution Consumers Criminal justice Defense economics Defense policy Disabled Drug abuse For uxe by xtudents enrolled in Hixtoiy 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permixxion History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 19 Page 2 39 Economic policy Areas of government activity 39 Educational policy Elections Elementary and secondary education Emergency management Energy Environmental protection Executive departments Families Finance Foo Areas of government activity Forei n aid Foreign policy Government employees Government information Hazardous substances Health policy Higher education Housing Humanities Immigration Areas of government activity Intellectual property Intelligence activities International affairs International finance Job training Labor Law Marine resources Medicine Minorities Areas of government activity 39 tur lresources Politics and government Public contracts Public lands Religion Science policy Social security Solid wastes Space activities S or ts State amp local government Areas of government activity Taxation Technology Telecommunication Transportation Urban affairs Veterans Water pollution For uxe by xtudents enrolled in Hixtoiy 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permixxion History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 19 Page 3 39 Water resources 39 Weapons systems 39 Welfare 39 Women Executive in uence of politics Congress responds to concerns 39 special interest groups 39 contributors 39 major events 39 public pressure National news vo ers NEPA National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 as Amended 39 Title An Act to establish a national policy for the environment to provide for the establishment of a Council on Environmental Quality and for other purposes 39 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representative of the United States of America in Congress assembled That this Act may be cited as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 Purposes of this Act are 39 To declare a national policy which will encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment 39 To promote efforts which will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man 39 To enrich the understanding of the ecological systems and natural resources important to the Nation and 39 To establish a Council on Environmental Quality Principles 39 1 fulfill the responsibilities of each generation as trustee of the environment for succeeding generations 39 2 assure for all Americans safe healthful productive and esthetically and culturally pleasing surroundings 39 3 attain the widest range of beneficial uses of the environment without degradation risk to health or safety or other undesirable and unintended consequences Principles condt 39 4 preserve important historic cultural and natural aspects of our national heritage and maintain wherever possible an environment which supports diversity and variety of individual choice 39 5 achieve a balance between population and resource use which will permit high standards of living and a wide sharing of life s amenities an 39 6 enhance the quality of renewable resources and approach the maximum attainable recycling of depletable resources Congress authorizes and directs that to the fullest extent possible 39 1 the policies regulations and public laws of the United States shall be interpreted and administered in accordance with the policies set forth in this Act and 2 all agencies of the Federal Government shall Authorization I 39 a Utilize a systematic interdisciplinary approach which will insure the integrated use of the natural and social sciences and the environmental design arts in planning and in decision making which may have an impact on man s environment Authorization II 39 b Identify and develop methods and procedures in consultation with the Council on Environmental Quality established by title 11 of this Act which will insure that presently unquantified environmental amenities and values may be given appropriate consideration in decision making along with economic and technical considerations Authorization III For use by xtudents enrolled in Hixtoiy 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permixxion History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 19 Page 4 c Include in every recommendation of report on proposals for legislation and other major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment a detailed statement by the responsible official on i The environmental impact of the proposed action ii Any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided should the proposal be implemented iii Alternatives to the proposed action Authorization III condt iv The relationship between local shortterm uses of man s environment and enhancement of longterm productivity and 39 v Any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources which would be