US History Topics
US History Topics HISTORY 393
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Gabe Abshire on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HISTORY 393 at University of Michigan taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/231460/history-393-university-of-michigan in History at University of Michigan.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
History 285 History of Modern Science Science the Endless Frontier Page 1 Lecture 4 Science the Endless Frontier Science and the Endless Frontier Two major decisions need to be made toward the end 0fthe War 1 What to do with the Bomb 2 What do we do about science and technology in general 1 Decision about atomic energy Overview A Two problems 1 our own policy with regard to atomic energy and the atomic bomb 2 world policy with regard to the control of atomic energy and the bomb B the positions or sides that developed Military and government N reluctant to loose control of a major new weapon Scientists N did not want to give up funding and freedoms Public N knew little about the bomb at rst N early reaction bomb is a good thing International Policy March 1946 Baruch Plan AchesonLilienthal Plan June 1946 UN established UN Atomic Energy Commission Key issue how to establish international control N Control efforts failed The debate over national policy A National Control July 1945 Interim Committee on Atomic Power proposal July 1945 December 1945 Congressional Hearings Special Committee on Atomic Energy For use by students enrolled in History 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permission History 285 History of Modern Science Science the Endless Frontier Page 2 B Scientists are still not satis ed leads to Federation of Atomic later American Scientists and the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist with it famous clock C Conclusions 1 advance science and technology rst worry about the consequences later 2 With massive effort we can accomplish anything 3 Pressing social needs such as war play a major role in determining the course that science and technology take II Debate over science policy and science funding Pattern during WW II A funding for research increased dramatically B distribution of funding went to a limited number of institutions 66 of contract funds to 68 corporations 40 of contract funds to 10 corporations 90 of academic funds to 8 institutions 35 of academic funds went to MIT Rad Lab 9 out of 10 patents resulting from War research contracts went to corporations not government C Funding and policy was controlled by a few individuals who dominated the major decisionmaking bodies D Key questions for postWW 11 science policy 1 who should fund 2 who should control 3 how should bene t Bush Plan A Vannevar Bush 0 PhD from Harvard and MIT o 1923 full professor at MIT 0 did important research on early computers before electronic 0 moved rapidly into administration B Bush was part of a larger circle of similar scienti c leaders who knew consulted with and supported each other 0 major members Vannevar Bush Karl Compton president of MIT James Conant president of Harvard For use by students enrolled in History 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permission History 285 History of Modern Science Science the Endless Frontier Page 3 Isaiah Bowman president of Johns Hopkins Frank Jewett NAS and Bell Labs president C Plan 0 government support should continue scientists should control how funds are spent 0 principle was that the quotgood sciencequot would be funded o no mention of patents geographical distribution Opposite side public ownership of science A Kilgore Position o favored the development of a quotNational Science Foundationquot 0 would be organized for the public good 0 would be under and controlled by the president 0 bene ts of federally funded research patents would stay with government or government would at least receive a royalty o favored funding of the social sciences 0 also wanted funding distributed geographically Decisions 19451950 A constituencies and control again are a problem scientists want funding with the least strings attached and the most selfcontrol missionoriented agencies want to control the research that is important to them N Military N Atomic Energy Commission N Public Health Service government New Dealer s want maximum government control government Republicans want to get back in the hands of private industry B military has the resources and the authority to go ahead with its projects AEC act left most atomic research in the hands of the military Navy even during the War began planning an Of ce of Naval Research in 1946 when authorized had let 24M in contracts had 177 contracts with 81 universities was supporting 602 academic research projects would account for 3 of every 4 federal research dollars spend on research For use by students enrolled in History 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permission History 285 History of Modern Science Science the Endless Frontier Page 4 C Fall 1945 Bush s plan become Magnuson bill Kilgore s plan is Kilgore Bill both are debated battle is over N who will control scientists or president N will social sciences be included N geographically distributed N funding to institutions or individuals N control of patents March 1950 NSF bill nally passes omitted geographic distribution all military research left to military was authorized and supported by the government run by scientists in theory is closer to Bush Bill F State of research in 194950 DOD and PHS spent 63M on campuses for research NSF limited to 15M NSF authorization was for 350K in 1949 DOD and AEC accounted for 96 of all RampD dollars spent on college campuses funding spread across a wide variety of funding agencies Summary A By 1950 the principle of government support for and scienti c peer control of science has been established in NSF best science would be funded as determined by peers equity and distribution not as important as quality accountability to government and social needs limited based on the belief in the importance of strong basic science B In fact most of the nation s RampD is being channeled through DOD and AEC and much less PHS C UM research budget 1956 RampD Budget 200M 120M Defense 72M DOD 45 M AEC 26M NIH For use by students enrolled in History 285 May note be quoted or duplicated without permission Irquot
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