involved in the proposed action should it be implemented Authorization IV Prior to making any detailed statement the responsible Federal official shall consult with and obtain the comments of any Federal agency which has jurisdiction by law or special expertise with respect to any environmental impact involved How is this implemented What happens 39 Council on Environmental Quality needs to be set up by someone 39 left to EPA to work out details Consequences 39 environmental concern written into law 39 key precedents set EIS 39 focus attention on riskbenefit analysis 39 eventually leads to a reaction 8123 Environmental Risk Evaluation Act of 1995 to require the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to seek advice concerning environmental risks and for other purposes Findings 39 1 costbenefit analysis and risk assessment are useful but imperfect tools 39 3 cost and risk are not the only factors that need to be considered in evaluating environmental programs as other factors including values and equity must also be considered Findings continued 39 4 current methods for valuing ecological resources and assessing intergenerational effects of sources of pollution need further development 39 5 methods to assess and describe the risks of adverse human health effects other than cancer need further development Findings Continued 39 6 periodic reports by the Administrator on the costs and benefits of regulations promulgated under Federal environmental laws and other Federal actions with impacts on human health the environment or public welfare will provide Congress and the general public with a better understanding of A national environmental priorities and B expenditures being made to achieve reductions in risk to human health the environment and public welfare Risk Assessment Act JANUARY 10 1995 39 To require the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to conduct risk assessments and costbenefit analyses in promulgating regulations relating to human health and the environment and for other Regulations must 39 1 describes and to the extent practicable quantifies the risks to human health or the environment 39 2 compares the human health or environmental risks to be addressed by the For use by students enrolled in Hixtoiy 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permixxion History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 19 Page 5 regulation to other risks chosen by the Administrator 39 3 estimates of the costs to costs to the United States Government State and costs to local governments and the private sector benefits of the regulation continued 39 4 contains a certification by the Administrator that the analyses are based on the best reasonably obtainable scientific information the regulation is likely to significantly reduce the human health or environmental risks to be addressed there is no regulatory alternative the regulation is likely to produce benefits to humanhealth or the environment that will justify the costs Homeowners Empowerment and Protection Act of 1995 To ensure that homeowners receive adequate notice of and opportunity to comment on activities likely to adversely affect the value of their homes 39 and to create procedures for homeowners to receive financial compensation for development which produces pollution and other impacts adversely affecting the value of their homes Wetlands Regulatory Reform Act of 1995 39 because 75 percent of the wetlands in the lower 48 States is privately owned and 39 because the majority of the population of the United States lives in or near wetland areas 39 an effective wetland conservation and management program must re ect a balanced approach that conserves and enhances environmentally significant wetland functions en Conclusions 39 A respecting private property rights 39 B recognizing the need for essential public infrastructure such as highways utilities ports airports sewer systems and public water supply systems and the need to preserve strong local tax bases and 39 C providing the opportunity for sustained economic growth For uxe by xtudents enrolled in Hixtoiy 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permixxion History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 19 Page 6 Branches of Government For me by xtudents enrolled in Hixtory 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permixxion History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 21 Page 1 Lecture 21 Microwave radiation Science 39 What is the difference between ionizing and non ionizing radiation 39 How can non ionizing radiation effect the body 39 Is ionizing radiation hazardous Microwave radiation after WWII 39 important military technology developed new generations of radar transmitters were responsible for deployment looked out after any possible health effects concern about health effects reports of baldness and sterility in men knew that it could heat and burn also knew that had been used for therapy 1953 Navy conference difference between thermal and athermal assume only effects can be thermal do estimates of thermal overload safety standard 2 10mwcm2 39 1966 ANSI standard Philosophy of standards 39 look for adverse effects 39 link adverse effects of a specific cause including levels of exposure 39 build in a safety factor usually 10 and set standard 39 burden of proof is on the exposed not those who are imposing the risk Military followup in the 1960s 39 continued studies 39 some anomalies began to appear reports that some people could hear radar USSR set standard lOOOX lower at 100 microwattscm2 Russians were bombarding the Embassy in Moscow with modulated microwave beams 39 leads to publicprivate split publicly ANSI standard is safe privately athermal low level effects Secret experiments 39 studies of radar crew on ships an quotno In mlllonrc ont nnol 139quot quot139wfnru 7R AInu nnro 1m nunroll mdunly39nnroll un39rhnur um 39cn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 21 Page 2 39 colony of monkeys and irradiated with Moscow Signal Project Pandora 39 blood tests on Embassy employees Emergence of public concern 39 Johnson radiation protections 1968 39 1968 Radiation Control act passed 39 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act Government failure to act 39 BRH took immediate action microwave oven standard 1mw cm at 5 cm 1970 OSHA adopted ANSI standard 1975 OSHA39s standard successfully challenged in court 39 1975 78 EPA failed to set a standard Public problems early 1970s stories adverse effects of microwaves NY Ophthalmologist Milton Zaret cataracts stories about project Pandora began to appear February 1976 Moscow Signal story broke late 1976 Paul Brodeur39s articles began to appear in New Yorker 39 1977 published The Zapping of America Their Deadly Risk and the Coverup Why did the microwaves become controversial Scientific ambiguity there is no sure evidence to suggest safety or widespread hazards Vested interests Have failed to come up with a mechanism for dealing with science values problems such as this Since early 19805 problem disappeared and reappeared 39 mid 1980s microwaves replaced by more specific problems 39 examples electric power lines cellular phones VDTs heating blankets Microwave communication 39 uplink facilities vs point to point communications 39 cellular phones 39 solar power satellites SPS 39 ELF Extremely Long Frequency VDTs video display terminals an quotno In mlllonrc ont nnol 139quot quot139wfnru 7R illn nnro 1m nunroll mdunly39nnroll un39rhnur quotm1l w1n History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 21 Page 3 early 1980s reports of health effects spontaneous abortions birth defects teratogenic effects Microwave News and VDT news clusters 78 Ottawa Canada 10 18 Toronto Canada 713 Air Canada offices 812 Dallas TX 1015 Atlanta science 0 1 in 5 pregnancies ends on spontaneous abortion 39 1 in 100 births serious birth defect 39 1000000s of women work with VDTs Followup studies 39 measure radiation gt very low below safety levels 39 in vitro studies 1982 Delgado reported teratogenic effects in chick embryos 1986 Office of Naval Research Project Henhouse 39 in vivo experiments retrospective studies Electric Power Lines 39 early 1980s emerge as a concern rash of grass roots organizations power companies responded by doing scientific tests 39 science microwaves VDTs etc short waves shorter than radio electric 60 cyclessecond ELF few cycles per second NASNRC report 1996 39 No clear convincing evidence exits to show that residential exposures to electric and magnetic fields EMFs are a threat to human health 39 available httpwww2naseduwhatsnew 39 reviewed more than 500 studies Current state of the debate 39 cell phones 39 current and pending lawsuits an quotno In mlllonrc ont nnol 139quot quot139wfnru 7R AInu nnro 1m nunroll mdunly39nnroll un39rhnur um 39cn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Overview Public quot N N quot Lecture 33 Page 1 Lecture 33 Science Education amp Gender understanding Curriculum Development Access Gender Public understanding Public Public Public Public quot N N N quot Interest policy issues Interest education understanding terms amp concepts understanding scientific inquiry Most followed news stories 1990s News stories 2001 n More recent popular science stories IZl IZl IIIScience Sequencing of the human genome 16 followed closely Gas and oil prices amp technology account for 2 of public news reading Survey of public understanding n More t IZI IZI IZI IZI IZI nAbout o EEEEEI han 70 percent of those interviewed knew that Oxygen comes from plants The continents have been moving for millions of years and will continue to move in the future Light travels faster than sound The Earth goes around the Sun and not Vice versa All radioactivity is not man made ne half or fewer of the respondents knew that The earliest humans did not live at the same time as dinosaurs It takes the Earth one year to go around the Sun Electrons are smaller than atoms Antibiotics do not kill Viruses Lasers do not work by focusing sound waves Curriculum development n Sputnik 1958 crisis year n Nation al Science Foundation increased funding for science education n Developed new curricula Science programs 1960s70s n BSCS Biology Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 33 Page 2 PSSC Physics Chem Bond amp Chem Study MACOS Man A Course Of Study w New Math 111 Access to science education n US being overtaken in SE degrees II More women in non US universities Increases in women amp URM modest Declines in some areas Rise in need for remedial education 1111 Master teacher program in Congress caught in political differences US population nl4 URM Hispanic African American Native American 22 III50 middle of the next century Workplace III75 entering will be minorities and women III2000 women 47 of workforce III2000 minorities and immigrants 32 of US jobs URM in Health Professions III103 enrollment in medical schools III35 of health faculty and researchers III7 of physicians III8 of nurses and physician assistants III3 of allied health professionals III5 of dentists URM PhDs in Science and Engineering IIILess than 10 of total IIIAA less than 2 and declining Charts n PhDs in SampE new PhDs n Percent URM PhDs in SampE 1991 Doctoral Recipients n Median Salaries Women in science n 40 50 labor workforce n 10 and below in science and engineering Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictlmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dern Science Lecture 33 Page 3 Charts n Graduate enrollment in SampE n Full Professors 1994 n Women in Physics 1990 Salaries Explanation of the numbers IIIGender and race stereotyping IIIOvert gender and race bias IIIHidden gender and race bias IIIAffirmative action and correction IZI Affirmative action programs IZI Test score adjustments IZI Debate over gender balance in schools Gender and science IIIFeminist critique of science emerges in the 1970s IIISchools of thought III 1 science is not socially gender constructed III 2 some science is socially gender constructed III 3 all science is socially gender constructed Examples IIIBiology amp medicine IIICaroline Merchant Death ofNature Logical positivists IIIScience is not socially gender constructed IIISheila Widnall MIT IIIMary Good National Science Board Middle of the road position IIISome science may be socially gender constructed IIIAnne Fausto Sterling Myths of Gender 1985 IIIEvelyn Fox Keller Re ections on Gender and Science 1985 IIIDonna Harraway Primate Visions 1989 Social constructionists IIIScience can be no more than the individuals who do science IIISandra Harding The Science Question in Feminism 1986 Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 33 Page 4 0 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Percent URM PhDs in SampE 30 25 20 15 10 05 00 9 Q 65 9 93 9 0 9395 Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictmv 7R5 Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnur nomicn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 33 Page 5 1991 DAM Kali IKE1m MILE mil mm 2473 Physical Social Median Salaries Iwma Imam Emma jAsiam Pani slsmndev DNemeAmencan 2mm 1002 AH 5ampE Campuler am We scien sls Physical sc en sls Social schist Englneers empater Ham su enh sts Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnur nomicn39nn History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 26 Page 1 Lecture 26 Science Advice to the President and Congress WW II through19505 n Advice given directly to the President n Science advisors IZI Truman Oliver 0 E Buckley 95 7 1952 0 Lee A DuBridge 1952 7 1953 III Eisenhower Lee A DuBridge 1953 7 1956 Isidar I Rabi 1956 7 1957 James R Killian Jr 1957 7 1959 George B Kistiakawsky 1959 7 1961 1961 Of ce of Science and Technology n Executive Office of the President n Kennedy IZI Jerome B Wiesner 1961 1963 n Johnson IZI Jerome B Wiesner 1963 1964 III Donald F Hornig Director OST 1964 1969 n Nixon IZI Lee A Dubridge Director OST 1969 1970 III Edward E David Jr Director OST 1970 1973 19605705 major science initiatives n Moon Race n AMB and other defense related n slowly move into SSC n Alaskan pipeline n environmental crises Congress lacking good science advice n Sources of information on science IZl Congressional Research Service IZl Congressional Budget Office IZl General Accounting Office n Leads to debate over need for science advice in Congress IZl House Committee on Science and Astronautics IZl Subcommittee on Science Research and Development IZl chair Emilio Daddario Democrat CN Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictlmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 26 Page 2 Recognize that times have changed IIIFor 150 years the United States could and did depend mainly on ingenuity industry independence and pioneering of its peopleThen the situationshifted radicallythe new need was technology But Congressfinds itself squarely faced with the many social political and economic side effects created by the current technological revolution No planning for science amp technology IIICongress has long promoted science butinevitably serious problems have accompanied progressIndeed there are those who contend that the galloping technical revolution is threatening to outrun the number of talented people necessary to nourish it as well as the time needed to plan and direct its course with some degree of wisdom Daddario Major problem the environment IIIThe most glaring example at the moment is environmentUntil we learn really to understand technology how and when to apply it how and when not to apply it we shall never overcome the many complex difficulties that beset us Daddario Need for technology Assessment H the evaluation of the impact of existing new and developing technologies upon societyto assess both the desirable and the undesirable consequences of such technologyln other wordsto give us better mechanisms for anticipating short and long range potentials of technology good and bad Daddario No everyone agreed H thlS is going to add one more boondoggling board to what we already havequot Gross questioned whether it would be better to quotturn over to the General Accounting Office this TA and let them hire the few people that would be needed Why create another board in Government Gross Iowa Objections n Private sector saw as intrusion of government into business n Could not agree even if approved in principle how to organize n Opponents of big government worried about cost Response of the majority n advisory would not set policy n Congress was at risk n Let us face it Mr Chairman we in the Congress are constantly outmanned and outgunned by the expertise of the executive agencies We desperately need a stronger source of professional advice and information more immediately and entirely responsible to us and responsive to the demands of our own committees in order to more nearly match those resources in the executive agencies Mosher Ohio Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictlmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 26 Page 3 October 13 1972 OTA created n Technology Assessment Board III 12 members siX from each House split 33 IZl appoint Director IZl oversee budge IZl make decisions on issues to be addressed n Advised by TA Advisory Council n Began work in 1974 OTA deliberation process Reports 1974 n Drug Bio equivalence July 1974 n Requirements for Fulfilling a National Materials Policy August 1974 n Annual Report to the Congress by the Office of Technology Assessment March 15 1974 Auto amp Energy 1975 n Automobile Collision Data An Assessment of Needs and Methods of Acquisition February 1975 n Analysis of the Feasibility of Separating Exploration From Production of Oil and Gas on the Outer Continental Shelf May 1975 n Oil Transportation by Tankers An Analysis of Marine Pollution and Safety Measures Jul 1975 n Analysis of the Impacts of the Projected Natural Gas Curtailments for the Winter 1975 76 November 1975 1975 Mass transit n Energy the Economy and Mass Transit October 1975 n A Review of National Railroad Issues December 1975 n Automated Guideway Transit An Assessment of PRT and Other New Systems June 1975 n Financial Viability of Conrail Review and Analysis September 1975 n A Review of Alternative Approaches to Federal Funding of Rail Rehabilitation September 1975 Developments in Executive n Nixon phase out science advice n 1973 G Ford restores IZl Office of Science and Technology Policy IZl Dr H Guyford Stever 1973 1976 Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictlmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 26 Page 4 n Carter III Dr Frank Press 1977 1981 Republican years n Reagan IZI Dr George A Keyworth 11 Aug 1981 Dec 1985 III Dr William R Graham Jr Oct 2 1986 June 1989 n Bush Dr David Allan Bromley Director OSTP Aug 1989 Jan 20 1993 Recent n Clinton III John H Gibbons 1993 1998 III Dr Neal F Lane 1998 2001 n Bush IZI Dr John H Marburger III 2001 Present Of ce of Science and Technology n Tasks IZI Advise President amp Eos IZI Direct inter agency policy initiatives IZI Work with private sector to foster SampT n Activities Federal Register Notices IZI NSTC Subcommittee on Research Business Models IZI Proposed Federal Actions To Update Field Test Requirements for Biotechnology Derived Plants and To Establish Early Food Safety Assessments for New Proteins Produced by Such Plants August 2 2002 PCAST n Energy Efficiency February 2003 n Broadband Report December 2002 n Assessing US RampD Investment October 2002 n Maximizing the Contribution of Science and Technology within the new Department of Homeland Security September 2002 NSTC Reports n National Nanotechnology Initiative October 2003 n Advanced Foundations for American Innovation October 2003 n Coordination of Programs on Domestic Animal Genomics September 2003 n The US Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan July 2003 n The US Climate Change Science Program Vision and Highlights July 2003 H Reducing Disaster Vulnerability Through Science and Technology July 2003 Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictnru 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 27 Page 1 Lecture 2 7 Large Science Projects Superconducting Super Collider n late 1970s International Committee on Future Accelerators discussed 20 TeV accelerators n 1982 amp 1983 American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields workshops High Energy Physics Advisory Panel HEPAP n 1983 DOE accept recommendations to fund 1984 set up the Central Design Group CDG n LBL Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory n Brookhaven National Laboratory n Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory n Texas Accelerator Center all involved n 250 scientists participating 1985 1987 n 1985 DOE review plans n Presidential decision to proceed 1987 n 43 proposals received 35 of which met requirements n seven selected by NAS review n DOE further studies selects Texas site 1988 construction begins n 16000 acres of land purchased n EIS completed 1990 n construction of support facilities begun n construction of magnets begun 1990 and 1992 n Problems emerge disagreements over design especially detectors some major personality classes costs kept going up from 2B initially to over 11B estimate when project ended GOA found waste in the management of the project n June 1993 Congress votes to terminate votes funds to shut down Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictlmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lessons quot N quot Lecture 2 7 Page 2 politics became involved changing times scientific community did not do a good job of managing politics and cost issues jealousy from other scientific groups not being funded Human genome project quot N N 1987 National Human Genome Research Institute NHGRI NIH Goal comprehensive map of the human genome 50000 100000 genes estimated 3 billion base pairs A C G and T Joined by DOE and USDA Mapping varies in resolution quot quot 199094 quot N 2001 N quot chromosomal map made by microscopic observation and ways of marking more detailed maps made by cutting duplicating and characterizing Genetic and physical maps Assemble families with known genetic diseases Physically identify differences polymorphisms Explore techniques for rapid sequencing Determining order or base pairs Create map of entire genome Rough map of entire genome Estimate 30000 genes What does the mapping allow us to do quot have located cystic fibrosis Buchenne muscular dystrophy myotonic dystrophy neurofibromatosis retinoblastoma and most recently gene for some types of breast cancer in locating gene can identify the proteins that it controls know proteins can identify tests and possibly cures Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictnru 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 24 Page 1 Lecture 24 1980s I Reagan Revolution Overview reduce the size of the federal government turn power back to the states get government out of peoples lives stimulate economic growth through support of industry ie trickledown economics End of Liberalism New Deal New Society Nixon amp Ford moderate change Carter period mixed and relatively short Reagan Revolution 180 degree turn Impact on science and technology deregulation shift to private support emphasis on military preparedness bigscience projects Executive Order 12292 February 17 1981 By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America and in order to reduce the burdens of existing and future regulations increase agency accountability for regulatory actions provide for presidential oversight of the regulatory process minimize duplication and con ict of regulations and insure wellreasoned regulations it is hereby ordered as follows Objective maximize the aggregate net benefits to society 11 Technology Transfer M Francis Bacon New Atlantis 1632 Criticized Johnathan Swift Gilliver s Travels 1716 First benefits 19th C 20th C TT takes off 1905 Frederick Cottrell electrostatic precipitation 1912 Research Corporation 1918 National Research Council 19205 two developments first university patent policies first university research foundations Tech Trans preWW II For use by students enrolled in History 285 May note be quoted or duplicated withoutpermission History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 24 Page 2 patent policies institutional structures PreWar Attitudes toward Patenting and Tech Transfer largely positive Shall an invention be patented or donated to the public freely I have known some wellmeaning scientific men to look askance at the patenting of inventions as if it were a rather selfish and ungracious act essentially unworthy The answer is very simple Publish an invention freely and it will most surely die from lack of interest in its development It will not be developed and the world will not be benefited Patent it and if valuable it will be taken up and developed into a business Thomas Elihu Acting President MIT 1920 Support for patents and technology transfer common AAAS Protection by Patents of Scientific Discoveries 1934 George Gray Science and Profits Harpers Magazine 1936 exception Abraham Flexner Science 1933 One exception medical research No patents primarily concerned with therapeutics or public health may be taken out by any member of the University except with the consent of the President and Fellows nor will such patents be taken out by the University itself except for dedication to the public Harvard University 1939 The President and Fellows will provide legal advice to any member of the University who desires steps to be taken to prevent the patenting by others of such discoveries or inventions Ibid Post WW 11 technology transfer activities increased and widely accepted Palmer 1952 1940s amp 1950s peer vs government control private vs public ownership scientific merit vs social need single vs multiple agencies civilian vs military Ultimate resolution fit the needs of the Cold War era agencies especially DOD retained control over agendas scientists won control on peer review and scientific merit social justice issues largely left unresolved and under the control of funding agencies accordingly no unified tech transfer policy Impact of BayhDole CohenBoyer extreme example For use by students enrolled in History 285 May note be quoted or duplicated withoutpermission History 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 30 Page 1 Lecture 30 AIDS Discovery 19791981 0 Los Angeles physician Joel Weisman symptoms I mononucleosis like syndrome fever weight loss swollen lymph nodes I oral and anal infestations called thrush yeast infection I reduced population of lymphocytes in blood cause by the disappearance of helper T cells I rare bronchial pneumonia Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia PCP ve patients all homosexuals Cause 0 All had cytomegalovirus CMV Possible association with EpsteinBarr virus NY City 0 More hospitals cases spread around Noticed requests for pentamidine drug used to treat drug resistant cases of PCP 9 requests in early 1981 raised concern 0 Also Kaposi s sarcoma relatively rare skin cancerdisorder Announcement of the disease 0 March 1981 first patient died 0 June 5 1981 CDC described five Los Angeles cases in weekly bulletin the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly conclusion quot all the above observations suggest the possibility of a cellular immune dysfunction related to a common exposure that predisposes individuals to opportunistic infectionsquot Early stories 0 July 4 1981 second CDC article linked to Kaposi s sarcoma July 3 1981 first public notice in New York Times very brief article on an inside page 0 November 1981 had over 150 cases 0 early 1982 passed 200 and climbing Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrllunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History Respo 285 History of Modern Science Lecture 30 Page 2 nse Clarify the situation If a new disease find out what is causing it Find ways to prevent Did not even have terminology Called gay disease gay syndrome gay plague etc Centers for Disease Control Patie Nam Trac Founded 1942 to track malaria 1946 Communicable Diseases Center 1951 Epidemic Intelligence Service EIS 1961 began Morbidity and Morality Weekly Report MMWR 1976 Swine u nt zero 19811983 Looked intensively at first 250 cases reported Two foci Los Angeles and New York Identified one patient in New York Initial information ing and further clari cation 1982 AIDS for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome French used SIDA Syndrome d ImmunoDeficience Acquise ARC AIDSrelated complex LAS Lymphadenopathy Syndrome 1983 AIDS entered in Cumulated Index Medicus as quotacquired immunodeficiency syndrome quot ing the spread ofAIDS 19821984 major locations New York Los Angeles San Francisco in that order k sexually transmitted how not yet certain Hemophiliacs 1982 March 1981 AIDS spread during caesarian section given blood transfusions June 1983 wife of hemophiliac diagnosed with AIDS By end of 1983 200 end of 1981 Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictlmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 30 Page 3 450 mid 1982 750 end of 1982 1800 mid 1983 3000 end of 1983 20000 prediction f0r1985 Discovery of the cause of AIDS 0 AIDS is a quotsyndromequot Cytomegalovirus CMV commonly present Kaposi s sarcoma brings in cancer 0 Various hepatitis viruses associated Various animal pathogens produced similar complexes such as feline leukemia Developments in virology 1950s first report of quot slow viruses quot Oncogenic viruses viruses that cause cancer 0 DNA gt RNA gt proteins 0 Discovery of reverse transcriptase Robert Gallo HTLVI Focus on leukemia Found a factor that stimulated the growth of white blood cells Eventually were able to trace to a growth factor interleukin2 and then to a retrovirus HTLV1 HTLV1 Human Tcell Leukemia Virus 0 Later L lymphoma or lymphotropic Results announced in 1980 Discovery of the AIDS virus 19821984 NCI laboratory of Robert Gallo Pasteur Institute Luc Montagnier September 1983 Cold Springs Harbor meeting 0 1984 Gallo gives up his HTLV thesis Test for AIDS 0 December 1983 French file patent request Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictlmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 30 Page 4 0 April 1984 NIH files patent on behalf of Gallo patent is not granted until 1986 US given preference over French 0 1984 nally agreed that LAV and HTLVIII are one virus which will eventually be called HIV virus 1984 1986 mechanism of HIV infection 0 RNA retrovirus affinity for T4lymphocytes upon entering cell RNA transcribed to DNA 0 upon reactivation cause still uncertain destroys host Tcell and also other Tcells Estimates 1991 206392 Americans diagnosed 133232 Americans died 73160 Americans living with AIDS took 8 years to reach 100000 cases just 26 months to double that number 1992 0 killed 170000 Americans nearly three times more than died in the Vietnam War 0 More and more HIV infection results from unprotected teenage sexual activity and drug abuse 0 Gay men still account for most AIDS cases 0 Women now account for 11 percent of cases with the percentage increasing each year 1994 0 800000 and 12 million HIVinfected individuals in the United States 0 Through September 1993 the total cases of AIDS diagnosed and reported to CDC in the United States was 339250 quot WHO Press 1 Jul 1994 0 Estimated number of AIDS cases worldwide up 60 since this time last year 0 Global estimate of the number of AIDS cases Largest number over 25 million in subSaharan Africa 1996 0 28 million HIV infected Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictnru 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 30 Page 5 0 93 in developing countries 0 More women than men infected in subSaharan Africa 0 68 of new cases in subSaharan Africa 1997 0 Improved treatment using drug cocktails Death rate drops 0 Mortality rates 0 Actual number of deaths 1994 42114 154100K 1995 42 500 154 1 00K 1996 3 6 865 1997 16 865 AIDS 2001 0 40 million people worldwide infected with HIV virus 20 million have died from AIDS 2001 5 million newly infected 3 million died 13rd living with HIVAIDS are 1524 70 of infected live in subSaharan Africa 38 of adults in Botswana are infected AIDS pandemic orphaned 14M 92 Africa 7 m in Asia amp Paci c living with HIVAIDS Women account for 50 percent HIVAIDSinfected adults Future 0 US Infection rate constant 40000year African Americans amp women disproportionately affected 0 World situation 90 of all cases in developing countries Major burden sub Saharan Africa Growing problem in Asia 0 Treatment Drugs suppress do not cure Supply falls short of demand 10x or more Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictlmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnut nomicn39nn History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Hemorrhagic fevers Soul Hantaan Hantaan fever Lecture 30 Page 6 196264 Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever Late 1960s Lassa Fever Nigeria Mid 1970s Ebola Fever Zaire Other New Diseases 1986 Mad Cow Disease 1999 West Nile Virus human encephalitis 2002 SARS Major policy questions Basic science vs clinicalapplied Priorities US health World health Prevention VS cure Basic treatment for all vs high end of insured How much can we afford to spend on health care US health costs 2 139 GDP 4887 person US lags behind in key indicators of health AIDS Death by country 1 India 310000 1999 est 2 South Africa 300000 2000 est 3 Ethiopia 280000 1999 est 4 Nigeria 250000 1999 est 5 Kenya 180000 1999 est 6 Zimbabwe 160000 1999 est 7 Tanzania 140000 1999 est 8 Mozambique 114111 2001 est 9 Uganda 110000 1999 est 10 Zambia 99000 1999 est 11 Congo Democratic Republic of the 95000 1999 est 12 Cote d39lvoire 72000 1999 est Malawi 70000 1999 est Thailand 66000 1999 est Cameroon 52000 1999 est Burma 48000 1999 est Burkina Faso 43000 1999 est Rwanda 40000 1999 est Burundi 39000 1999 est Benin 37000 2002 Ghana 33000 1999 est Botswana 24000 1999 est Central African Republic 23000 1999 est Haiti 23000 1999 est United States 20000 1999 est Fnr Hep 1m mulpntc purlquotml in Hictmv 7R Mnu unto hp nunth nrlunh39Intml withnur nomicn39nn


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